Abstract

We propose and experimentally demonstrate a chromatic dispersion (CD)-insensitive first-order polarization mode dispersion (PMD) monitoring method based on radio-frequency (RF) power measurement. In high-speed (>10-GSym/s) transmission systems, a narrowband fiber Bragg grating (FBG) notch filter filters out the optical components at 10GHz away from the carrier. After square-law detection, the 10-GHz RF tone changes with PMD and is insensitive to CD, which can be used as a PMD monitoring signal. Compared with the monitoring techniques utilizing clock tone, the PMD measurement range is increased from 26.3-ps to 50-ps while the requirement of the bandwidth of photodetector is reduced from 19GHz to 10GHz in 19-Gsym/s systems. It is experimentally shown that this technique is efficient on CD-insensitive first-order PMD monitoring for 38-Gbit/s DQPSK and 57-Gbit/s D8PSK systems.

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References

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  1. H. Sunnerud, B.-E. Olsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Measurement of polarization mode dispersion accumulation along installed optical fiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(7), 860–862 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. D. Poole, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, and D. A. Fishman, “Fading in lightwave systems due to polarization-mode dispersion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3(1), 68–70 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. W. Hakki, “Polarization mode dispersion compensation by phase diversity detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(1), 121–123 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Roy, C. Francia, F. Bruyere, and D. Penninckx, “A simple dynamic polarization mode dispersion compensator,” Opt. Fiber Commun./ Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf.(OFC/NFOEC), 275–278, vol. 1, 1999.
  5. N. Kikuchi, “Analysis of signal degree of polarization degradation used as control signal for optical polarization mode dispersion compensation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19(4), 480–486 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. L. Heffner, “Automated Measurement of Polarization Mode Dispersion Using Jones Matrix Eigenanalysis,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4(9), 1066–1069 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. M. Jopson, L. E. Nelson, and H. Kogelnik, “Measurement of Second-Order Polarization-Mode Dispersion Vectors in Optical Fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(9), 1153–1155 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Boroditsky, M. Brodsky, N. J. Frigo, P. Magill, and J. Evankow, “Viewing polarization ‘strings’ on working channels: High-resolution heterodyne polarimetry,” European Conference on Optical Communications Proceedings (ECOC), pp. 318–319, 2004.
  9. M. Boroditsky, M. Brodsky, N. J. Frigo, P. Magill, and J. Evankow, “Estimation of eye penalty and PMD from frequency-resolved in-situ SOP measurements,” Proc. 17th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, pp.88- 89, 2004.
  10. S. Wang, A. Weiner, M. Boroditsky, and M. Brodsky, “Monitoring PMD-induced penalty and other system performance metrics via a high-speed spectral polarimeter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(16), 1753–1755 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. E. Cornick, K. Hinton, S. D. Dods, and P. M. Farrell, “Comparison of Methods for Monitoring PMD-Induced Penalty,” Opt. Fiber Commun./ Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf.(OFC/NFOEC),pp. 783–785, 2007.
  12. F. Buchali, W. Baumert, H. Bulow, and J. Poirrier, “A 40 Gb/s eye monitor and its application to adaptive PMD compensation,” Opt. Fiber Commun./ Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf.(OFC/NFOEC), 202–203, vol. 1, 2002.
  13. T. B. Anderson, A. Kowalczyk, K. Clarke, S. D. Dods, D. Hewitt, and J. C. Li, “Multi impairment monitoring for optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(16), 3729–3736 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. Ishikawa and H. Ooi, “Polarization-mode dispersion sensitivity and monitoring in 40-Gbits OTDM and 10-Gbits NRZ transmission experiments,” Opt. Fiber. Commum. (OFC), 117–119, 1998.
  15. Z. Pan, Q. Yu, Y. Xie, S. A. Havstad, A. E. Willner, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, “Chromatic dispersion monitoring and automated compensation for NRZ and RZ data using clock regeneration and fading without adding signaling,” Opt. Fiber Commun. (OFC), p WH5–1-3, vol.3, 2001.
  16. S. M. R. M. Nezam, Y. W. Song, C. Yu, J. E. McGeehan, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, “First-order PMD monitoring for NRZ data using RF clock regeneration techniques,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(4), 1086–1093 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. Yu, Y. Wang, T. Luo, Z. Pan, S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, “Chromatic-dispersion-insensitive PMD monitoring for NRZ data based on clock power measurement using a narrowband FBG notch filter,” European Conference on Optical Communications Proceedings (ECOC), Tu4.2.3, 1–2, 2003.
  18. K. J. Park, C. J. Youn, J. H. Lee, and Y. C. Chung, “Performance comparisons of chromatic dispersion-monitoring techniques using pilot tones,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(6), 873–875 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2009

T. B. Anderson, A. Kowalczyk, K. Clarke, S. D. Dods, D. Hewitt, and J. C. Li, “Multi impairment monitoring for optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(16), 3729–3736 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006

S. Wang, A. Weiner, M. Boroditsky, and M. Brodsky, “Monitoring PMD-induced penalty and other system performance metrics via a high-speed spectral polarimeter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(16), 1753–1755 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. M. R. M. Nezam, Y. W. Song, C. Yu, J. E. McGeehan, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, “First-order PMD monitoring for NRZ data using RF clock regeneration techniques,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(4), 1086–1093 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

K. J. Park, C. J. Youn, J. H. Lee, and Y. C. Chung, “Performance comparisons of chromatic dispersion-monitoring techniques using pilot tones,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(6), 873–875 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

N. Kikuchi, “Analysis of signal degree of polarization degradation used as control signal for optical polarization mode dispersion compensation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19(4), 480–486 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

H. Sunnerud, B.-E. Olsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Measurement of polarization mode dispersion accumulation along installed optical fiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(7), 860–862 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Jopson, L. E. Nelson, and H. Kogelnik, “Measurement of Second-Order Polarization-Mode Dispersion Vectors in Optical Fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(9), 1153–1155 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

B. W. Hakki, “Polarization mode dispersion compensation by phase diversity detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(1), 121–123 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992

B. L. Heffner, “Automated Measurement of Polarization Mode Dispersion Using Jones Matrix Eigenanalysis,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4(9), 1066–1069 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

C. D. Poole, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, and D. A. Fishman, “Fading in lightwave systems due to polarization-mode dispersion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3(1), 68–70 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, T. B.

T. B. Anderson, A. Kowalczyk, K. Clarke, S. D. Dods, D. Hewitt, and J. C. Li, “Multi impairment monitoring for optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(16), 3729–3736 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Andrekson, P. A.

H. Sunnerud, B.-E. Olsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Measurement of polarization mode dispersion accumulation along installed optical fiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(7), 860–862 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boroditsky, M.

S. Wang, A. Weiner, M. Boroditsky, and M. Brodsky, “Monitoring PMD-induced penalty and other system performance metrics via a high-speed spectral polarimeter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(16), 1753–1755 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brodsky, M.

S. Wang, A. Weiner, M. Boroditsky, and M. Brodsky, “Monitoring PMD-induced penalty and other system performance metrics via a high-speed spectral polarimeter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(16), 1753–1755 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chraplyvy, A. R.

C. D. Poole, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, and D. A. Fishman, “Fading in lightwave systems due to polarization-mode dispersion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3(1), 68–70 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chung, Y. C.

K. J. Park, C. J. Youn, J. H. Lee, and Y. C. Chung, “Performance comparisons of chromatic dispersion-monitoring techniques using pilot tones,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(6), 873–875 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, K.

T. B. Anderson, A. Kowalczyk, K. Clarke, S. D. Dods, D. Hewitt, and J. C. Li, “Multi impairment monitoring for optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(16), 3729–3736 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dods, S. D.

T. B. Anderson, A. Kowalczyk, K. Clarke, S. D. Dods, D. Hewitt, and J. C. Li, “Multi impairment monitoring for optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(16), 3729–3736 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fishman, D. A.

C. D. Poole, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, and D. A. Fishman, “Fading in lightwave systems due to polarization-mode dispersion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3(1), 68–70 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hakki, B. W.

B. W. Hakki, “Polarization mode dispersion compensation by phase diversity detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(1), 121–123 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Heffner, B. L.

B. L. Heffner, “Automated Measurement of Polarization Mode Dispersion Using Jones Matrix Eigenanalysis,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4(9), 1066–1069 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hewitt, D.

T. B. Anderson, A. Kowalczyk, K. Clarke, S. D. Dods, D. Hewitt, and J. C. Li, “Multi impairment monitoring for optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(16), 3729–3736 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jopson, R. M.

R. M. Jopson, L. E. Nelson, and H. Kogelnik, “Measurement of Second-Order Polarization-Mode Dispersion Vectors in Optical Fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(9), 1153–1155 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, N.

N. Kikuchi, “Analysis of signal degree of polarization degradation used as control signal for optical polarization mode dispersion compensation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19(4), 480–486 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

R. M. Jopson, L. E. Nelson, and H. Kogelnik, “Measurement of Second-Order Polarization-Mode Dispersion Vectors in Optical Fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(9), 1153–1155 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kowalczyk, A.

T. B. Anderson, A. Kowalczyk, K. Clarke, S. D. Dods, D. Hewitt, and J. C. Li, “Multi impairment monitoring for optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(16), 3729–3736 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

K. J. Park, C. J. Youn, J. H. Lee, and Y. C. Chung, “Performance comparisons of chromatic dispersion-monitoring techniques using pilot tones,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(6), 873–875 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, J. C.

T. B. Anderson, A. Kowalczyk, K. Clarke, S. D. Dods, D. Hewitt, and J. C. Li, “Multi impairment monitoring for optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(16), 3729–3736 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McGeehan, J. E.

S. M. R. M. Nezam, Y. W. Song, C. Yu, J. E. McGeehan, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, “First-order PMD monitoring for NRZ data using RF clock regeneration techniques,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(4), 1086–1093 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, L. E.

R. M. Jopson, L. E. Nelson, and H. Kogelnik, “Measurement of Second-Order Polarization-Mode Dispersion Vectors in Optical Fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(9), 1153–1155 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nezam, S. M. R. M.

S. M. R. M. Nezam, Y. W. Song, C. Yu, J. E. McGeehan, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, “First-order PMD monitoring for NRZ data using RF clock regeneration techniques,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(4), 1086–1093 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Olsson, B.-E.

H. Sunnerud, B.-E. Olsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Measurement of polarization mode dispersion accumulation along installed optical fiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(7), 860–862 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Park, K. J.

K. J. Park, C. J. Youn, J. H. Lee, and Y. C. Chung, “Performance comparisons of chromatic dispersion-monitoring techniques using pilot tones,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(6), 873–875 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Poole, C. D.

C. D. Poole, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, and D. A. Fishman, “Fading in lightwave systems due to polarization-mode dispersion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3(1), 68–70 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sahin, A. B.

S. M. R. M. Nezam, Y. W. Song, C. Yu, J. E. McGeehan, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, “First-order PMD monitoring for NRZ data using RF clock regeneration techniques,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(4), 1086–1093 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. W.

S. M. R. M. Nezam, Y. W. Song, C. Yu, J. E. McGeehan, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, “First-order PMD monitoring for NRZ data using RF clock regeneration techniques,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(4), 1086–1093 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sunnerud, H.

H. Sunnerud, B.-E. Olsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Measurement of polarization mode dispersion accumulation along installed optical fiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(7), 860–862 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tkach, R. W.

C. D. Poole, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, and D. A. Fishman, “Fading in lightwave systems due to polarization-mode dispersion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3(1), 68–70 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

S. Wang, A. Weiner, M. Boroditsky, and M. Brodsky, “Monitoring PMD-induced penalty and other system performance metrics via a high-speed spectral polarimeter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(16), 1753–1755 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, A.

S. Wang, A. Weiner, M. Boroditsky, and M. Brodsky, “Monitoring PMD-induced penalty and other system performance metrics via a high-speed spectral polarimeter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(16), 1753–1755 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Willner, A. E.

S. M. R. M. Nezam, Y. W. Song, C. Yu, J. E. McGeehan, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, “First-order PMD monitoring for NRZ data using RF clock regeneration techniques,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(4), 1086–1093 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Youn, C. J.

K. J. Park, C. J. Youn, J. H. Lee, and Y. C. Chung, “Performance comparisons of chromatic dispersion-monitoring techniques using pilot tones,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(6), 873–875 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C.

S. M. R. M. Nezam, Y. W. Song, C. Yu, J. E. McGeehan, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, “First-order PMD monitoring for NRZ data using RF clock regeneration techniques,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(4), 1086–1093 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

H. Sunnerud, B.-E. Olsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Measurement of polarization mode dispersion accumulation along installed optical fiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(7), 860–862 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Poole, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, and D. A. Fishman, “Fading in lightwave systems due to polarization-mode dispersion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3(1), 68–70 (1991).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Hakki, “Polarization mode dispersion compensation by phase diversity detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(1), 121–123 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Heffner, “Automated Measurement of Polarization Mode Dispersion Using Jones Matrix Eigenanalysis,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4(9), 1066–1069 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Jopson, L. E. Nelson, and H. Kogelnik, “Measurement of Second-Order Polarization-Mode Dispersion Vectors in Optical Fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(9), 1153–1155 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Wang, A. Weiner, M. Boroditsky, and M. Brodsky, “Monitoring PMD-induced penalty and other system performance metrics via a high-speed spectral polarimeter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(16), 1753–1755 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Park, C. J. Youn, J. H. Lee, and Y. C. Chung, “Performance comparisons of chromatic dispersion-monitoring techniques using pilot tones,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(6), 873–875 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

N. Kikuchi, “Analysis of signal degree of polarization degradation used as control signal for optical polarization mode dispersion compensation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19(4), 480–486 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. M. R. M. Nezam, Y. W. Song, C. Yu, J. E. McGeehan, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, “First-order PMD monitoring for NRZ data using RF clock regeneration techniques,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(4), 1086–1093 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Anderson, A. Kowalczyk, K. Clarke, S. D. Dods, D. Hewitt, and J. C. Li, “Multi impairment monitoring for optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(16), 3729–3736 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other

G. Ishikawa and H. Ooi, “Polarization-mode dispersion sensitivity and monitoring in 40-Gbits OTDM and 10-Gbits NRZ transmission experiments,” Opt. Fiber. Commum. (OFC), 117–119, 1998.

Z. Pan, Q. Yu, Y. Xie, S. A. Havstad, A. E. Willner, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, “Chromatic dispersion monitoring and automated compensation for NRZ and RZ data using clock regeneration and fading without adding signaling,” Opt. Fiber Commun. (OFC), p WH5–1-3, vol.3, 2001.

K. E. Cornick, K. Hinton, S. D. Dods, and P. M. Farrell, “Comparison of Methods for Monitoring PMD-Induced Penalty,” Opt. Fiber Commun./ Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf.(OFC/NFOEC),pp. 783–785, 2007.

F. Buchali, W. Baumert, H. Bulow, and J. Poirrier, “A 40 Gb/s eye monitor and its application to adaptive PMD compensation,” Opt. Fiber Commun./ Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf.(OFC/NFOEC), 202–203, vol. 1, 2002.

C. Yu, Y. Wang, T. Luo, Z. Pan, S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, “Chromatic-dispersion-insensitive PMD monitoring for NRZ data based on clock power measurement using a narrowband FBG notch filter,” European Conference on Optical Communications Proceedings (ECOC), Tu4.2.3, 1–2, 2003.

M. Boroditsky, M. Brodsky, N. J. Frigo, P. Magill, and J. Evankow, “Viewing polarization ‘strings’ on working channels: High-resolution heterodyne polarimetry,” European Conference on Optical Communications Proceedings (ECOC), pp. 318–319, 2004.

M. Boroditsky, M. Brodsky, N. J. Frigo, P. Magill, and J. Evankow, “Estimation of eye penalty and PMD from frequency-resolved in-situ SOP measurements,” Proc. 17th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, pp.88- 89, 2004.

F. Roy, C. Francia, F. Bruyere, and D. Penninckx, “A simple dynamic polarization mode dispersion compensator,” Opt. Fiber Commun./ Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf.(OFC/NFOEC), 275–278, vol. 1, 1999.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Principle of PMD and CD effects on the RF power of NRZ signal. U11 (L11): signal of one PSP in upper (lower) sideband; U (L): signal of the other PSP in upper (lower) sideband.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) System setup of PMD monitoring utilizing FBG notch filter in an 8-PSK system; (b) measured optical transmission spectrum of FBG notch filter. LD: laser diode; PM: phase modulator.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Optical spectrum of a 57-Gbit/s D8PSK signal filtered by an FBG notch filter placed at 10GHz away from the carrier wavelength; (b) RF power at 10GHz as a function of DGD for different CD values for a 57-Gbit/s D8PSK system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

RF power at 10GHz as a function of DGD for different CD values for a 38-Gbit/s DQPSK system (a) without filtering; (b) filtered by FBG notch filter placed at 10GHz away from carrier.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relative RF powers as a function of DGD for 38-Gbit/s DQPSK signal when 10 GHz RF tone and 19 GHz clock are monitoring signals.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) OSNR effects on the DGD measurement results; and (b) relative 10 GHz RF power as a function of DGD under FBG filter frequency detuning in 38-Gbit/s DQPSK system.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Accumulated probability of relative 10GHz RF power for CD = 0 ps/nm and CD = 300 ps/nm (a) without filter; (b) with filter.

Equations (2)

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P D S B = P 0 [ 1 4 γ ( 1 γ ) sin 2 ( π f R F Δ τ ) ] ( 1 + α 2 ) × cos 2 ( π D λ 2 f R F 2 / c + arc tan α ) ,
P S S B = P 0 [ 1 4 γ ( 1 γ ) sin 2 ( π f R F Δ τ ) ] ( 1 + α 2 ) × | H ( f R F ) | 2 / 2 ,

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