Abstract

Highly transparent organic light-emitting diodes (TrOLEDs) are demonstrated using damage-free top cathodes of Cs2CO3/ Ag capped with ZnS layers. The presence of ultrathin Cs2CO3 layers not only improves the electron injection properties but also makes Ag thin films more continuous and uniform, resulting in ideal top electrodes with low sheet resistance and high transmittance. The combination of the uniform Ag morphology enabled by Cs2CO3 and the optimized thickness of ZnS capping layers results in TrOLEDs that have a peak transmittance as large as 80% with a luminous transmittance of 76.4%. These TrOLEDs exhibit a low turn-on voltage of 2.6V due to injection improvement by the Cs2CO3 layers.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

S. Kim, K. Hong, K. Kim, I. Lee, K.-B. Kim, D. Y. Lee, T.-Y. Kim, and J.-L. Lee, “Hole injection layer of thermally evaporated copper oxide for top emitting organic light emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(10), J347–J350 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D.-D. Zhang, J. Feng, Y.-Q. Zhong, Y.-F. Liu, H. Wang, Y. Jin, Y. Bai, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, “Efficient top-emitting organic light-emitting devices using Fe3O4 modified Ag anode,” Org. Electron. 11(12), 1891–1895 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T.-W. Koh, J.-M. Choi, S. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Optical outcoupling enhancement in organic light-emitting diodes: highly conductive polymer as a low-index layer on microstructured ITO electrodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(16), 1849–1853 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Cho, C. Yun, and S. Yoo, “Multilayer transparent electrode for organic light-emitting diodes: tuning its optical characteristics,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3404–3414 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Han, H. Kim, S. Lee, M. Seo, and S. Yoo, “Realization of efficient semitransparent organic photovoltaic cells with metallic top electrodes: utilizing the tunable absorption asymmetry,” Opt. Express 18(S4), A513–A521 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

J. Meiss, M. K. Riede, and K. Leo, “Optimizing the morphology of metal multilayer films for indium tin oxide(ITO)-free inverted organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(6), 063108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Zhang, L. Zhang, W. Ji, and W. Xie, “Transparent white organic light-emitting devices with a LiF/Yb:Ag cathode,” Opt. Lett. 34(8), 1174–1176 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

D. Poitras, C.-C. Kuo, and C. Py, “Design of high-contrast OLEDs with microcavity effect,” Opt. Express 16(11), 8003–8015 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. O’Connor, C. Haughn, K.-H. An, K. P. Pipe, and M. Shtein, “Transparent and conductive electrodes based on unpatterned, thin metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 223304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

J. Huang, Z. Xu, and Y. Yang, “Low-work-function surface formed by solution-processed and thermally deposited nanoscale layers of cesium carbonate,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(12), 1966–1973 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Ryu, S. H. Choi, J. T. Kim, C. S. Kim, H. K. Baik, and H. S. Jeong, “Highly efficient transparent organic light-emitting diodes by ion beam assisted deposition-prepared indium tin oxide cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 033513 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

H.-K. Kim, K.-S. Lee, and J. H. Kwon, “Transparent indium zinc oxide top cathode prepared by plasma damage-free sputtering for top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(1), 012103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, C.-W. Chu, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, and Y. Yang, “Efficient inverted polymer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(25), 253503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Chen, Z. Jie, Z. Zhao, G. Cheng, Z. Wu, Y. Zhao, B. Quan, S. Liu, X. Li, and W. Xie, “Improved light outcoupling for top-emitting organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 043505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C.-I. Wu, C.-T. Lin, Y.-H. Chen, M.-H. Chen, Y.-J. Lu, and C.-C. Wu, “Electronic structures and electron-injection mechanisms of cesium-carbonate-incorporated cathode structures for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 152104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

B. J. Chen, X. W. Sun, and S. C. Tan, “Transparent organic light-emitting devices with LiF/Mg:Ag cathode,” Opt. Express 13(3), 937–941 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

R. B. Pode, C. J. Lee, D. G. Moon, and J. I. Han, “Transparent conducting metal electrode for top emission organic light-emitting devices: Ca-Ag double layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(23), 4614–4616 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. P. Rand, P. Peumans, and S. R. Forrest, “Long-range absorption enhancement in organic tandem thin-film solar cells containing silver nanocluster,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7519–7526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Hasegawa, S. Miura, T. Moriyama, T. Kimura, I. Takaya, Y. Osato, and H. Mizutani, “Novel electron-injection layer for top-emission OLEDs,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 35(1), 154–157 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, B. Ruhstaller, and W. Rieß, “Phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with improved light outcoupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 466–468 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, X. Cai, J. Qiao, J. Mao, and N. Jiang, “The design of ZnS/ Ag/ ZnS transparent conducive multilayer films,” Thin Solid Films 441(1-2), 200–206 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Xie, L.-S. Hung, and F. Zhu, “A flexible top-emitting organic light-emitting diode on steel foil,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 381(5-6), 691–696 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

N. Kaiser, “Review of the fundamentals of thin-film growth,” Appl. Opt. 41(16), 3053–3060 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

A. Yamamori, S. Hayashi, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, “Transparent organic light-emitting diodes using metal acethylacetonate complex as an electron injective buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(21), 3343–3345 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

G. Parthasarathy, P. E. Burrows, V. Khalfin, V. G. Kozlov, and S. R. Forrest, “A metal-free cathode for organic semiconductor devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(17), 2138–2140 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

G. Gu, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Transparent organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(19), 2606–2608 (1996).
[CrossRef]

An, K.-H.

B. O’Connor, C. Haughn, K.-H. An, K. P. Pipe, and M. Shtein, “Transparent and conductive electrodes based on unpatterned, thin metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 223304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bai, Y.

D.-D. Zhang, J. Feng, Y.-Q. Zhong, Y.-F. Liu, H. Wang, Y. Jin, Y. Bai, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, “Efficient top-emitting organic light-emitting devices using Fe3O4 modified Ag anode,” Org. Electron. 11(12), 1891–1895 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baik, H. K.

S. Y. Ryu, S. H. Choi, J. T. Kim, C. S. Kim, H. K. Baik, and H. S. Jeong, “Highly efficient transparent organic light-emitting diodes by ion beam assisted deposition-prepared indium tin oxide cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 033513 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beierlein, T.

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, B. Ruhstaller, and W. Rieß, “Phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with improved light outcoupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 466–468 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bulovic, V.

G. Gu, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Transparent organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(19), 2606–2608 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, P. E.

G. Parthasarathy, P. E. Burrows, V. Khalfin, V. G. Kozlov, and S. R. Forrest, “A metal-free cathode for organic semiconductor devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(17), 2138–2140 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Gu, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Transparent organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(19), 2606–2608 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cai, X.

X. Liu, X. Cai, J. Qiao, J. Mao, and N. Jiang, “The design of ZnS/ Ag/ ZnS transparent conducive multilayer films,” Thin Solid Films 441(1-2), 200–206 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B. J.

B. J. Chen, X. W. Sun, and S. C. Tan, “Transparent organic light-emitting devices with LiF/Mg:Ag cathode,” Opt. Express 13(3), 937–941 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, M.-H.

C.-I. Wu, C.-T. Lin, Y.-H. Chen, M.-H. Chen, Y.-J. Lu, and C.-C. Wu, “Electronic structures and electron-injection mechanisms of cesium-carbonate-incorporated cathode structures for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 152104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.-D.

D.-D. Zhang, J. Feng, Y.-Q. Zhong, Y.-F. Liu, H. Wang, Y. Jin, Y. Bai, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, “Efficient top-emitting organic light-emitting devices using Fe3O4 modified Ag anode,” Org. Electron. 11(12), 1891–1895 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.

S. Chen, Z. Jie, Z. Zhao, G. Cheng, Z. Wu, Y. Zhao, B. Quan, S. Liu, X. Li, and W. Xie, “Improved light outcoupling for top-emitting organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 043505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-H.

C.-I. Wu, C.-T. Lin, Y.-H. Chen, M.-H. Chen, Y.-J. Lu, and C.-C. Wu, “Electronic structures and electron-injection mechanisms of cesium-carbonate-incorporated cathode structures for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 152104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, G.

S. Chen, Z. Jie, Z. Zhao, G. Cheng, Z. Wu, Y. Zhao, B. Quan, S. Liu, X. Li, and W. Xie, “Improved light outcoupling for top-emitting organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 043505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cho, H.

H. Cho, C. Yun, and S. Yoo, “Multilayer transparent electrode for organic light-emitting diodes: tuning its optical characteristics,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3404–3414 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, J.-M.

T.-W. Koh, J.-M. Choi, S. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Optical outcoupling enhancement in organic light-emitting diodes: highly conductive polymer as a low-index layer on microstructured ITO electrodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(16), 1849–1853 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, S. H.

S. Y. Ryu, S. H. Choi, J. T. Kim, C. S. Kim, H. K. Baik, and H. S. Jeong, “Highly efficient transparent organic light-emitting diodes by ion beam assisted deposition-prepared indium tin oxide cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 033513 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chu, C.-W.

G. Li, C.-W. Chu, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, and Y. Yang, “Efficient inverted polymer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(25), 253503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Feng, J.

D.-D. Zhang, J. Feng, Y.-Q. Zhong, Y.-F. Liu, H. Wang, Y. Jin, Y. Bai, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, “Efficient top-emitting organic light-emitting devices using Fe3O4 modified Ag anode,” Org. Electron. 11(12), 1891–1895 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

B. P. Rand, P. Peumans, and S. R. Forrest, “Long-range absorption enhancement in organic tandem thin-film solar cells containing silver nanocluster,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7519–7526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Parthasarathy, P. E. Burrows, V. Khalfin, V. G. Kozlov, and S. R. Forrest, “A metal-free cathode for organic semiconductor devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(17), 2138–2140 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Gu, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Transparent organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(19), 2606–2608 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gu, G.

G. Gu, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Transparent organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(19), 2606–2608 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Han, D.

D. Han, H. Kim, S. Lee, M. Seo, and S. Yoo, “Realization of efficient semitransparent organic photovoltaic cells with metallic top electrodes: utilizing the tunable absorption asymmetry,” Opt. Express 18(S4), A513–A521 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, J. I.

R. B. Pode, C. J. Lee, D. G. Moon, and J. I. Han, “Transparent conducting metal electrode for top emission organic light-emitting devices: Ca-Ag double layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(23), 4614–4616 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, T.

T. Hasegawa, S. Miura, T. Moriyama, T. Kimura, I. Takaya, Y. Osato, and H. Mizutani, “Novel electron-injection layer for top-emission OLEDs,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 35(1), 154–157 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Haughn, C.

B. O’Connor, C. Haughn, K.-H. An, K. P. Pipe, and M. Shtein, “Transparent and conductive electrodes based on unpatterned, thin metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 223304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, S.

A. Yamamori, S. Hayashi, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, “Transparent organic light-emitting diodes using metal acethylacetonate complex as an electron injective buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(21), 3343–3345 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hong, K.

S. Kim, K. Hong, K. Kim, I. Lee, K.-B. Kim, D. Y. Lee, T.-Y. Kim, and J.-L. Lee, “Hole injection layer of thermally evaporated copper oxide for top emitting organic light emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(10), J347–J350 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.

J. Huang, Z. Xu, and Y. Yang, “Low-work-function surface formed by solution-processed and thermally deposited nanoscale layers of cesium carbonate,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(12), 1966–1973 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, C.-W. Chu, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, and Y. Yang, “Efficient inverted polymer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(25), 253503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hung, L.-S.

Z. Xie, L.-S. Hung, and F. Zhu, “A flexible top-emitting organic light-emitting diode on steel foil,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 381(5-6), 691–696 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, H. S.

S. Y. Ryu, S. H. Choi, J. T. Kim, C. S. Kim, H. K. Baik, and H. S. Jeong, “Highly efficient transparent organic light-emitting diodes by ion beam assisted deposition-prepared indium tin oxide cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 033513 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ji, W.

T. Zhang, L. Zhang, W. Ji, and W. Xie, “Transparent white organic light-emitting devices with a LiF/Yb:Ag cathode,” Opt. Lett. 34(8), 1174–1176 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, N.

X. Liu, X. Cai, J. Qiao, J. Mao, and N. Jiang, “The design of ZnS/ Ag/ ZnS transparent conducive multilayer films,” Thin Solid Films 441(1-2), 200–206 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jie, Z.

S. Chen, Z. Jie, Z. Zhao, G. Cheng, Z. Wu, Y. Zhao, B. Quan, S. Liu, X. Li, and W. Xie, “Improved light outcoupling for top-emitting organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 043505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Y.

D.-D. Zhang, J. Feng, Y.-Q. Zhong, Y.-F. Liu, H. Wang, Y. Jin, Y. Bai, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, “Efficient top-emitting organic light-emitting devices using Fe3O4 modified Ag anode,” Org. Electron. 11(12), 1891–1895 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, N.

N. Kaiser, “Review of the fundamentals of thin-film growth,” Appl. Opt. 41(16), 3053–3060 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karg, S.

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, B. Ruhstaller, and W. Rieß, “Phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with improved light outcoupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 466–468 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Khalfin, V.

G. Parthasarathy, P. E. Burrows, V. Khalfin, V. G. Kozlov, and S. R. Forrest, “A metal-free cathode for organic semiconductor devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(17), 2138–2140 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C. S.

S. Y. Ryu, S. H. Choi, J. T. Kim, C. S. Kim, H. K. Baik, and H. S. Jeong, “Highly efficient transparent organic light-emitting diodes by ion beam assisted deposition-prepared indium tin oxide cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 033513 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

D. Han, H. Kim, S. Lee, M. Seo, and S. Yoo, “Realization of efficient semitransparent organic photovoltaic cells with metallic top electrodes: utilizing the tunable absorption asymmetry,” Opt. Express 18(S4), A513–A521 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, H.-K.

H.-K. Kim, K.-S. Lee, and J. H. Kwon, “Transparent indium zinc oxide top cathode prepared by plasma damage-free sputtering for top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(1), 012103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. T.

S. Y. Ryu, S. H. Choi, J. T. Kim, C. S. Kim, H. K. Baik, and H. S. Jeong, “Highly efficient transparent organic light-emitting diodes by ion beam assisted deposition-prepared indium tin oxide cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 033513 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.

S. Kim, K. Hong, K. Kim, I. Lee, K.-B. Kim, D. Y. Lee, T.-Y. Kim, and J.-L. Lee, “Hole injection layer of thermally evaporated copper oxide for top emitting organic light emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(10), J347–J350 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.-B.

S. Kim, K. Hong, K. Kim, I. Lee, K.-B. Kim, D. Y. Lee, T.-Y. Kim, and J.-L. Lee, “Hole injection layer of thermally evaporated copper oxide for top emitting organic light emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(10), J347–J350 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

S. Kim, K. Hong, K. Kim, I. Lee, K.-B. Kim, D. Y. Lee, T.-Y. Kim, and J.-L. Lee, “Hole injection layer of thermally evaporated copper oxide for top emitting organic light emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(10), J347–J350 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T.-Y.

S. Kim, K. Hong, K. Kim, I. Lee, K.-B. Kim, D. Y. Lee, T.-Y. Kim, and J.-L. Lee, “Hole injection layer of thermally evaporated copper oxide for top emitting organic light emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(10), J347–J350 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, T.

T. Hasegawa, S. Miura, T. Moriyama, T. Kimura, I. Takaya, Y. Osato, and H. Mizutani, “Novel electron-injection layer for top-emission OLEDs,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 35(1), 154–157 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Koh, T.-W.

T.-W. Koh, J.-M. Choi, S. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Optical outcoupling enhancement in organic light-emitting diodes: highly conductive polymer as a low-index layer on microstructured ITO electrodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(16), 1849–1853 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koyama, T.

A. Yamamori, S. Hayashi, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, “Transparent organic light-emitting diodes using metal acethylacetonate complex as an electron injective buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(21), 3343–3345 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kozlov, V. G.

G. Parthasarathy, P. E. Burrows, V. Khalfin, V. G. Kozlov, and S. R. Forrest, “A metal-free cathode for organic semiconductor devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(17), 2138–2140 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C.-C.

D. Poitras, C.-C. Kuo, and C. Py, “Design of high-contrast OLEDs with microcavity effect,” Opt. Express 16(11), 8003–8015 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwon, J. H.

H.-K. Kim, K.-S. Lee, and J. H. Kwon, “Transparent indium zinc oxide top cathode prepared by plasma damage-free sputtering for top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(1), 012103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. J.

R. B. Pode, C. J. Lee, D. G. Moon, and J. I. Han, “Transparent conducting metal electrode for top emission organic light-emitting devices: Ca-Ag double layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(23), 4614–4616 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D. Y.

S. Kim, K. Hong, K. Kim, I. Lee, K.-B. Kim, D. Y. Lee, T.-Y. Kim, and J.-L. Lee, “Hole injection layer of thermally evaporated copper oxide for top emitting organic light emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(10), J347–J350 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, I.

S. Kim, K. Hong, K. Kim, I. Lee, K.-B. Kim, D. Y. Lee, T.-Y. Kim, and J.-L. Lee, “Hole injection layer of thermally evaporated copper oxide for top emitting organic light emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(10), J347–J350 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-L.

S. Kim, K. Hong, K. Kim, I. Lee, K.-B. Kim, D. Y. Lee, T.-Y. Kim, and J.-L. Lee, “Hole injection layer of thermally evaporated copper oxide for top emitting organic light emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(10), J347–J350 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.-S.

H.-K. Kim, K.-S. Lee, and J. H. Kwon, “Transparent indium zinc oxide top cathode prepared by plasma damage-free sputtering for top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(1), 012103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

T.-W. Koh, J.-M. Choi, S. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Optical outcoupling enhancement in organic light-emitting diodes: highly conductive polymer as a low-index layer on microstructured ITO electrodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(16), 1849–1853 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Han, H. Kim, S. Lee, M. Seo, and S. Yoo, “Realization of efficient semitransparent organic photovoltaic cells with metallic top electrodes: utilizing the tunable absorption asymmetry,” Opt. Express 18(S4), A513–A521 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leo, K.

J. Meiss, M. K. Riede, and K. Leo, “Optimizing the morphology of metal multilayer films for indium tin oxide(ITO)-free inverted organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(6), 063108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

G. Li, C.-W. Chu, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, and Y. Yang, “Efficient inverted polymer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(25), 253503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

S. Chen, Z. Jie, Z. Zhao, G. Cheng, Z. Wu, Y. Zhao, B. Quan, S. Liu, X. Li, and W. Xie, “Improved light outcoupling for top-emitting organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 043505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-T.

C.-I. Wu, C.-T. Lin, Y.-H. Chen, M.-H. Chen, Y.-J. Lu, and C.-C. Wu, “Electronic structures and electron-injection mechanisms of cesium-carbonate-incorporated cathode structures for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 152104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

S. Chen, Z. Jie, Z. Zhao, G. Cheng, Z. Wu, Y. Zhao, B. Quan, S. Liu, X. Li, and W. Xie, “Improved light outcoupling for top-emitting organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 043505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

X. Liu, X. Cai, J. Qiao, J. Mao, and N. Jiang, “The design of ZnS/ Ag/ ZnS transparent conducive multilayer films,” Thin Solid Films 441(1-2), 200–206 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.-F.

D.-D. Zhang, J. Feng, Y.-Q. Zhong, Y.-F. Liu, H. Wang, Y. Jin, Y. Bai, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, “Efficient top-emitting organic light-emitting devices using Fe3O4 modified Ag anode,” Org. Electron. 11(12), 1891–1895 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.-J.

C.-I. Wu, C.-T. Lin, Y.-H. Chen, M.-H. Chen, Y.-J. Lu, and C.-C. Wu, “Electronic structures and electron-injection mechanisms of cesium-carbonate-incorporated cathode structures for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 152104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mao, J.

X. Liu, X. Cai, J. Qiao, J. Mao, and N. Jiang, “The design of ZnS/ Ag/ ZnS transparent conducive multilayer films,” Thin Solid Films 441(1-2), 200–206 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meiss, J.

J. Meiss, M. K. Riede, and K. Leo, “Optimizing the morphology of metal multilayer films for indium tin oxide(ITO)-free inverted organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(6), 063108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Miura, S.

T. Hasegawa, S. Miura, T. Moriyama, T. Kimura, I. Takaya, Y. Osato, and H. Mizutani, “Novel electron-injection layer for top-emission OLEDs,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 35(1), 154–157 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mizutani, H.

T. Hasegawa, S. Miura, T. Moriyama, T. Kimura, I. Takaya, Y. Osato, and H. Mizutani, “Novel electron-injection layer for top-emission OLEDs,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 35(1), 154–157 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moon, D. G.

R. B. Pode, C. J. Lee, D. G. Moon, and J. I. Han, “Transparent conducting metal electrode for top emission organic light-emitting devices: Ca-Ag double layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(23), 4614–4616 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moriyama, T.

T. Hasegawa, S. Miura, T. Moriyama, T. Kimura, I. Takaya, Y. Osato, and H. Mizutani, “Novel electron-injection layer for top-emission OLEDs,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 35(1), 154–157 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O’Connor, B.

B. O’Connor, C. Haughn, K.-H. An, K. P. Pipe, and M. Shtein, “Transparent and conductive electrodes based on unpatterned, thin metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 223304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Osato, Y.

T. Hasegawa, S. Miura, T. Moriyama, T. Kimura, I. Takaya, Y. Osato, and H. Mizutani, “Novel electron-injection layer for top-emission OLEDs,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 35(1), 154–157 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Parthasarathy, G.

G. Parthasarathy, P. E. Burrows, V. Khalfin, V. G. Kozlov, and S. R. Forrest, “A metal-free cathode for organic semiconductor devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(17), 2138–2140 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Peumans, P.

B. P. Rand, P. Peumans, and S. R. Forrest, “Long-range absorption enhancement in organic tandem thin-film solar cells containing silver nanocluster,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7519–7526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pipe, K. P.

B. O’Connor, C. Haughn, K.-H. An, K. P. Pipe, and M. Shtein, “Transparent and conductive electrodes based on unpatterned, thin metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 223304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pode, R. B.

R. B. Pode, C. J. Lee, D. G. Moon, and J. I. Han, “Transparent conducting metal electrode for top emission organic light-emitting devices: Ca-Ag double layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(23), 4614–4616 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Poitras, D.

D. Poitras, C.-C. Kuo, and C. Py, “Design of high-contrast OLEDs with microcavity effect,” Opt. Express 16(11), 8003–8015 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Py, C.

D. Poitras, C.-C. Kuo, and C. Py, “Design of high-contrast OLEDs with microcavity effect,” Opt. Express 16(11), 8003–8015 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qiao, J.

X. Liu, X. Cai, J. Qiao, J. Mao, and N. Jiang, “The design of ZnS/ Ag/ ZnS transparent conducive multilayer films,” Thin Solid Films 441(1-2), 200–206 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Quan, B.

S. Chen, Z. Jie, Z. Zhao, G. Cheng, Z. Wu, Y. Zhao, B. Quan, S. Liu, X. Li, and W. Xie, “Improved light outcoupling for top-emitting organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 043505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rand, B. P.

B. P. Rand, P. Peumans, and S. R. Forrest, “Long-range absorption enhancement in organic tandem thin-film solar cells containing silver nanocluster,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7519–7526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Riede, M. K.

J. Meiss, M. K. Riede, and K. Leo, “Optimizing the morphology of metal multilayer films for indium tin oxide(ITO)-free inverted organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(6), 063108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Riel, H.

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, B. Ruhstaller, and W. Rieß, “Phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with improved light outcoupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 466–468 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rieß, W.

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, B. Ruhstaller, and W. Rieß, “Phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with improved light outcoupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 466–468 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ruhstaller, B.

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, B. Ruhstaller, and W. Rieß, “Phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with improved light outcoupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 466–468 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, S. Y.

S. Y. Ryu, S. H. Choi, J. T. Kim, C. S. Kim, H. K. Baik, and H. S. Jeong, “Highly efficient transparent organic light-emitting diodes by ion beam assisted deposition-prepared indium tin oxide cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 033513 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Seo, M.

D. Han, H. Kim, S. Lee, M. Seo, and S. Yoo, “Realization of efficient semitransparent organic photovoltaic cells with metallic top electrodes: utilizing the tunable absorption asymmetry,” Opt. Express 18(S4), A513–A521 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shrotriya, V.

G. Li, C.-W. Chu, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, and Y. Yang, “Efficient inverted polymer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(25), 253503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shtein, M.

B. O’Connor, C. Haughn, K.-H. An, K. P. Pipe, and M. Shtein, “Transparent and conductive electrodes based on unpatterned, thin metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 223304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H.-B.

D.-D. Zhang, J. Feng, Y.-Q. Zhong, Y.-F. Liu, H. Wang, Y. Jin, Y. Bai, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, “Efficient top-emitting organic light-emitting devices using Fe3O4 modified Ag anode,” Org. Electron. 11(12), 1891–1895 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X. W.

B. J. Chen, X. W. Sun, and S. C. Tan, “Transparent organic light-emitting devices with LiF/Mg:Ag cathode,” Opt. Express 13(3), 937–941 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takaya, I.

T. Hasegawa, S. Miura, T. Moriyama, T. Kimura, I. Takaya, Y. Osato, and H. Mizutani, “Novel electron-injection layer for top-emission OLEDs,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 35(1), 154–157 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tan, S. C.

B. J. Chen, X. W. Sun, and S. C. Tan, “Transparent organic light-emitting devices with LiF/Mg:Ag cathode,” Opt. Express 13(3), 937–941 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taniguchi, Y.

A. Yamamori, S. Hayashi, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, “Transparent organic light-emitting diodes using metal acethylacetonate complex as an electron injective buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(21), 3343–3345 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, M. E.

G. Gu, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Transparent organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(19), 2606–2608 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

D.-D. Zhang, J. Feng, Y.-Q. Zhong, Y.-F. Liu, H. Wang, Y. Jin, Y. Bai, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, “Efficient top-emitting organic light-emitting devices using Fe3O4 modified Ag anode,” Org. Electron. 11(12), 1891–1895 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.-C.

C.-I. Wu, C.-T. Lin, Y.-H. Chen, M.-H. Chen, Y.-J. Lu, and C.-C. Wu, “Electronic structures and electron-injection mechanisms of cesium-carbonate-incorporated cathode structures for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 152104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.-I.

C.-I. Wu, C.-T. Lin, Y.-H. Chen, M.-H. Chen, Y.-J. Lu, and C.-C. Wu, “Electronic structures and electron-injection mechanisms of cesium-carbonate-incorporated cathode structures for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 152104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z.

S. Chen, Z. Jie, Z. Zhao, G. Cheng, Z. Wu, Y. Zhao, B. Quan, S. Liu, X. Li, and W. Xie, “Improved light outcoupling for top-emitting organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 043505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xie, W.

T. Zhang, L. Zhang, W. Ji, and W. Xie, “Transparent white organic light-emitting devices with a LiF/Yb:Ag cathode,” Opt. Lett. 34(8), 1174–1176 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chen, Z. Jie, Z. Zhao, G. Cheng, Z. Wu, Y. Zhao, B. Quan, S. Liu, X. Li, and W. Xie, “Improved light outcoupling for top-emitting organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 043505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xie, Z.

Z. Xie, L.-S. Hung, and F. Zhu, “A flexible top-emitting organic light-emitting diode on steel foil,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 381(5-6), 691–696 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

J. Huang, Z. Xu, and Y. Yang, “Low-work-function surface formed by solution-processed and thermally deposited nanoscale layers of cesium carbonate,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(12), 1966–1973 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yamamori, A.

A. Yamamori, S. Hayashi, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, “Transparent organic light-emitting diodes using metal acethylacetonate complex as an electron injective buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(21), 3343–3345 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

J. Huang, Z. Xu, and Y. Yang, “Low-work-function surface formed by solution-processed and thermally deposited nanoscale layers of cesium carbonate,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(12), 1966–1973 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, C.-W. Chu, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, and Y. Yang, “Efficient inverted polymer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(25), 253503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, S.

H. Cho, C. Yun, and S. Yoo, “Multilayer transparent electrode for organic light-emitting diodes: tuning its optical characteristics,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3404–3414 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Han, H. Kim, S. Lee, M. Seo, and S. Yoo, “Realization of efficient semitransparent organic photovoltaic cells with metallic top electrodes: utilizing the tunable absorption asymmetry,” Opt. Express 18(S4), A513–A521 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.-W. Koh, J.-M. Choi, S. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Optical outcoupling enhancement in organic light-emitting diodes: highly conductive polymer as a low-index layer on microstructured ITO electrodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(16), 1849–1853 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yun, C.

H. Cho, C. Yun, and S. Yoo, “Multilayer transparent electrode for organic light-emitting diodes: tuning its optical characteristics,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3404–3414 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, D.-D.

D.-D. Zhang, J. Feng, Y.-Q. Zhong, Y.-F. Liu, H. Wang, Y. Jin, Y. Bai, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, “Efficient top-emitting organic light-emitting devices using Fe3O4 modified Ag anode,” Org. Electron. 11(12), 1891–1895 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

T. Zhang, L. Zhang, W. Ji, and W. Xie, “Transparent white organic light-emitting devices with a LiF/Yb:Ag cathode,” Opt. Lett. 34(8), 1174–1176 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, T.

T. Zhang, L. Zhang, W. Ji, and W. Xie, “Transparent white organic light-emitting devices with a LiF/Yb:Ag cathode,” Opt. Lett. 34(8), 1174–1176 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y.

S. Chen, Z. Jie, Z. Zhao, G. Cheng, Z. Wu, Y. Zhao, B. Quan, S. Liu, X. Li, and W. Xie, “Improved light outcoupling for top-emitting organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 043505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Z.

S. Chen, Z. Jie, Z. Zhao, G. Cheng, Z. Wu, Y. Zhao, B. Quan, S. Liu, X. Li, and W. Xie, “Improved light outcoupling for top-emitting organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 043505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, Y.-Q.

D.-D. Zhang, J. Feng, Y.-Q. Zhong, Y.-F. Liu, H. Wang, Y. Jin, Y. Bai, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, “Efficient top-emitting organic light-emitting devices using Fe3O4 modified Ag anode,” Org. Electron. 11(12), 1891–1895 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, F.

Z. Xie, L.-S. Hung, and F. Zhu, “A flexible top-emitting organic light-emitting diode on steel foil,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 381(5-6), 691–696 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

J. Huang, Z. Xu, and Y. Yang, “Low-work-function surface formed by solution-processed and thermally deposited nanoscale layers of cesium carbonate,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(12), 1966–1973 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

T.-W. Koh, J.-M. Choi, S. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Optical outcoupling enhancement in organic light-emitting diodes: highly conductive polymer as a low-index layer on microstructured ITO electrodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(16), 1849–1853 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

N. Kaiser, “Review of the fundamentals of thin-film growth,” Appl. Opt. 41(16), 3053–3060 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (11)

B. O’Connor, C. Haughn, K.-H. An, K. P. Pipe, and M. Shtein, “Transparent and conductive electrodes based on unpatterned, thin metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 223304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Chen, Z. Jie, Z. Zhao, G. Cheng, Z. Wu, Y. Zhao, B. Quan, S. Liu, X. Li, and W. Xie, “Improved light outcoupling for top-emitting organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 043505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C.-I. Wu, C.-T. Lin, Y.-H. Chen, M.-H. Chen, Y.-J. Lu, and C.-C. Wu, “Electronic structures and electron-injection mechanisms of cesium-carbonate-incorporated cathode structures for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 152104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, C.-W. Chu, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, and Y. Yang, “Efficient inverted polymer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(25), 253503 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, B. Ruhstaller, and W. Rieß, “Phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with improved light outcoupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 466–468 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Gu, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Transparent organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(19), 2606–2608 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Parthasarathy, P. E. Burrows, V. Khalfin, V. G. Kozlov, and S. R. Forrest, “A metal-free cathode for organic semiconductor devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(17), 2138–2140 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Yamamori, S. Hayashi, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, “Transparent organic light-emitting diodes using metal acethylacetonate complex as an electron injective buffer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(21), 3343–3345 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H.-K. Kim, K.-S. Lee, and J. H. Kwon, “Transparent indium zinc oxide top cathode prepared by plasma damage-free sputtering for top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(1), 012103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Ryu, S. H. Choi, J. T. Kim, C. S. Kim, H. K. Baik, and H. S. Jeong, “Highly efficient transparent organic light-emitting diodes by ion beam assisted deposition-prepared indium tin oxide cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 033513 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Pode, C. J. Lee, D. G. Moon, and J. I. Han, “Transparent conducting metal electrode for top emission organic light-emitting devices: Ca-Ag double layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(23), 4614–4616 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

Z. Xie, L.-S. Hung, and F. Zhu, “A flexible top-emitting organic light-emitting diode on steel foil,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 381(5-6), 691–696 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

B. P. Rand, P. Peumans, and S. R. Forrest, “Long-range absorption enhancement in organic tandem thin-film solar cells containing silver nanocluster,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7519–7526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Meiss, M. K. Riede, and K. Leo, “Optimizing the morphology of metal multilayer films for indium tin oxide(ITO)-free inverted organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(6), 063108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

S. Kim, K. Hong, K. Kim, I. Lee, K.-B. Kim, D. Y. Lee, T.-Y. Kim, and J.-L. Lee, “Hole injection layer of thermally evaporated copper oxide for top emitting organic light emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 157(10), J347–J350 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

D. Poitras, C.-C. Kuo, and C. Py, “Design of high-contrast OLEDs with microcavity effect,” Opt. Express 16(11), 8003–8015 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Chen, X. W. Sun, and S. C. Tan, “Transparent organic light-emitting devices with LiF/Mg:Ag cathode,” Opt. Express 13(3), 937–941 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Han, H. Kim, S. Lee, M. Seo, and S. Yoo, “Realization of efficient semitransparent organic photovoltaic cells with metallic top electrodes: utilizing the tunable absorption asymmetry,” Opt. Express 18(S4), A513–A521 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Cho, C. Yun, and S. Yoo, “Multilayer transparent electrode for organic light-emitting diodes: tuning its optical characteristics,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3404–3414 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

T. Zhang, L. Zhang, W. Ji, and W. Xie, “Transparent white organic light-emitting devices with a LiF/Yb:Ag cathode,” Opt. Lett. 34(8), 1174–1176 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Org. Electron. (1)

D.-D. Zhang, J. Feng, Y.-Q. Zhong, Y.-F. Liu, H. Wang, Y. Jin, Y. Bai, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, “Efficient top-emitting organic light-emitting devices using Fe3O4 modified Ag anode,” Org. Electron. 11(12), 1891–1895 (2010).
[CrossRef]

SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers (1)

T. Hasegawa, S. Miura, T. Moriyama, T. Kimura, I. Takaya, Y. Osato, and H. Mizutani, “Novel electron-injection layer for top-emission OLEDs,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 35(1), 154–157 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

X. Liu, X. Cai, J. Qiao, J. Mao, and N. Jiang, “The design of ZnS/ Ag/ ZnS transparent conducive multilayer films,” Thin Solid Films 441(1-2), 200–206 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

H. A. Macleod, Thin-film optical filters (Taylor & Francis, 2001).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transmittance of a device with the structure of ITO/ NPB (50nm)/ Alq3 (50nm)/ x/ Ag (9, 12, and 15 nm) with x being either Cs2CO3 (dash) or nothing (line).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images for the top surface of Ag electrodes in OLEDs shown in the inset in Fig. 1(a) either with or without Cs2CO3 for two different Ag thicknesses of 9 nm and 12 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The optical constant of the 15-nm Ag on Cs2CO3/ Alq3 or Alq3. (b) Measured and calculated transmittance of the 15nm-thick Ag on x/ Alq3 (50nm)/ glass with x either being Cs2CO3 (triangle) or nothing (square).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Calculated values for maximum T lum achievable upon optimization of a capping layer thickness vs. the refractive index of the capping layer. (b) Calculated T lum of TrOLEDs with or without Cs2CO3 layers vs. the thickness of the ZnS layer (d ZnS) used as the capping layer. (c) Contour plots for the calculated T OLED of the same device with or without Cs2CO3 layers as a function of d ZnS and wavelength.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured and calculated transmittance (T) of TrOLED devices in a structure of ITO/ NPB (50nm)/ Alq3 (50nm)/ x/ Ag (15nm)/ ZnS (37nm) with x being either Cs2CO3 (1.5nm) (triangle) or nothing (square). T of a glass substrate (diamond) and ITO-coated glass substrate (circle) are also presented for comparison.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Current density-voltage (J-V) of the TrOLED according to the presence of the Cs2CO3 layer and (b) luminance-voltage (L-V) characteristics of the TrOLED with the Cs2CO3 layer for bottom (ITO side) and top (Ag side) emission according to the presence of a 37-nm-thick ZnS layer. Inset in (a) is a photograph of the TrOLED with a pixel turned on.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Luminance-current density (L-J) characteristics of the TrOLED with a Cs2CO3 layer for the bottom (ITO side, filled) and top (Ag side, open) emission according to the presence of a 37-nm-thick ZnS. (b) Spectra of internal reflectance (R int) at the organic/ Ag interface (open) and the organic/ ITO interface (closed).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 The effect of the Cs2CO3 layer on sheet resistance of Ag layers and T OLED a

Equations (1)

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T lum ( d cap ) = T OLED ( λ ; d cap ) f photopic ( λ ) d λ f photopic ( λ ) d λ

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