Abstract

Multi-µJ narrow-bandwidth (≈ 10 cm−1) picosecond pulses, broadly tunable in the visible-UV range (320-520 nm), are generated by spectral compression of femtosecond pulses emitted by an amplified Ti:sapphire system. Such pulses provide the ideal Raman pump for broadband femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy, as here demonstrated on a heme protein.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. D. W. McCamant, P. Kukura, S. Yoon, and R. A. Mathies, “Femtosecond broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy: Apparatus and methods,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(11), 4971–4980 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Kukura, S. Yoon, and R. A. Mathies, “Femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 78(17), 5952–5959 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Kukura, D. W. McCamant, and R. A. Mathies, “Femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58(1), 461–488 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Kukura, D. W. McCamant, S. Yoon, D. B. Wandschneider, and R. A. Mathies, “Structural observation of the primary isomerization in vision with femtosecond-stimulated Raman,” Science 310(5750), 1006–1009 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. Fang, R. R. Frontiera, R. Tran, and R. A. Mathies, “Mapping GFP structure evolution during proton transfer with femtosecond Raman spectroscopy,” Nature 462(7270), 200–204 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. W. McCamant, P. Kukura, and R. A. Mathies, “Femtosecond stimulated Raman study of excited-state evolution in bacteriorhodopsin,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(20), 10449–10457 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Raoult, A. C. L. Boscheron, D. Husson, C. Sauteret, A. Modena, V. Malka, F. Dorchies, and A. Migus, “Efficient generation of narrow-bandwidth picosecond pulses by frequency doubling of femtosecond chirped pulses,” Opt. Lett. 23(14), 1117–1119 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Laimgruber, H. Schachenmayr, B. Schmidt, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, “A femtosecond stimulated Raman spectrograph for the near ultraviolet,” Appl. Phys. B 85(4), 557–564 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Shim and R. A. Mathies, “Generation of narrow-bandwidth picosecond visible pulses from broadband femtosecond pulses for femtosecond stimulated Raman,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 121124 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. T. Co, J. V. Lockard, D. W. McCamant, and M. R. Wasielewski, “Narrow-bandwidth tunable picosecond pulses in the visible produced by noncollinear optical parametric amplification with a chirped blue pump,” Appl. Opt. 49(10), 1880–1885 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. Weigel and N. P. Ernsting, “Excited stilbene: intramolecular vibrational redistribution and solvation studied by femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 114(23), 7879–7893 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. T. C. Gunaratne, M. Milliken, J. R. Challa, and M. C. Simpson, “Tunable ultrafast infrared/visible laser to probe vibrational dynamics,” Appl. Opt. 45(3), 558–564 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. A. Marangoni, D. Brida, M. Quintavalle, G. Cirmi, F. M. Pigozzo, C. Manzoni, F. Baronio, A. D. Capobianco, and G. Cerullo, “Narrow-bandwidth picosecond pulses by spectral compression of femtosecond pulses in second-order nonlinear crystals,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8884–8891 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. Marangoni, D. Brida, M. Conforti, A. D. Capobianco, C. Manzoni, F. Baronio, G. F. Nalesso, C. De Angelis, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Synthesis of picosecond pulses by spectral compression and shaping of femtosecond pulses in engineered quadratic nonlinear media,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 241–243 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Marangoni, A. Gambetta, C. Manzoni, V. Kumar, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Fiber-format CARS spectroscopy by spectral compression of femtosecond pulses from a single laser oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 34(21), 3262–3264 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. K. Moutzouris, E. Adler, F. Sotier, D. Träutlein, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Multimilliwatt ultrashort pulses continuously tunable in the visible from a compact fiber source,” Opt. Lett. 31(8), 1148–1150 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-Phase-Matched Second Harmonic Generation: Tuning and Tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2631–2654 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  18. L. Torner, D. Mazilu, and D. Mihalache, “Walking Solitons in quadratic nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(12), 2455–2458 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. S. R. Greenfield and M. R. Wasielewski, “Near-transform-limited visible and near-IR femtosecond pulses from optical parametric amplification using Type II β-barium borate,” Opt. Lett. 20(12), 1394–1396 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. S. R. Greenfield and M. R. Wasielewski, “Optical parametric amplification of femtosecond pulses tunable from the blue to the infrared with microjoule energies,” Appl. Opt. 34(15), 2688–2691 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. M. Brunori, “Myoglobin strikes back,” Protein Sci. 19(2), 195–201 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. Hu, K. M. Smith, and T. G. Spiro, “Assignment of Protoheme Resonance Raman Spectrum by Heme Labeling in Myoglobin,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118(50), 12638–12646 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. Kruglik, J-C. Lambry, J-L. Martin, M. Vos, and M. Negrerie, “Sub-picosecond Raman spectrometer for time-resolved studies of structural dynamics in heme proteins,” J. Raman Spectro. doi: (2010).

2010

D. T. Co, J. V. Lockard, D. W. McCamant, and M. R. Wasielewski, “Narrow-bandwidth tunable picosecond pulses in the visible produced by noncollinear optical parametric amplification with a chirped blue pump,” Appl. Opt. 49(10), 1880–1885 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Weigel and N. P. Ernsting, “Excited stilbene: intramolecular vibrational redistribution and solvation studied by femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 114(23), 7879–7893 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Brunori, “Myoglobin strikes back,” Protein Sci. 19(2), 195–201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Kruglik, J-C. Lambry, J-L. Martin, M. Vos, and M. Negrerie, “Sub-picosecond Raman spectrometer for time-resolved studies of structural dynamics in heme proteins,” J. Raman Spectro. doi: (2010).

2009

M. Marangoni, D. Brida, M. Conforti, A. D. Capobianco, C. Manzoni, F. Baronio, G. F. Nalesso, C. De Angelis, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Synthesis of picosecond pulses by spectral compression and shaping of femtosecond pulses in engineered quadratic nonlinear media,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 241–243 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Marangoni, A. Gambetta, C. Manzoni, V. Kumar, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Fiber-format CARS spectroscopy by spectral compression of femtosecond pulses from a single laser oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 34(21), 3262–3264 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Fang, R. R. Frontiera, R. Tran, and R. A. Mathies, “Mapping GFP structure evolution during proton transfer with femtosecond Raman spectroscopy,” Nature 462(7270), 200–204 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

P. Kukura, D. W. McCamant, and R. A. Mathies, “Femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58(1), 461–488 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Marangoni, D. Brida, M. Quintavalle, G. Cirmi, F. M. Pigozzo, C. Manzoni, F. Baronio, A. D. Capobianco, and G. Cerullo, “Narrow-bandwidth picosecond pulses by spectral compression of femtosecond pulses in second-order nonlinear crystals,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8884–8891 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

P. Kukura, S. Yoon, and R. A. Mathies, “Femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 78(17), 5952–5959 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Laimgruber, H. Schachenmayr, B. Schmidt, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, “A femtosecond stimulated Raman spectrograph for the near ultraviolet,” Appl. Phys. B 85(4), 557–564 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Shim and R. A. Mathies, “Generation of narrow-bandwidth picosecond visible pulses from broadband femtosecond pulses for femtosecond stimulated Raman,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 121124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Moutzouris, E. Adler, F. Sotier, D. Träutlein, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Multimilliwatt ultrashort pulses continuously tunable in the visible from a compact fiber source,” Opt. Lett. 31(8), 1148–1150 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. C. Gunaratne, M. Milliken, J. R. Challa, and M. C. Simpson, “Tunable ultrafast infrared/visible laser to probe vibrational dynamics,” Appl. Opt. 45(3), 558–564 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

D. W. McCamant, P. Kukura, and R. A. Mathies, “Femtosecond stimulated Raman study of excited-state evolution in bacteriorhodopsin,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(20), 10449–10457 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Kukura, D. W. McCamant, S. Yoon, D. B. Wandschneider, and R. A. Mathies, “Structural observation of the primary isomerization in vision with femtosecond-stimulated Raman,” Science 310(5750), 1006–1009 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

D. W. McCamant, P. Kukura, S. Yoon, and R. A. Mathies, “Femtosecond broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy: Apparatus and methods,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(11), 4971–4980 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1998

F. Raoult, A. C. L. Boscheron, D. Husson, C. Sauteret, A. Modena, V. Malka, F. Dorchies, and A. Migus, “Efficient generation of narrow-bandwidth picosecond pulses by frequency doubling of femtosecond chirped pulses,” Opt. Lett. 23(14), 1117–1119 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

L. Torner, D. Mazilu, and D. Mihalache, “Walking Solitons in quadratic nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(12), 2455–2458 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hu, K. M. Smith, and T. G. Spiro, “Assignment of Protoheme Resonance Raman Spectrum by Heme Labeling in Myoglobin,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118(50), 12638–12646 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

S. R. Greenfield and M. R. Wasielewski, “Near-transform-limited visible and near-IR femtosecond pulses from optical parametric amplification using Type II β-barium borate,” Opt. Lett. 20(12), 1394–1396 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Greenfield and M. R. Wasielewski, “Optical parametric amplification of femtosecond pulses tunable from the blue to the infrared with microjoule energies,” Appl. Opt. 34(15), 2688–2691 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-Phase-Matched Second Harmonic Generation: Tuning and Tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2631–2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Adler, E.

K. Moutzouris, E. Adler, F. Sotier, D. Träutlein, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Multimilliwatt ultrashort pulses continuously tunable in the visible from a compact fiber source,” Opt. Lett. 31(8), 1148–1150 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baronio, F.

M. Marangoni, D. Brida, M. Conforti, A. D. Capobianco, C. Manzoni, F. Baronio, G. F. Nalesso, C. De Angelis, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Synthesis of picosecond pulses by spectral compression and shaping of femtosecond pulses in engineered quadratic nonlinear media,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 241–243 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Marangoni, D. Brida, M. Quintavalle, G. Cirmi, F. M. Pigozzo, C. Manzoni, F. Baronio, A. D. Capobianco, and G. Cerullo, “Narrow-bandwidth picosecond pulses by spectral compression of femtosecond pulses in second-order nonlinear crystals,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8884–8891 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boscheron, A. C. L.

F. Raoult, A. C. L. Boscheron, D. Husson, C. Sauteret, A. Modena, V. Malka, F. Dorchies, and A. Migus, “Efficient generation of narrow-bandwidth picosecond pulses by frequency doubling of femtosecond chirped pulses,” Opt. Lett. 23(14), 1117–1119 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brida, D.

M. Marangoni, D. Brida, M. Conforti, A. D. Capobianco, C. Manzoni, F. Baronio, G. F. Nalesso, C. De Angelis, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Synthesis of picosecond pulses by spectral compression and shaping of femtosecond pulses in engineered quadratic nonlinear media,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 241–243 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Marangoni, D. Brida, M. Quintavalle, G. Cirmi, F. M. Pigozzo, C. Manzoni, F. Baronio, A. D. Capobianco, and G. Cerullo, “Narrow-bandwidth picosecond pulses by spectral compression of femtosecond pulses in second-order nonlinear crystals,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8884–8891 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brunori, M.

M. Brunori, “Myoglobin strikes back,” Protein Sci. 19(2), 195–201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-Phase-Matched Second Harmonic Generation: Tuning and Tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2631–2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Capobianco, A. D.

M. Marangoni, D. Brida, M. Conforti, A. D. Capobianco, C. Manzoni, F. Baronio, G. F. Nalesso, C. De Angelis, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Synthesis of picosecond pulses by spectral compression and shaping of femtosecond pulses in engineered quadratic nonlinear media,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 241–243 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Marangoni, D. Brida, M. Quintavalle, G. Cirmi, F. M. Pigozzo, C. Manzoni, F. Baronio, A. D. Capobianco, and G. Cerullo, “Narrow-bandwidth picosecond pulses by spectral compression of femtosecond pulses in second-order nonlinear crystals,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8884–8891 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cerullo, G.

M. Marangoni, A. Gambetta, C. Manzoni, V. Kumar, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Fiber-format CARS spectroscopy by spectral compression of femtosecond pulses from a single laser oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 34(21), 3262–3264 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Marangoni, D. Brida, M. Conforti, A. D. Capobianco, C. Manzoni, F. Baronio, G. F. Nalesso, C. De Angelis, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Synthesis of picosecond pulses by spectral compression and shaping of femtosecond pulses in engineered quadratic nonlinear media,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 241–243 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Marangoni, D. Brida, M. Quintavalle, G. Cirmi, F. M. Pigozzo, C. Manzoni, F. Baronio, A. D. Capobianco, and G. Cerullo, “Narrow-bandwidth picosecond pulses by spectral compression of femtosecond pulses in second-order nonlinear crystals,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8884–8891 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Challa, J. R.

T. C. Gunaratne, M. Milliken, J. R. Challa, and M. C. Simpson, “Tunable ultrafast infrared/visible laser to probe vibrational dynamics,” Appl. Opt. 45(3), 558–564 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cirmi, G.

M. A. Marangoni, D. Brida, M. Quintavalle, G. Cirmi, F. M. Pigozzo, C. Manzoni, F. Baronio, A. D. Capobianco, and G. Cerullo, “Narrow-bandwidth picosecond pulses by spectral compression of femtosecond pulses in second-order nonlinear crystals,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8884–8891 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Co, D. T.

D. T. Co, J. V. Lockard, D. W. McCamant, and M. R. Wasielewski, “Narrow-bandwidth tunable picosecond pulses in the visible produced by noncollinear optical parametric amplification with a chirped blue pump,” Appl. Opt. 49(10), 1880–1885 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conforti, M.

M. Marangoni, D. Brida, M. Conforti, A. D. Capobianco, C. Manzoni, F. Baronio, G. F. Nalesso, C. De Angelis, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Synthesis of picosecond pulses by spectral compression and shaping of femtosecond pulses in engineered quadratic nonlinear media,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 241–243 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Angelis, C.

M. Marangoni, D. Brida, M. Conforti, A. D. Capobianco, C. Manzoni, F. Baronio, G. F. Nalesso, C. De Angelis, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Synthesis of picosecond pulses by spectral compression and shaping of femtosecond pulses in engineered quadratic nonlinear media,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 241–243 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dorchies, F.

F. Raoult, A. C. L. Boscheron, D. Husson, C. Sauteret, A. Modena, V. Malka, F. Dorchies, and A. Migus, “Efficient generation of narrow-bandwidth picosecond pulses by frequency doubling of femtosecond chirped pulses,” Opt. Lett. 23(14), 1117–1119 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ernsting, N. P.

A. Weigel and N. P. Ernsting, “Excited stilbene: intramolecular vibrational redistribution and solvation studied by femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 114(23), 7879–7893 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, C.

C. Fang, R. R. Frontiera, R. Tran, and R. A. Mathies, “Mapping GFP structure evolution during proton transfer with femtosecond Raman spectroscopy,” Nature 462(7270), 200–204 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fejer, M. M.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-Phase-Matched Second Harmonic Generation: Tuning and Tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2631–2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Frontiera, R. R.

C. Fang, R. R. Frontiera, R. Tran, and R. A. Mathies, “Mapping GFP structure evolution during proton transfer with femtosecond Raman spectroscopy,” Nature 462(7270), 200–204 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gambetta, A.

M. Marangoni, A. Gambetta, C. Manzoni, V. Kumar, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Fiber-format CARS spectroscopy by spectral compression of femtosecond pulses from a single laser oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 34(21), 3262–3264 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gilch, P.

S. Laimgruber, H. Schachenmayr, B. Schmidt, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, “A femtosecond stimulated Raman spectrograph for the near ultraviolet,” Appl. Phys. B 85(4), 557–564 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Greenfield, S. R.

S. R. Greenfield and M. R. Wasielewski, “Near-transform-limited visible and near-IR femtosecond pulses from optical parametric amplification using Type II β-barium borate,” Opt. Lett. 20(12), 1394–1396 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Greenfield and M. R. Wasielewski, “Optical parametric amplification of femtosecond pulses tunable from the blue to the infrared with microjoule energies,” Appl. Opt. 34(15), 2688–2691 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gunaratne, T. C.

T. C. Gunaratne, M. Milliken, J. R. Challa, and M. C. Simpson, “Tunable ultrafast infrared/visible laser to probe vibrational dynamics,” Appl. Opt. 45(3), 558–564 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, S.

S. Hu, K. M. Smith, and T. G. Spiro, “Assignment of Protoheme Resonance Raman Spectrum by Heme Labeling in Myoglobin,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118(50), 12638–12646 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Husson, D.

F. Raoult, A. C. L. Boscheron, D. Husson, C. Sauteret, A. Modena, V. Malka, F. Dorchies, and A. Migus, “Efficient generation of narrow-bandwidth picosecond pulses by frequency doubling of femtosecond chirped pulses,” Opt. Lett. 23(14), 1117–1119 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jundt, D. H.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-Phase-Matched Second Harmonic Generation: Tuning and Tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2631–2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kruglik, S.

S. Kruglik, J-C. Lambry, J-L. Martin, M. Vos, and M. Negrerie, “Sub-picosecond Raman spectrometer for time-resolved studies of structural dynamics in heme proteins,” J. Raman Spectro. doi: (2010).

Kukura, P.

P. Kukura, D. W. McCamant, and R. A. Mathies, “Femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58(1), 461–488 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Kukura, S. Yoon, and R. A. Mathies, “Femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 78(17), 5952–5959 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. W. McCamant, P. Kukura, and R. A. Mathies, “Femtosecond stimulated Raman study of excited-state evolution in bacteriorhodopsin,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(20), 10449–10457 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Kukura, D. W. McCamant, S. Yoon, D. B. Wandschneider, and R. A. Mathies, “Structural observation of the primary isomerization in vision with femtosecond-stimulated Raman,” Science 310(5750), 1006–1009 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. McCamant, P. Kukura, S. Yoon, and R. A. Mathies, “Femtosecond broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy: Apparatus and methods,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(11), 4971–4980 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, V.

M. Marangoni, A. Gambetta, C. Manzoni, V. Kumar, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Fiber-format CARS spectroscopy by spectral compression of femtosecond pulses from a single laser oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 34(21), 3262–3264 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laimgruber, S.

S. Laimgruber, H. Schachenmayr, B. Schmidt, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, “A femtosecond stimulated Raman spectrograph for the near ultraviolet,” Appl. Phys. B 85(4), 557–564 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lambry, J-C.

S. Kruglik, J-C. Lambry, J-L. Martin, M. Vos, and M. Negrerie, “Sub-picosecond Raman spectrometer for time-resolved studies of structural dynamics in heme proteins,” J. Raman Spectro. doi: (2010).

Leitenstorfer, A.

K. Moutzouris, E. Adler, F. Sotier, D. Träutlein, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Multimilliwatt ultrashort pulses continuously tunable in the visible from a compact fiber source,” Opt. Lett. 31(8), 1148–1150 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lockard, J. V.

D. T. Co, J. V. Lockard, D. W. McCamant, and M. R. Wasielewski, “Narrow-bandwidth tunable picosecond pulses in the visible produced by noncollinear optical parametric amplification with a chirped blue pump,” Appl. Opt. 49(10), 1880–1885 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Magel, G. A.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-Phase-Matched Second Harmonic Generation: Tuning and Tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2631–2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Malka, V.

F. Raoult, A. C. L. Boscheron, D. Husson, C. Sauteret, A. Modena, V. Malka, F. Dorchies, and A. Migus, “Efficient generation of narrow-bandwidth picosecond pulses by frequency doubling of femtosecond chirped pulses,” Opt. Lett. 23(14), 1117–1119 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Manzoni, C.

M. Marangoni, D. Brida, M. Conforti, A. D. Capobianco, C. Manzoni, F. Baronio, G. F. Nalesso, C. De Angelis, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Synthesis of picosecond pulses by spectral compression and shaping of femtosecond pulses in engineered quadratic nonlinear media,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 241–243 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Marangoni, A. Gambetta, C. Manzoni, V. Kumar, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Fiber-format CARS spectroscopy by spectral compression of femtosecond pulses from a single laser oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 34(21), 3262–3264 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Marangoni, D. Brida, M. Quintavalle, G. Cirmi, F. M. Pigozzo, C. Manzoni, F. Baronio, A. D. Capobianco, and G. Cerullo, “Narrow-bandwidth picosecond pulses by spectral compression of femtosecond pulses in second-order nonlinear crystals,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8884–8891 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marangoni, M.

M. Marangoni, A. Gambetta, C. Manzoni, V. Kumar, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Fiber-format CARS spectroscopy by spectral compression of femtosecond pulses from a single laser oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 34(21), 3262–3264 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Marangoni, D. Brida, M. Conforti, A. D. Capobianco, C. Manzoni, F. Baronio, G. F. Nalesso, C. De Angelis, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Synthesis of picosecond pulses by spectral compression and shaping of femtosecond pulses in engineered quadratic nonlinear media,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 241–243 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marangoni, M. A.

M. A. Marangoni, D. Brida, M. Quintavalle, G. Cirmi, F. M. Pigozzo, C. Manzoni, F. Baronio, A. D. Capobianco, and G. Cerullo, “Narrow-bandwidth picosecond pulses by spectral compression of femtosecond pulses in second-order nonlinear crystals,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8884–8891 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, J-L.

S. Kruglik, J-C. Lambry, J-L. Martin, M. Vos, and M. Negrerie, “Sub-picosecond Raman spectrometer for time-resolved studies of structural dynamics in heme proteins,” J. Raman Spectro. doi: (2010).

Mathies, R. A.

C. Fang, R. R. Frontiera, R. Tran, and R. A. Mathies, “Mapping GFP structure evolution during proton transfer with femtosecond Raman spectroscopy,” Nature 462(7270), 200–204 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kukura, D. W. McCamant, and R. A. Mathies, “Femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58(1), 461–488 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Shim and R. A. Mathies, “Generation of narrow-bandwidth picosecond visible pulses from broadband femtosecond pulses for femtosecond stimulated Raman,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 121124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Kukura, S. Yoon, and R. A. Mathies, “Femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 78(17), 5952–5959 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. W. McCamant, P. Kukura, and R. A. Mathies, “Femtosecond stimulated Raman study of excited-state evolution in bacteriorhodopsin,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(20), 10449–10457 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Kukura, D. W. McCamant, S. Yoon, D. B. Wandschneider, and R. A. Mathies, “Structural observation of the primary isomerization in vision with femtosecond-stimulated Raman,” Science 310(5750), 1006–1009 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. McCamant, P. Kukura, S. Yoon, and R. A. Mathies, “Femtosecond broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy: Apparatus and methods,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(11), 4971–4980 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mazilu, D.

L. Torner, D. Mazilu, and D. Mihalache, “Walking Solitons in quadratic nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(12), 2455–2458 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCamant, D. W.

D. T. Co, J. V. Lockard, D. W. McCamant, and M. R. Wasielewski, “Narrow-bandwidth tunable picosecond pulses in the visible produced by noncollinear optical parametric amplification with a chirped blue pump,” Appl. Opt. 49(10), 1880–1885 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kukura, D. W. McCamant, and R. A. Mathies, “Femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58(1), 461–488 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Kukura, D. W. McCamant, S. Yoon, D. B. Wandschneider, and R. A. Mathies, “Structural observation of the primary isomerization in vision with femtosecond-stimulated Raman,” Science 310(5750), 1006–1009 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. McCamant, P. Kukura, and R. A. Mathies, “Femtosecond stimulated Raman study of excited-state evolution in bacteriorhodopsin,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(20), 10449–10457 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. W. McCamant, P. Kukura, S. Yoon, and R. A. Mathies, “Femtosecond broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy: Apparatus and methods,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(11), 4971–4980 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Migus, A.

F. Raoult, A. C. L. Boscheron, D. Husson, C. Sauteret, A. Modena, V. Malka, F. Dorchies, and A. Migus, “Efficient generation of narrow-bandwidth picosecond pulses by frequency doubling of femtosecond chirped pulses,” Opt. Lett. 23(14), 1117–1119 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mihalache, D.

L. Torner, D. Mazilu, and D. Mihalache, “Walking Solitons in quadratic nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(12), 2455–2458 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milliken, M.

T. C. Gunaratne, M. Milliken, J. R. Challa, and M. C. Simpson, “Tunable ultrafast infrared/visible laser to probe vibrational dynamics,” Appl. Opt. 45(3), 558–564 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Modena, A.

F. Raoult, A. C. L. Boscheron, D. Husson, C. Sauteret, A. Modena, V. Malka, F. Dorchies, and A. Migus, “Efficient generation of narrow-bandwidth picosecond pulses by frequency doubling of femtosecond chirped pulses,” Opt. Lett. 23(14), 1117–1119 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moutzouris, K.

K. Moutzouris, E. Adler, F. Sotier, D. Träutlein, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Multimilliwatt ultrashort pulses continuously tunable in the visible from a compact fiber source,” Opt. Lett. 31(8), 1148–1150 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nalesso, G. F.

M. Marangoni, D. Brida, M. Conforti, A. D. Capobianco, C. Manzoni, F. Baronio, G. F. Nalesso, C. De Angelis, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Synthesis of picosecond pulses by spectral compression and shaping of femtosecond pulses in engineered quadratic nonlinear media,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 241–243 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Negrerie, M.

S. Kruglik, J-C. Lambry, J-L. Martin, M. Vos, and M. Negrerie, “Sub-picosecond Raman spectrometer for time-resolved studies of structural dynamics in heme proteins,” J. Raman Spectro. doi: (2010).

Pigozzo, F. M.

M. A. Marangoni, D. Brida, M. Quintavalle, G. Cirmi, F. M. Pigozzo, C. Manzoni, F. Baronio, A. D. Capobianco, and G. Cerullo, “Narrow-bandwidth picosecond pulses by spectral compression of femtosecond pulses in second-order nonlinear crystals,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8884–8891 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quintavalle, M.

M. A. Marangoni, D. Brida, M. Quintavalle, G. Cirmi, F. M. Pigozzo, C. Manzoni, F. Baronio, A. D. Capobianco, and G. Cerullo, “Narrow-bandwidth picosecond pulses by spectral compression of femtosecond pulses in second-order nonlinear crystals,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8884–8891 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramponi, R.

M. Marangoni, A. Gambetta, C. Manzoni, V. Kumar, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Fiber-format CARS spectroscopy by spectral compression of femtosecond pulses from a single laser oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 34(21), 3262–3264 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Marangoni, D. Brida, M. Conforti, A. D. Capobianco, C. Manzoni, F. Baronio, G. F. Nalesso, C. De Angelis, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Synthesis of picosecond pulses by spectral compression and shaping of femtosecond pulses in engineered quadratic nonlinear media,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 241–243 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raoult, F.

F. Raoult, A. C. L. Boscheron, D. Husson, C. Sauteret, A. Modena, V. Malka, F. Dorchies, and A. Migus, “Efficient generation of narrow-bandwidth picosecond pulses by frequency doubling of femtosecond chirped pulses,” Opt. Lett. 23(14), 1117–1119 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sauteret, C.

F. Raoult, A. C. L. Boscheron, D. Husson, C. Sauteret, A. Modena, V. Malka, F. Dorchies, and A. Migus, “Efficient generation of narrow-bandwidth picosecond pulses by frequency doubling of femtosecond chirped pulses,” Opt. Lett. 23(14), 1117–1119 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schachenmayr, H.

S. Laimgruber, H. Schachenmayr, B. Schmidt, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, “A femtosecond stimulated Raman spectrograph for the near ultraviolet,” Appl. Phys. B 85(4), 557–564 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B.

S. Laimgruber, H. Schachenmayr, B. Schmidt, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, “A femtosecond stimulated Raman spectrograph for the near ultraviolet,” Appl. Phys. B 85(4), 557–564 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shim, S.

S. Shim and R. A. Mathies, “Generation of narrow-bandwidth picosecond visible pulses from broadband femtosecond pulses for femtosecond stimulated Raman,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 121124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, M. C.

T. C. Gunaratne, M. Milliken, J. R. Challa, and M. C. Simpson, “Tunable ultrafast infrared/visible laser to probe vibrational dynamics,” Appl. Opt. 45(3), 558–564 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, K. M.

S. Hu, K. M. Smith, and T. G. Spiro, “Assignment of Protoheme Resonance Raman Spectrum by Heme Labeling in Myoglobin,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118(50), 12638–12646 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sotier, F.

K. Moutzouris, E. Adler, F. Sotier, D. Träutlein, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Multimilliwatt ultrashort pulses continuously tunable in the visible from a compact fiber source,” Opt. Lett. 31(8), 1148–1150 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spiro, T. G.

S. Hu, K. M. Smith, and T. G. Spiro, “Assignment of Protoheme Resonance Raman Spectrum by Heme Labeling in Myoglobin,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118(50), 12638–12646 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Torner, L.

L. Torner, D. Mazilu, and D. Mihalache, “Walking Solitons in quadratic nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(12), 2455–2458 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tran, R.

C. Fang, R. R. Frontiera, R. Tran, and R. A. Mathies, “Mapping GFP structure evolution during proton transfer with femtosecond Raman spectroscopy,” Nature 462(7270), 200–204 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Träutlein, D.

K. Moutzouris, E. Adler, F. Sotier, D. Träutlein, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Multimilliwatt ultrashort pulses continuously tunable in the visible from a compact fiber source,” Opt. Lett. 31(8), 1148–1150 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vos, M.

S. Kruglik, J-C. Lambry, J-L. Martin, M. Vos, and M. Negrerie, “Sub-picosecond Raman spectrometer for time-resolved studies of structural dynamics in heme proteins,” J. Raman Spectro. doi: (2010).

Wandschneider, D. B.

P. Kukura, D. W. McCamant, S. Yoon, D. B. Wandschneider, and R. A. Mathies, “Structural observation of the primary isomerization in vision with femtosecond-stimulated Raman,” Science 310(5750), 1006–1009 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wasielewski, M. R.

D. T. Co, J. V. Lockard, D. W. McCamant, and M. R. Wasielewski, “Narrow-bandwidth tunable picosecond pulses in the visible produced by noncollinear optical parametric amplification with a chirped blue pump,” Appl. Opt. 49(10), 1880–1885 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Greenfield and M. R. Wasielewski, “Near-transform-limited visible and near-IR femtosecond pulses from optical parametric amplification using Type II β-barium borate,” Opt. Lett. 20(12), 1394–1396 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Greenfield and M. R. Wasielewski, “Optical parametric amplification of femtosecond pulses tunable from the blue to the infrared with microjoule energies,” Appl. Opt. 34(15), 2688–2691 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weigel, A.

A. Weigel and N. P. Ernsting, “Excited stilbene: intramolecular vibrational redistribution and solvation studied by femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 114(23), 7879–7893 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoon, S.

P. Kukura, S. Yoon, and R. A. Mathies, “Femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 78(17), 5952–5959 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Kukura, D. W. McCamant, S. Yoon, D. B. Wandschneider, and R. A. Mathies, “Structural observation of the primary isomerization in vision with femtosecond-stimulated Raman,” Science 310(5750), 1006–1009 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. McCamant, P. Kukura, S. Yoon, and R. A. Mathies, “Femtosecond broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy: Apparatus and methods,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(11), 4971–4980 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zinth, W.

S. Laimgruber, H. Schachenmayr, B. Schmidt, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, “A femtosecond stimulated Raman spectrograph for the near ultraviolet,” Appl. Phys. B 85(4), 557–564 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem.

P. Kukura, S. Yoon, and R. A. Mathies, “Femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 78(17), 5952–5959 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.

P. Kukura, D. W. McCamant, and R. A. Mathies, “Femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58(1), 461–488 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

T. C. Gunaratne, M. Milliken, J. R. Challa, and M. C. Simpson, “Tunable ultrafast infrared/visible laser to probe vibrational dynamics,” Appl. Opt. 45(3), 558–564 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Co, J. V. Lockard, D. W. McCamant, and M. R. Wasielewski, “Narrow-bandwidth tunable picosecond pulses in the visible produced by noncollinear optical parametric amplification with a chirped blue pump,” Appl. Opt. 49(10), 1880–1885 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Greenfield and M. R. Wasielewski, “Optical parametric amplification of femtosecond pulses tunable from the blue to the infrared with microjoule energies,” Appl. Opt. 34(15), 2688–2691 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B

S. Laimgruber, H. Schachenmayr, B. Schmidt, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, “A femtosecond stimulated Raman spectrograph for the near ultraviolet,” Appl. Phys. B 85(4), 557–564 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Shim and R. A. Mathies, “Generation of narrow-bandwidth picosecond visible pulses from broadband femtosecond pulses for femtosecond stimulated Raman,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 121124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-Phase-Matched Second Harmonic Generation: Tuning and Tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2631–2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

S. Hu, K. M. Smith, and T. G. Spiro, “Assignment of Protoheme Resonance Raman Spectrum by Heme Labeling in Myoglobin,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118(50), 12638–12646 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B

A. Weigel and N. P. Ernsting, “Excited stilbene: intramolecular vibrational redistribution and solvation studied by femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 114(23), 7879–7893 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. McCamant, P. Kukura, and R. A. Mathies, “Femtosecond stimulated Raman study of excited-state evolution in bacteriorhodopsin,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(20), 10449–10457 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Raman Spectro.

S. Kruglik, J-C. Lambry, J-L. Martin, M. Vos, and M. Negrerie, “Sub-picosecond Raman spectrometer for time-resolved studies of structural dynamics in heme proteins,” J. Raman Spectro. doi: (2010).

Nature

C. Fang, R. R. Frontiera, R. Tran, and R. A. Mathies, “Mapping GFP structure evolution during proton transfer with femtosecond Raman spectroscopy,” Nature 462(7270), 200–204 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

M. A. Marangoni, D. Brida, M. Quintavalle, G. Cirmi, F. M. Pigozzo, C. Manzoni, F. Baronio, A. D. Capobianco, and G. Cerullo, “Narrow-bandwidth picosecond pulses by spectral compression of femtosecond pulses in second-order nonlinear crystals,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8884–8891 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

M. Marangoni, D. Brida, M. Conforti, A. D. Capobianco, C. Manzoni, F. Baronio, G. F. Nalesso, C. De Angelis, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Synthesis of picosecond pulses by spectral compression and shaping of femtosecond pulses in engineered quadratic nonlinear media,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 241–243 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Marangoni, A. Gambetta, C. Manzoni, V. Kumar, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Fiber-format CARS spectroscopy by spectral compression of femtosecond pulses from a single laser oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 34(21), 3262–3264 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Moutzouris, E. Adler, F. Sotier, D. Träutlein, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Multimilliwatt ultrashort pulses continuously tunable in the visible from a compact fiber source,” Opt. Lett. 31(8), 1148–1150 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Raoult, A. C. L. Boscheron, D. Husson, C. Sauteret, A. Modena, V. Malka, F. Dorchies, and A. Migus, “Efficient generation of narrow-bandwidth picosecond pulses by frequency doubling of femtosecond chirped pulses,” Opt. Lett. 23(14), 1117–1119 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Greenfield and M. R. Wasielewski, “Near-transform-limited visible and near-IR femtosecond pulses from optical parametric amplification using Type II β-barium borate,” Opt. Lett. 20(12), 1394–1396 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

L. Torner, D. Mazilu, and D. Mihalache, “Walking Solitons in quadratic nonlinear media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(12), 2455–2458 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Protein Sci.

M. Brunori, “Myoglobin strikes back,” Protein Sci. 19(2), 195–201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

D. W. McCamant, P. Kukura, S. Yoon, and R. A. Mathies, “Femtosecond broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy: Apparatus and methods,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(11), 4971–4980 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Science

P. Kukura, D. W. McCamant, S. Yoon, D. B. Wandschneider, and R. A. Mathies, “Structural observation of the primary isomerization in vision with femtosecond-stimulated Raman,” Science 310(5750), 1006–1009 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup for FSRS using tunable narrowband pulses generated by SC. CPA: chirped pulse amplification; WLG: white light generation; VA: variable attenuator flip mirror (FM). Alternate use of the two FM allows to select each of the two layouts described in the text.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Simulated spectra (black solid lines) obtained by SC in BBO, starting from the FF spectrum shown in red dashed line; inset blow up of a spectrum with a FWHM of 7.9 cm−1. (b) Measured SH spectra (black solid lines) and FF spectrum (red dashed line).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Sequence of tunable narrowband spectra obtained by SC of the visible OPA; (b) measured pulse bandwidths (red circles) after deconvolution with the instrumental response compared to the bandwidths expected from theory (dashed lines) and energy tuning curve (blue squares) for a fixed 12-µJ OPA energy, which provides the best spectral narrowing conditions.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) SRS spectrum of cyclohexane using a 415-nm, 1-μJ Raman pump and Stokes generated by WLC in CaF2, 10 seconds integration; (b) same as (a) using a 470-nm Raman pump and WLC in sapphire; (c) CW Raman spectrum of cyclohexane.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SRS (a) and CW (b) spectrum of ferric horse heart myoglobin (met Mb).

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