Abstract

We propose and experimentally demonstrate a low-cost technique for chromatic dispersion (CD) monitoring in various return-to-zero (RZ) amplitude and phase-modulated systems at different data rates by analyzing the asynchronously sampled amplitudes of two vestigial sideband (VSB) signals. The proposed technique graphically represents the CD induced-effects in a scatter plot of which a parameter is extracted to monitor CD and is resilient to OSNR variations. Simulations and experimental results demonstrate good monitoring ranges and sensitivities for various modulation formats at different data rates without any modification of the monitoring hardware. The influence of first-order polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) on the accuracy of proposed monitoring technique is also investigated.

© 2011 OSA

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References

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  1. D. Kilper, R. Bach, D. Blumenthal, D. Einstein, T. Landolsi, L. Ostar, M. Preiss, and A. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(1), 294–304 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Willner, K. Feng, S. Lee, J. Peng, and H. Sun, “Tunable compensation of channel degrading effects using nonlinearly chirped passive fiber Bragg gratings,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(5), 1298–1311 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Kato, Y. Koyano, and M. Nishimura, “Temperature dependence of chromatic dispersion in various types of optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 25(16), 1156–1158 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Z. Pan, C. Yu, and A. E. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring for the next generation optical communication networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(1), 20–45 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. Hanik, A. Gladisch, C. Caspar, and B. Strebel, “Application of amplitude histograms to monitor performance of optical channels,” Electron. Lett. 35(5), 403–404 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Kozicki, O. Takuya, and T. Hidehiko, “Optical performance monitoring of phase-modulated signals using asynchronous amplitude histogram analysis,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(10), 1353–1361 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Z. Li and G. Li, “In-line performance monitoring for RZ-DPSK signals using asynchronous amplitude histogram evaluation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(3), 472–474 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. D. Dods, and T. B. Anderson, “Optical performance monitoring technique using delay tap asynchronous waveform sampling,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Comm. Conf. (OFC), Anaheim, CA, 2006, Paper OThP5.
  9. B. Kozicki, A. Maruta, and K. Kitayama, “Transparent performance monitoring of RZ-DQPSK systems employing delay-tap sampling,” J. Opt. Netw. 6(11), 1257–1269 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. Kozicki, A. Maruta, and K. Kitayama, “Experimental Investigation of delay-tap sampling technique for online monitoring of RZ-DQPSK signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 179–181 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Q. Yu, Z. Pan, L.-S. Yan, and A. E. Willner, “Chromatic dispersion monitoring technique using sideband optical filtering and clock phase-shift detection,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(12), 2267–2271 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Z. Pan, Y. Xie, S. A. Havstad, Q. Yu, A. E. Willner, V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, “Real-time group-velocity dispersion monitoring and automated compensation without modifications of the transmitter,” Opt. Commun. 230(1–3), 145–149 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, J.-Y. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, “Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(1), 3–5 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. Fuller, and D. Tarwater, Analytic Geometry, 7th ed., Addison-Wesley, 1992.
  15. VPIsystemsTM, “VPltransmissionMakerTM”.

2010 (1)

Z. Pan, C. Yu, and A. E. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring for the next generation optical communication networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(1), 20–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

B. Kozicki, A. Maruta, and K. Kitayama, “Experimental Investigation of delay-tap sampling technique for online monitoring of RZ-DQPSK signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 179–181 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

B. Kozicki, O. Takuya, and T. Hidehiko, “Optical performance monitoring of phase-modulated signals using asynchronous amplitude histogram analysis,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(10), 1353–1361 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

B. Kozicki, A. Maruta, and K. Kitayama, “Transparent performance monitoring of RZ-DQPSK systems employing delay-tap sampling,” J. Opt. Netw. 6(11), 1257–1269 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, J.-Y. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, “Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(1), 3–5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

Z. Li and G. Li, “In-line performance monitoring for RZ-DPSK signals using asynchronous amplitude histogram evaluation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(3), 472–474 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

D. Kilper, R. Bach, D. Blumenthal, D. Einstein, T. Landolsi, L. Ostar, M. Preiss, and A. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(1), 294–304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Pan, Y. Xie, S. A. Havstad, Q. Yu, A. E. Willner, V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, “Real-time group-velocity dispersion monitoring and automated compensation without modifications of the transmitter,” Opt. Commun. 230(1–3), 145–149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

Q. Yu, Z. Pan, L.-S. Yan, and A. E. Willner, “Chromatic dispersion monitoring technique using sideband optical filtering and clock phase-shift detection,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(12), 2267–2271 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

T. Kato, Y. Koyano, and M. Nishimura, “Temperature dependence of chromatic dispersion in various types of optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 25(16), 1156–1158 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

A. Willner, K. Feng, S. Lee, J. Peng, and H. Sun, “Tunable compensation of channel degrading effects using nonlinearly chirped passive fiber Bragg gratings,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(5), 1298–1311 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Hanik, A. Gladisch, C. Caspar, and B. Strebel, “Application of amplitude histograms to monitor performance of optical channels,” Electron. Lett. 35(5), 403–404 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bach, R.

D. Kilper, R. Bach, D. Blumenthal, D. Einstein, T. Landolsi, L. Ostar, M. Preiss, and A. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(1), 294–304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Blumenthal, D.

D. Kilper, R. Bach, D. Blumenthal, D. Einstein, T. Landolsi, L. Ostar, M. Preiss, and A. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(1), 294–304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Caspar, C.

N. Hanik, A. Gladisch, C. Caspar, and B. Strebel, “Application of amplitude histograms to monitor performance of optical channels,” Electron. Lett. 35(5), 403–404 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Christen, L.

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, J.-Y. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, “Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(1), 3–5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Einstein, D.

D. Kilper, R. Bach, D. Blumenthal, D. Einstein, T. Landolsi, L. Ostar, M. Preiss, and A. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(1), 294–304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Feinberg, J.

Z. Pan, Y. Xie, S. A. Havstad, Q. Yu, A. E. Willner, V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, “Real-time group-velocity dispersion monitoring and automated compensation without modifications of the transmitter,” Opt. Commun. 230(1–3), 145–149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Feng, K.

A. Willner, K. Feng, S. Lee, J. Peng, and H. Sun, “Tunable compensation of channel degrading effects using nonlinearly chirped passive fiber Bragg gratings,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(5), 1298–1311 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gladisch, A.

N. Hanik, A. Gladisch, C. Caspar, and B. Strebel, “Application of amplitude histograms to monitor performance of optical channels,” Electron. Lett. 35(5), 403–404 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Grubsky, V.

Z. Pan, Y. Xie, S. A. Havstad, Q. Yu, A. E. Willner, V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, “Real-time group-velocity dispersion monitoring and automated compensation without modifications of the transmitter,” Opt. Commun. 230(1–3), 145–149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hanik, N.

N. Hanik, A. Gladisch, C. Caspar, and B. Strebel, “Application of amplitude histograms to monitor performance of optical channels,” Electron. Lett. 35(5), 403–404 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Havstad, S. A.

Z. Pan, Y. Xie, S. A. Havstad, Q. Yu, A. E. Willner, V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, “Real-time group-velocity dispersion monitoring and automated compensation without modifications of the transmitter,” Opt. Commun. 230(1–3), 145–149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hidehiko, T.

B. Kozicki, O. Takuya, and T. Hidehiko, “Optical performance monitoring of phase-modulated signals using asynchronous amplitude histogram analysis,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(10), 1353–1361 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kashyap, R.

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, J.-Y. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, “Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(1), 3–5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kato, T.

T. Kato, Y. Koyano, and M. Nishimura, “Temperature dependence of chromatic dispersion in various types of optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 25(16), 1156–1158 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kilper, D.

D. Kilper, R. Bach, D. Blumenthal, D. Einstein, T. Landolsi, L. Ostar, M. Preiss, and A. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(1), 294–304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kitayama, K.

B. Kozicki, A. Maruta, and K. Kitayama, “Experimental Investigation of delay-tap sampling technique for online monitoring of RZ-DQPSK signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 179–181 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Kozicki, A. Maruta, and K. Kitayama, “Transparent performance monitoring of RZ-DQPSK systems employing delay-tap sampling,” J. Opt. Netw. 6(11), 1257–1269 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koyano, Y.

T. Kato, Y. Koyano, and M. Nishimura, “Temperature dependence of chromatic dispersion in various types of optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 25(16), 1156–1158 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kozicki, B.

B. Kozicki, A. Maruta, and K. Kitayama, “Experimental Investigation of delay-tap sampling technique for online monitoring of RZ-DQPSK signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 179–181 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Kozicki, O. Takuya, and T. Hidehiko, “Optical performance monitoring of phase-modulated signals using asynchronous amplitude histogram analysis,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(10), 1353–1361 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Kozicki, A. Maruta, and K. Kitayama, “Transparent performance monitoring of RZ-DQPSK systems employing delay-tap sampling,” J. Opt. Netw. 6(11), 1257–1269 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Landolsi, T.

D. Kilper, R. Bach, D. Blumenthal, D. Einstein, T. Landolsi, L. Ostar, M. Preiss, and A. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(1), 294–304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

A. Willner, K. Feng, S. Lee, J. Peng, and H. Sun, “Tunable compensation of channel degrading effects using nonlinearly chirped passive fiber Bragg gratings,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(5), 1298–1311 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

Z. Li and G. Li, “In-line performance monitoring for RZ-DPSK signals using asynchronous amplitude histogram evaluation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(3), 472–474 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

Z. Li and G. Li, “In-line performance monitoring for RZ-DPSK signals using asynchronous amplitude histogram evaluation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(3), 472–474 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lize, Y. K.

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, J.-Y. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, “Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(1), 3–5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maruta, A.

B. Kozicki, A. Maruta, and K. Kitayama, “Experimental Investigation of delay-tap sampling technique for online monitoring of RZ-DQPSK signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 179–181 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Kozicki, A. Maruta, and K. Kitayama, “Transparent performance monitoring of RZ-DQPSK systems employing delay-tap sampling,” J. Opt. Netw. 6(11), 1257–1269 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, M.

T. Kato, Y. Koyano, and M. Nishimura, “Temperature dependence of chromatic dispersion in various types of optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 25(16), 1156–1158 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nuccio, S.

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, J.-Y. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, “Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(1), 3–5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ostar, L.

D. Kilper, R. Bach, D. Blumenthal, D. Einstein, T. Landolsi, L. Ostar, M. Preiss, and A. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(1), 294–304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pan, Z.

Z. Pan, C. Yu, and A. E. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring for the next generation optical communication networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(1), 20–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Pan, Y. Xie, S. A. Havstad, Q. Yu, A. E. Willner, V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, “Real-time group-velocity dispersion monitoring and automated compensation without modifications of the transmitter,” Opt. Commun. 230(1–3), 145–149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q. Yu, Z. Pan, L.-S. Yan, and A. E. Willner, “Chromatic dispersion monitoring technique using sideband optical filtering and clock phase-shift detection,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(12), 2267–2271 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Peng, J.

A. Willner, K. Feng, S. Lee, J. Peng, and H. Sun, “Tunable compensation of channel degrading effects using nonlinearly chirped passive fiber Bragg gratings,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(5), 1298–1311 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Preiss, M.

D. Kilper, R. Bach, D. Blumenthal, D. Einstein, T. Landolsi, L. Ostar, M. Preiss, and A. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(1), 294–304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Saghari, P.

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, J.-Y. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, “Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(1), 3–5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Starodubov, D. S.

Z. Pan, Y. Xie, S. A. Havstad, Q. Yu, A. E. Willner, V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, “Real-time group-velocity dispersion monitoring and automated compensation without modifications of the transmitter,” Opt. Commun. 230(1–3), 145–149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Strebel, B.

N. Hanik, A. Gladisch, C. Caspar, and B. Strebel, “Application of amplitude histograms to monitor performance of optical channels,” Electron. Lett. 35(5), 403–404 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H.

A. Willner, K. Feng, S. Lee, J. Peng, and H. Sun, “Tunable compensation of channel degrading effects using nonlinearly chirped passive fiber Bragg gratings,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(5), 1298–1311 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Takuya, O.

B. Kozicki, O. Takuya, and T. Hidehiko, “Optical performance monitoring of phase-modulated signals using asynchronous amplitude histogram analysis,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(10), 1353–1361 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Willner, A.

D. Kilper, R. Bach, D. Blumenthal, D. Einstein, T. Landolsi, L. Ostar, M. Preiss, and A. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(1), 294–304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Willner, K. Feng, S. Lee, J. Peng, and H. Sun, “Tunable compensation of channel degrading effects using nonlinearly chirped passive fiber Bragg gratings,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(5), 1298–1311 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Willner, A. E.

Z. Pan, C. Yu, and A. E. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring for the next generation optical communication networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(1), 20–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, J.-Y. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, “Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(1), 3–5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Pan, Y. Xie, S. A. Havstad, Q. Yu, A. E. Willner, V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, “Real-time group-velocity dispersion monitoring and automated compensation without modifications of the transmitter,” Opt. Commun. 230(1–3), 145–149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q. Yu, Z. Pan, L.-S. Yan, and A. E. Willner, “Chromatic dispersion monitoring technique using sideband optical filtering and clock phase-shift detection,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(12), 2267–2271 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xie, Y.

Z. Pan, Y. Xie, S. A. Havstad, Q. Yu, A. E. Willner, V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, “Real-time group-velocity dispersion monitoring and automated compensation without modifications of the transmitter,” Opt. Commun. 230(1–3), 145–149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yan, L.-S.

Q. Yu, Z. Pan, L.-S. Yan, and A. E. Willner, “Chromatic dispersion monitoring technique using sideband optical filtering and clock phase-shift detection,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(12), 2267–2271 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.-Y.

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, J.-Y. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, “Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(1), 3–5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C.

Z. Pan, C. Yu, and A. E. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring for the next generation optical communication networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(1), 20–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Q.

Z. Pan, Y. Xie, S. A. Havstad, Q. Yu, A. E. Willner, V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, “Real-time group-velocity dispersion monitoring and automated compensation without modifications of the transmitter,” Opt. Commun. 230(1–3), 145–149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q. Yu, Z. Pan, L.-S. Yan, and A. E. Willner, “Chromatic dispersion monitoring technique using sideband optical filtering and clock phase-shift detection,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(12), 2267–2271 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

N. Hanik, A. Gladisch, C. Caspar, and B. Strebel, “Application of amplitude histograms to monitor performance of optical channels,” Electron. Lett. 35(5), 403–404 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Willner, K. Feng, S. Lee, J. Peng, and H. Sun, “Tunable compensation of channel degrading effects using nonlinearly chirped passive fiber Bragg gratings,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(5), 1298–1311 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

Z. Li and G. Li, “In-line performance monitoring for RZ-DPSK signals using asynchronous amplitude histogram evaluation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(3), 472–474 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Kozicki, A. Maruta, and K. Kitayama, “Experimental Investigation of delay-tap sampling technique for online monitoring of RZ-DQPSK signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 179–181 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, J.-Y. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, “Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(1), 3–5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Q. Yu, Z. Pan, L.-S. Yan, and A. E. Willner, “Chromatic dispersion monitoring technique using sideband optical filtering and clock phase-shift detection,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(12), 2267–2271 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Kozicki, O. Takuya, and T. Hidehiko, “Optical performance monitoring of phase-modulated signals using asynchronous amplitude histogram analysis,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(10), 1353–1361 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Kilper, R. Bach, D. Blumenthal, D. Einstein, T. Landolsi, L. Ostar, M. Preiss, and A. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(1), 294–304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

B. Kozicki, A. Maruta, and K. Kitayama, “Transparent performance monitoring of RZ-DQPSK systems employing delay-tap sampling,” J. Opt. Netw. 6(11), 1257–1269 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Z. Pan, Y. Xie, S. A. Havstad, Q. Yu, A. E. Willner, V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, “Real-time group-velocity dispersion monitoring and automated compensation without modifications of the transmitter,” Opt. Commun. 230(1–3), 145–149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

Z. Pan, C. Yu, and A. E. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring for the next generation optical communication networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(1), 20–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

T. Kato, Y. Koyano, and M. Nishimura, “Temperature dependence of chromatic dispersion in various types of optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 25(16), 1156–1158 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

S. D. Dods, and T. B. Anderson, “Optical performance monitoring technique using delay tap asynchronous waveform sampling,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Comm. Conf. (OFC), Anaheim, CA, 2006, Paper OThP5.

G. Fuller, and D. Tarwater, Analytic Geometry, 7th ed., Addison-Wesley, 1992.

VPIsystemsTM, “VPltransmissionMakerTM”.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Upper and lower VSB filtering and (b) relative group delay between the two sideband signals after photodetection. Plot of sample pairs (x i, y i) for a 10 Gbps RZ-DPSK signal with (c) CD = 0 ps/nm; (d) CD = 200 ps/nm; (e) CD = 500 ps/nm and (f) CD = 530 ps/nm. The colour bars show the number of occurrences of sample pairs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental and simulation setup for CD monitoring using sideband optical filtering and subsequent asynchronous amplitude sampling for 10/12.5/20 Gsym/s RZ-OOK, RZ-DPSK and RZ-DQPSK systems.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Measured transfer functions of two demultiplexer channels used for VSB filtering. Optical spectra of received and two VSB-filtered signals for (b) 10 Gbps RZ-DPSK and (c) 12.5 Gbps RZ-OOK systems. CD induced shift for upper and lower VSB signals for (d) 10 Gbps RZ-DPSK and (e) 12.5 Gbps RZ-OOK systems.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dispersion parameter F CD vs. accumulated CD for (a) 10 Gsym/s (simulation) (b) 10 Gsym/s (experimental) (c) 12.5 Gsym/s (simulation) (d) 12.5 Gsym/s (experimental) and (e) 20 Gsym/s (simulation) using various modulation formats.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Effect of OSNR variations on the CD monitoring for 10 Gsym/s (a) RZ-DPSK and (b) RZ-OOK systems. The noise resolution bandwidth is 0.1 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Effect of DGD on the CD monitoring for (a) 20 Gbps and (b) 40 Gbps RZ-DQPSK systems.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of proposed technique with other CD monitoring techniques

Equations (2)

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d i ( x i , y i ) = 1 2 | x i โˆ’ y i | .
F CD = 1 N โˆ‘ i = 1 N d i ( x i , y i )

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