Abstract

We demonstrate single mode terahertz (THz) guidance in hollow-core kagome microstructured fibers over a broad frequency bandwidth. The fibers are characterized using a THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) setup, incorporating specially designed THz lenses to achieve good mode overlap with the fundamental mode field distribution. Losses 20 times lower than the losses of the fiber material are observed in the experiments, as well as broad frequency ranges of low dispersion, characteristic of hollow-core fibers.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, Y. Watanabe, and H. Inoue, “Non-destructive terahertz imaging of illicit drugs using spectral fingerprints,” Opt. Express 11(20), 2549–2554 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
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  10. R. Mendis and D. Grischkowsky, “Plastic ribbon THz waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(7), 4449 (2000).
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  11. R. W. McGowan, G. Gallot, and D. Grischkowsky, “Propagation of ultrawideband short pulses of terahertz radiation through submillimeter-diameter circular waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 24(20), 1431–1433 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Harrington, R. George, P. Pedersen, and E. Mueller, “Hollow polycarbonate waveguides with inner Cu coatings for delivery of terahertz radiation,” Opt. Express 12(21), 5263–5268 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. Mendis and D. Grischkowsky, “Undistorted guided-wave propagation of subpicosecond terahertz pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26(11), 846–848 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. K. Wang and D. M. Mittleman, “Metal wires for terahertz wave guiding,” Nature 432(7015), 376–379 (2004).
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  16. A. Argyros, “Microstructured polymer optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(11), 1571–1579 (2009).
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  18. M. Goto, A. Quema, H. Takahashi, S. Ono, and N. Sarukura, “Teflon photonic crystal fiber as terahertz waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 2B), L317–L319 (2004).
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  19. K. Nielsen, H. K. Rasmussen, A. J. Adam, P. C. Planken, O. Bang, and P. U. Jepsen, “Bendable, low-loss Topas fibers for the terahertz frequency range,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8592–8601 (2009).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  24. F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, “Generation and photonic guidance of multi-octave optical-frequency combs,” Science 318(5853), 1118–1121 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. N. M. Litchinitser, S. C. Dunn, B. Usner, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, R. C. McPhedran, and C. M. de Sterke, “Resonances in microstructured optical waveguides,” Opt. Express 11(10), 1243–1251 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. G. J. Pearce, G. S. Wiederhecker, C. G. Poulton, S. Burger, and P. St. J. Russell, “Models for guidance in kagome-structured hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Express 15(20), 12680–12685 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. A. Argyros, S. G. Leon-Saval, J. Pla, and A. Docherty, “Antiresonant reflection and inhibited coupling in hollow-core square lattice optical fibres,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5642–5648 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. Y. H. Lo and R. Leonhardt, “Aspheric lenses for terahertz imaging,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15991–15998 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. Lumerical Solutions, Inc., http://www.lumerical.com .
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

A. Argyros and J. Pla, “Hollow-core polymer fibres with a kagome lattice: potential for transmission in the infrared,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7713–7719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, “Generation and photonic guidance of multi-octave optical-frequency combs,” Science 318(5853), 1118–1121 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Pearce, G. S. Wiederhecker, C. G. Poulton, S. Burger, and P. St. J. Russell, “Models for guidance in kagome-structured hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Express 15(20), 12680–12685 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Williams, “Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1(9), 517–525 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Fukunaga, Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi, and I. Hosako, “Terahertz spectroscopy for art conservation,” IEICE Electron. Express 4(8), 258–263 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

K. Wang and D. M. Mittleman, “Metal wires for terahertz wave guiding,” Nature 432(7015), 376–379 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Harrington, R. George, P. Pedersen, and E. Mueller, “Hollow polycarbonate waveguides with inner Cu coatings for delivery of terahertz radiation,” Opt. Express 12(21), 5263–5268 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Goto, A. Quema, H. Takahashi, S. Ono, and N. Sarukura, “Teflon photonic crystal fiber as terahertz waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 2B), L317–L319 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

2002

H. Han, H. Park, M. Cho, and J. Kim, “Terahertz pulse propagation in a plastic photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(15), 2634 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

2000

D. J. Cook and R. M. Hochstrasser, “Intense terahertz pulses by four-wave rectification in air,” Opt. Lett. 25(16), 1210–1212 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. Jamison, R. W. McGowan, and D. Grischkowsky, “Single-mode waveguide propagation and reshaping of sub-ps terahertz pulses in sapphire fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(15), 1987 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Mendis and D. Grischkowsky, “Plastic ribbon THz waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(7), 4449 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

1996

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, “A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(16), 2321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Abbott, D.

Adam, A. J.

Afshar V, S.

Anthony, J.

Argyros, A.

Atakaramians, S.

Averitt, R. D.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bang, O.

Benabid, F.

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, “Generation and photonic guidance of multi-octave optical-frequency combs,” Science 318(5853), 1118–1121 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burger, S.

Chen, H.-T.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, M.

H. Han, H. Park, M. Cho, and J. Kim, “Terahertz pulse propagation in a plastic photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(15), 2634 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Clough, B.

Cook, D. J.

Couny, F.

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, “Generation and photonic guidance of multi-octave optical-frequency combs,” Science 318(5853), 1118–1121 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Sterke, C. M.

Docherty, A.

Dunn, S. C.

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

Eggleton, B. J.

Estacio, E.

Fischer, B. M.

Fukunaga, K.

K. Fukunaga, Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi, and I. Hosako, “Terahertz spectroscopy for art conservation,” IEICE Electron. Express 4(8), 258–263 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gallot, G.

George, R.

Gossard, A. C.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goto, M.

M. Goto, A. Quema, H. Takahashi, S. Ono, and N. Sarukura, “Teflon photonic crystal fiber as terahertz waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 2B), L317–L319 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

R. Mendis and D. Grischkowsky, “Undistorted guided-wave propagation of subpicosecond terahertz pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26(11), 846–848 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. Jamison, R. W. McGowan, and D. Grischkowsky, “Single-mode waveguide propagation and reshaping of sub-ps terahertz pulses in sapphire fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(15), 1987 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Mendis and D. Grischkowsky, “Plastic ribbon THz waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(7), 4449 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. W. McGowan, G. Gallot, and D. Grischkowsky, “Propagation of ultrawideband short pulses of terahertz radiation through submillimeter-diameter circular waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 24(20), 1431–1433 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, H.

H. Han, H. Park, M. Cho, and J. Kim, “Terahertz pulse propagation in a plastic photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(15), 2634 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Harrington, J.

Hayashi, S.

K. Fukunaga, Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi, and I. Hosako, “Terahertz spectroscopy for art conservation,” IEICE Electron. Express 4(8), 258–263 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Heinz, T. F.

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, “A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(16), 2321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hochstrasser, R. M.

Hosako, I.

K. Fukunaga, Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi, and I. Hosako, “Terahertz spectroscopy for art conservation,” IEICE Electron. Express 4(8), 258–263 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, H.

Jamison, S. P.

S. P. Jamison, R. W. McGowan, and D. Grischkowsky, “Single-mode waveguide propagation and reshaping of sub-ps terahertz pulses in sapphire fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(15), 1987 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jepsen, P. U.

Kawase, K.

Kim, J.

H. Han, H. Park, M. Cho, and J. Kim, “Terahertz pulse propagation in a plastic photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(15), 2634 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Large, M. C.

Large, M. C. J.

Leonhardt, R.

Leon-Saval, S. G.

Light, P. S.

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, “Generation and photonic guidance of multi-octave optical-frequency combs,” Science 318(5853), 1118–1121 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Litchinitser, N. M.

Liu, J.

Lo, Y. H.

McGowan, R. W.

S. P. Jamison, R. W. McGowan, and D. Grischkowsky, “Single-mode waveguide propagation and reshaping of sub-ps terahertz pulses in sapphire fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(15), 1987 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. W. McGowan, G. Gallot, and D. Grischkowsky, “Propagation of ultrawideband short pulses of terahertz radiation through submillimeter-diameter circular waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 24(20), 1431–1433 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McPhedran, R. C.

Mendis, R.

Mittleman, D. M.

K. Wang and D. M. Mittleman, “Metal wires for terahertz wave guiding,” Nature 432(7015), 376–379 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monro, T. M.

Morris, C. M.

Mueller, E.

Nagel, M.

Nahata, A.

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, “A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(16), 2321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, K.

Ogawa, Y.

K. Fukunaga, Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi, and I. Hosako, “Terahertz spectroscopy for art conservation,” IEICE Electron. Express 4(8), 258–263 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, Y. Watanabe, and H. Inoue, “Non-destructive terahertz imaging of illicit drugs using spectral fingerprints,” Opt. Express 11(20), 2549–2554 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ono, S.

M. Goto, A. Quema, H. Takahashi, S. Ono, and N. Sarukura, “Teflon photonic crystal fiber as terahertz waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 2B), L317–L319 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Padilla, W. J.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, H.

H. Han, H. Park, M. Cho, and J. Kim, “Terahertz pulse propagation in a plastic photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(15), 2634 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pearce, G. J.

Pedersen, P.

Pla, J.

Planken, P. C.

Pobre, R.

Ponseca, C. S.

Poulton, C. G.

Quema, A.

M. Goto, A. Quema, H. Takahashi, S. Ono, and N. Sarukura, “Teflon photonic crystal fiber as terahertz waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 2B), L317–L319 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rasmussen, H. K.

Raymer, M. G.

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, “Generation and photonic guidance of multi-octave optical-frequency combs,” Science 318(5853), 1118–1121 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roberts, P. J.

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, “Generation and photonic guidance of multi-octave optical-frequency combs,” Science 318(5853), 1118–1121 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, P.

P. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299(5605), 358–362 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarukura, N.

C. S. Ponseca, R. Pobre, E. Estacio, N. Sarukura, A. Argyros, M. C. Large, and M. A. van Eijkelenborg, “Transmission of terahertz radiation using a microstructured polymer optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 902–904 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Goto, A. Quema, H. Takahashi, S. Ono, and N. Sarukura, “Teflon photonic crystal fiber as terahertz waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 2B), L317–L319 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, C.

Sherwin, M. S.

St. J. Russell, P.

Stehr, D.

Takahashi, H.

M. Goto, A. Quema, H. Takahashi, S. Ono, and N. Sarukura, “Teflon photonic crystal fiber as terahertz waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 2B), L317–L319 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Usner, B.

van Eijkelenborg, M. A.

Wang, K.

K. Wang and D. M. Mittleman, “Metal wires for terahertz wave guiding,” Nature 432(7015), 376–379 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, Y.

Weling, A. S.

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, “A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(16), 2321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

White, T. P.

Wiederhecker, G. S.

Williams, B. S.

B. S. Williams, “Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1(9), 517–525 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, D. S.

Zhang, X.-C.

Zide, J. M. O.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, “A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(16), 2321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Jamison, R. W. McGowan, and D. Grischkowsky, “Single-mode waveguide propagation and reshaping of sub-ps terahertz pulses in sapphire fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(15), 1987 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Han, H. Park, M. Cho, and J. Kim, “Terahertz pulse propagation in a plastic photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(15), 2634 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Electron. Express

K. Fukunaga, Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi, and I. Hosako, “Terahertz spectroscopy for art conservation,” IEICE Electron. Express 4(8), 258–263 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

R. Mendis and D. Grischkowsky, “Plastic ribbon THz waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(7), 4449 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

M. Goto, A. Quema, H. Takahashi, S. Ono, and N. Sarukura, “Teflon photonic crystal fiber as terahertz waveguide,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 2B), L317–L319 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

B. S. Williams, “Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1(9), 517–525 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Wang and D. M. Mittleman, “Metal wires for terahertz wave guiding,” Nature 432(7015), 376–379 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

J. Harrington, R. George, P. Pedersen, and E. Mueller, “Hollow polycarbonate waveguides with inner Cu coatings for delivery of terahertz radiation,” Opt. Express 12(21), 5263–5268 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Nielsen, H. K. Rasmussen, A. J. Adam, P. C. Planken, O. Bang, and P. U. Jepsen, “Bendable, low-loss Topas fibers for the terahertz frequency range,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8592–8601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, Y. Watanabe, and H. Inoue, “Non-destructive terahertz imaging of illicit drugs using spectral fingerprints,” Opt. Express 11(20), 2549–2554 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Argyros and J. Pla, “Hollow-core polymer fibres with a kagome lattice: potential for transmission in the infrared,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7713–7719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Litchinitser, S. C. Dunn, B. Usner, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, R. C. McPhedran, and C. M. de Sterke, “Resonances in microstructured optical waveguides,” Opt. Express 11(10), 1243–1251 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Pearce, G. S. Wiederhecker, C. G. Poulton, S. Burger, and P. St. J. Russell, “Models for guidance in kagome-structured hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Express 15(20), 12680–12685 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Argyros, S. G. Leon-Saval, J. Pla, and A. Docherty, “Antiresonant reflection and inhibited coupling in hollow-core square lattice optical fibres,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5642–5648 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Lo and R. Leonhardt, “Aspheric lenses for terahertz imaging,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15991–15998 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Atakaramians, S. Afshar V, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, M. Nagel, B. M. Fischer, D. Abbott, and T. M. Monro, “THz porous fibers: design, fabrication and experimental characterization,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14053–15062 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Science

P. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299(5605), 358–362 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, “Generation and photonic guidance of multi-octave optical-frequency combs,” Science 318(5853), 1118–1121 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

T. D. Hedley, D. M. Bird, F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, and P. S. J. Russell, “Modelling of a novel hollow-core photonic crystal fibre,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper QTuL4.

Lumerical Solutions, Inc., http://www.lumerical.com .

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Optical micrograph of PMMA kagome fiber showing the core and the innermost 4 of the 6 rings of the cladding, (b) THz symmetric-pass lens with a diameter of 50 mm. (c) THz-TDS setup used to characterize the microstructured fiber (in magenta color). AOM stands for acousto-optic modulator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Temporal signals as measured by the lock-in amplifier for the reference pulse and 30 mm of Kagome-1 and Kagome-2 fibers. (b) Spectrograms of the reference, Kagome-1 and Kagome-2 on a logarithmic scale. The amplitudes are normalized with respect to the peak value of the reference signal. Horizontal white dashed lines on Kagome-1 and Kagome-2 spectrograms indicate the high loss frequency region associated with the cladding modes cutoffs obtained from simulation results.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a), (b) The attenuation constant for Kagome-1 and Kagome-2 fibers, respectively. The solid red lines indicate the simulation results obtained from MODE and the blue-circles the experimentally obtained data. The grey area indicates the region where a high loss in the propagating mode is expected from MODE, and the light-cyan area corresponds to a low signal-to-noise ratio. (c), (d) The field distribution as observed experimentally in the 30 mm lengths of the fibers. The peak frequencies correspond to the highest transmission amplitudes recorded whilst the resonant frequencies correspond to those at which a higher loss is expected due to the mode leakage into the cladding material, as predicted using the MODE simulation results.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a), (b) The effective phase index and (c), (d) the group velocity dispersion parameters, β 2, for Kagome-1and Kagome-2 fibers, respectively. In all subfigures, the solid red lines indicate the simulation results obtained from MODE and the blue-circled lines are the experimentally obtained data. The grey area indicates the region where a high loss in the propagating mode is expected from MODE, and the light-cyan area is the region where a low signal-to-noise ratio results in more noisy data.

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