Abstract

We experimentally demonstrated the basic concept of modulatable optical near-field interactions by utilizing energy transfer between closely positioned resonant CdSe/ZnS quantum dot (QD) pairs dispersed on a flexible substrate. Modulation by physical flexion of the substrate changes the distances between quantum dots to control the magnitude of the coupling strength. The modulation capability was qualitatively confirmed as a change of the emission spectrum. We defined two kinds of modulatability for quantitative evaluation of the capability, and an evident difference was revealed between resonant and non-resonant QDs.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. M. Ohtsu, K. Kobayashi, T. Kawazoe, T. Yatsui, and M. Naruse, eds., Principles of Nanophotonics, (Taylor and Francis, 2008).
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  3. K. Kobayashi, S. Sangu, T. Kawazoe, and M. Ohtsu, “Exciton dynamics and logic operations in a near-field optically coupled quantum-dot system,” J. Lumin. 112(1-4), 117–121 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Ohtsu, T. Kawazoe, T. Yatsui, and M. Naruse, “Nanophotonics: application of dressed photons to novel photonic devices and systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(6), 1404–1417 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Kawazoe, M. Ohtsu, S. Aso, Y. Sawado, Y. Hosoda, K. Yoshizawa, K. Akahane, N. Yamamoto, and M. Naruse, “Two-dimensional array of room-temperature nanophotonic logic gates using InAs quantum dots in mesa structures,” Appl. Phys. B 103(3), 537–546 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. R. Kagan, C. B. Murray, and M. G. Bawendi, “Long-range resonance transfer of electronic excitations in close-packed CdSe quantum-dot solids,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(12), 8633–8643 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. A. Crooker, J. A. Hollingsworth, S. Tretiak, and V. I. Klimov, “Spectrally resolved dynamics of energy transfer in quantum-dot assemblies: towards engineered energy flows in artificial materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(18), 186802 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Achermann, M. A. Petruska, S. A. Crooker, and V. I. Klimov, “Picosecond energy transfer in quantum dot Langmuir-Blodgett nanoassemblies,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(50), 13782–13787 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Franzl, D. S. Koktysh, T. A. Klar, A. L. Rogach, J. Feldmann, and N. Gaponik, “Fast energy transfer in layer-by-layer aAssembled CdTe nanocrystal bilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15), 2904–2906 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Franzl, T. A. Klar, S. Schietinger, A. L. Rogach, and J. Feldmann, “Exciton recycling in graded gap nanocrystal structures,” Nano Lett. 4(9), 1599–1603 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. N. Tate, W. Nomura, T. Yatsui, T. Kawazoe, M. Naruse, and M. Ohtsu, “Parallel retrieval of nanometer-scale light-matter interactions for nanophotonic systems,” Nat. Comput. 2, 298–307 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. Z. K. Tang, A. Yanase, T. Yasui, Y. Segawa, and K. Cho, “Optical selection rule and oscillator strength of confined exciton system in CuCl thin films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(9), 1431–1434 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. T. Kawazoe, K. Kobayashi, J. Lim, Y. Narita, and M. Ohtsu, “Direct observation of optically forbidden energy transfer between CuCl quantum cubes via near-field optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(6), 067404 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. W. Nomura, T. Yatsui, T. Kawazoe, and M. Ohtsu, “The observation of dissipated optical energy transfer between CdSe quantum dots,” J. Nanophotonics 1, 011591 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. K. Kobayashi, S. Sangu, H. Ito, and M. Ohtsu, “Near-field optical potential for a neutral atom,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 013806 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Han, X. Gao, J. Z. Su, and S. Nie, “Quantum-dot-tagged microbeads for multiplexed optical coding of biomolecules,” Nat. Biotechnol. 19(7), 631–635 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. M. Strassburg, M. Dworzak, H. Born, R. Heitz, A. Hoffmann, M. Bartels, K. Lischka, D. Schikora, and J. Christen, “Lateral redistribution of excitons in CdSe/ZnSe quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(3), 473–475 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. Naruse, T. Kawazoe, R. Ohta, W. Nomura, and M. Ohtsu, “Optimal mixture of randomly dispersed quantum dots for optical excitation transfer via optical near-field interactions,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 125325 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

T. Kawazoe, M. Ohtsu, S. Aso, Y. Sawado, Y. Hosoda, K. Yoshizawa, K. Akahane, N. Yamamoto, and M. Naruse, “Two-dimensional array of room-temperature nanophotonic logic gates using InAs quantum dots in mesa structures,” Appl. Phys. B 103(3), 537–546 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

N. Tate, W. Nomura, T. Yatsui, T. Kawazoe, M. Naruse, and M. Ohtsu, “Parallel retrieval of nanometer-scale light-matter interactions for nanophotonic systems,” Nat. Comput. 2, 298–307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Naruse, H. Hori, K. Kobayashi, P. Holmström, L. Thylén, and M. Ohtsu, “Lower bound of energy dissipation in optical excitation transfer via optical near-field interactions,” Opt. Express 18(Suppl 4), A544–A553 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

M. Naruse, T. Kawazoe, R. Ohta, W. Nomura, and M. Ohtsu, “Optimal mixture of randomly dispersed quantum dots for optical excitation transfer via optical near-field interactions,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 125325 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

M. Ohtsu, T. Kawazoe, T. Yatsui, and M. Naruse, “Nanophotonics: application of dressed photons to novel photonic devices and systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(6), 1404–1417 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

W. Nomura, T. Yatsui, T. Kawazoe, and M. Ohtsu, “The observation of dissipated optical energy transfer between CdSe quantum dots,” J. Nanophotonics 1, 011591 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

K. Kobayashi, S. Sangu, T. Kawazoe, and M. Ohtsu, “Exciton dynamics and logic operations in a near-field optically coupled quantum-dot system,” J. Lumin. 112(1-4), 117–121 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

T. Franzl, D. S. Koktysh, T. A. Klar, A. L. Rogach, J. Feldmann, and N. Gaponik, “Fast energy transfer in layer-by-layer aAssembled CdTe nanocrystal bilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15), 2904–2906 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Franzl, T. A. Klar, S. Schietinger, A. L. Rogach, and J. Feldmann, “Exciton recycling in graded gap nanocrystal structures,” Nano Lett. 4(9), 1599–1603 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

M. Achermann, M. A. Petruska, S. A. Crooker, and V. I. Klimov, “Picosecond energy transfer in quantum dot Langmuir-Blodgett nanoassemblies,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(50), 13782–13787 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

S. A. Crooker, J. A. Hollingsworth, S. Tretiak, and V. I. Klimov, “Spectrally resolved dynamics of energy transfer in quantum-dot assemblies: towards engineered energy flows in artificial materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(18), 186802 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Strassburg, M. Dworzak, H. Born, R. Heitz, A. Hoffmann, M. Bartels, K. Lischka, D. Schikora, and J. Christen, “Lateral redistribution of excitons in CdSe/ZnSe quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(3), 473–475 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Kawazoe, K. Kobayashi, J. Lim, Y. Narita, and M. Ohtsu, “Direct observation of optically forbidden energy transfer between CuCl quantum cubes via near-field optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(6), 067404 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

M. Han, X. Gao, J. Z. Su, and S. Nie, “Quantum-dot-tagged microbeads for multiplexed optical coding of biomolecules,” Nat. Biotechnol. 19(7), 631–635 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

K. Kobayashi, S. Sangu, H. Ito, and M. Ohtsu, “Near-field optical potential for a neutral atom,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 013806 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

N. Sakakura and Y. Masumoto, “Persistent spectral-hole-burning spectroscopy of CuCl quantum cubes,” Phys. Rev. B 56(7), 4051–4055 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

C. R. Kagan, C. B. Murray, and M. G. Bawendi, “Long-range resonance transfer of electronic excitations in close-packed CdSe quantum-dot solids,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(12), 8633–8643 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

Z. K. Tang, A. Yanase, T. Yasui, Y. Segawa, and K. Cho, “Optical selection rule and oscillator strength of confined exciton system in CuCl thin films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(9), 1431–1434 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Achermann, M.

M. Achermann, M. A. Petruska, S. A. Crooker, and V. I. Klimov, “Picosecond energy transfer in quantum dot Langmuir-Blodgett nanoassemblies,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(50), 13782–13787 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Akahane, K.

T. Kawazoe, M. Ohtsu, S. Aso, Y. Sawado, Y. Hosoda, K. Yoshizawa, K. Akahane, N. Yamamoto, and M. Naruse, “Two-dimensional array of room-temperature nanophotonic logic gates using InAs quantum dots in mesa structures,” Appl. Phys. B 103(3), 537–546 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Aso, S.

T. Kawazoe, M. Ohtsu, S. Aso, Y. Sawado, Y. Hosoda, K. Yoshizawa, K. Akahane, N. Yamamoto, and M. Naruse, “Two-dimensional array of room-temperature nanophotonic logic gates using InAs quantum dots in mesa structures,” Appl. Phys. B 103(3), 537–546 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bartels, M.

M. Strassburg, M. Dworzak, H. Born, R. Heitz, A. Hoffmann, M. Bartels, K. Lischka, D. Schikora, and J. Christen, “Lateral redistribution of excitons in CdSe/ZnSe quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(3), 473–475 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bawendi, M. G.

C. R. Kagan, C. B. Murray, and M. G. Bawendi, “Long-range resonance transfer of electronic excitations in close-packed CdSe quantum-dot solids,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(12), 8633–8643 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Born, H.

M. Strassburg, M. Dworzak, H. Born, R. Heitz, A. Hoffmann, M. Bartels, K. Lischka, D. Schikora, and J. Christen, “Lateral redistribution of excitons in CdSe/ZnSe quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(3), 473–475 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cho, K.

Z. K. Tang, A. Yanase, T. Yasui, Y. Segawa, and K. Cho, “Optical selection rule and oscillator strength of confined exciton system in CuCl thin films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(9), 1431–1434 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christen, J.

M. Strassburg, M. Dworzak, H. Born, R. Heitz, A. Hoffmann, M. Bartels, K. Lischka, D. Schikora, and J. Christen, “Lateral redistribution of excitons in CdSe/ZnSe quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(3), 473–475 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Crooker, S. A.

M. Achermann, M. A. Petruska, S. A. Crooker, and V. I. Klimov, “Picosecond energy transfer in quantum dot Langmuir-Blodgett nanoassemblies,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(50), 13782–13787 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Crooker, J. A. Hollingsworth, S. Tretiak, and V. I. Klimov, “Spectrally resolved dynamics of energy transfer in quantum-dot assemblies: towards engineered energy flows in artificial materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(18), 186802 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dworzak, M.

M. Strassburg, M. Dworzak, H. Born, R. Heitz, A. Hoffmann, M. Bartels, K. Lischka, D. Schikora, and J. Christen, “Lateral redistribution of excitons in CdSe/ZnSe quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(3), 473–475 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Feldmann, J.

T. Franzl, T. A. Klar, S. Schietinger, A. L. Rogach, and J. Feldmann, “Exciton recycling in graded gap nanocrystal structures,” Nano Lett. 4(9), 1599–1603 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Franzl, D. S. Koktysh, T. A. Klar, A. L. Rogach, J. Feldmann, and N. Gaponik, “Fast energy transfer in layer-by-layer aAssembled CdTe nanocrystal bilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15), 2904–2906 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Franzl, T.

T. Franzl, D. S. Koktysh, T. A. Klar, A. L. Rogach, J. Feldmann, and N. Gaponik, “Fast energy transfer in layer-by-layer aAssembled CdTe nanocrystal bilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15), 2904–2906 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Franzl, T. A. Klar, S. Schietinger, A. L. Rogach, and J. Feldmann, “Exciton recycling in graded gap nanocrystal structures,” Nano Lett. 4(9), 1599–1603 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gao, X.

M. Han, X. Gao, J. Z. Su, and S. Nie, “Quantum-dot-tagged microbeads for multiplexed optical coding of biomolecules,” Nat. Biotechnol. 19(7), 631–635 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaponik, N.

T. Franzl, D. S. Koktysh, T. A. Klar, A. L. Rogach, J. Feldmann, and N. Gaponik, “Fast energy transfer in layer-by-layer aAssembled CdTe nanocrystal bilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15), 2904–2906 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Han, M.

M. Han, X. Gao, J. Z. Su, and S. Nie, “Quantum-dot-tagged microbeads for multiplexed optical coding of biomolecules,” Nat. Biotechnol. 19(7), 631–635 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heitz, R.

M. Strassburg, M. Dworzak, H. Born, R. Heitz, A. Hoffmann, M. Bartels, K. Lischka, D. Schikora, and J. Christen, “Lateral redistribution of excitons in CdSe/ZnSe quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(3), 473–475 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, A.

M. Strassburg, M. Dworzak, H. Born, R. Heitz, A. Hoffmann, M. Bartels, K. Lischka, D. Schikora, and J. Christen, “Lateral redistribution of excitons in CdSe/ZnSe quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(3), 473–475 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hollingsworth, J. A.

S. A. Crooker, J. A. Hollingsworth, S. Tretiak, and V. I. Klimov, “Spectrally resolved dynamics of energy transfer in quantum-dot assemblies: towards engineered energy flows in artificial materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(18), 186802 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holmström, P.

Hori, H.

Hosoda, Y.

T. Kawazoe, M. Ohtsu, S. Aso, Y. Sawado, Y. Hosoda, K. Yoshizawa, K. Akahane, N. Yamamoto, and M. Naruse, “Two-dimensional array of room-temperature nanophotonic logic gates using InAs quantum dots in mesa structures,” Appl. Phys. B 103(3), 537–546 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ito, H.

K. Kobayashi, S. Sangu, H. Ito, and M. Ohtsu, “Near-field optical potential for a neutral atom,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 013806 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kagan, C. R.

C. R. Kagan, C. B. Murray, and M. G. Bawendi, “Long-range resonance transfer of electronic excitations in close-packed CdSe quantum-dot solids,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(12), 8633–8643 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawazoe, T.

T. Kawazoe, M. Ohtsu, S. Aso, Y. Sawado, Y. Hosoda, K. Yoshizawa, K. Akahane, N. Yamamoto, and M. Naruse, “Two-dimensional array of room-temperature nanophotonic logic gates using InAs quantum dots in mesa structures,” Appl. Phys. B 103(3), 537–546 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Tate, W. Nomura, T. Yatsui, T. Kawazoe, M. Naruse, and M. Ohtsu, “Parallel retrieval of nanometer-scale light-matter interactions for nanophotonic systems,” Nat. Comput. 2, 298–307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Naruse, T. Kawazoe, R. Ohta, W. Nomura, and M. Ohtsu, “Optimal mixture of randomly dispersed quantum dots for optical excitation transfer via optical near-field interactions,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 125325 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Ohtsu, T. Kawazoe, T. Yatsui, and M. Naruse, “Nanophotonics: application of dressed photons to novel photonic devices and systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(6), 1404–1417 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Nomura, T. Yatsui, T. Kawazoe, and M. Ohtsu, “The observation of dissipated optical energy transfer between CdSe quantum dots,” J. Nanophotonics 1, 011591 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Kobayashi, S. Sangu, T. Kawazoe, and M. Ohtsu, “Exciton dynamics and logic operations in a near-field optically coupled quantum-dot system,” J. Lumin. 112(1-4), 117–121 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Kawazoe, K. Kobayashi, J. Lim, Y. Narita, and M. Ohtsu, “Direct observation of optically forbidden energy transfer between CuCl quantum cubes via near-field optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(6), 067404 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klar, T. A.

T. Franzl, T. A. Klar, S. Schietinger, A. L. Rogach, and J. Feldmann, “Exciton recycling in graded gap nanocrystal structures,” Nano Lett. 4(9), 1599–1603 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Franzl, D. S. Koktysh, T. A. Klar, A. L. Rogach, J. Feldmann, and N. Gaponik, “Fast energy transfer in layer-by-layer aAssembled CdTe nanocrystal bilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15), 2904–2906 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Klimov, V. I.

M. Achermann, M. A. Petruska, S. A. Crooker, and V. I. Klimov, “Picosecond energy transfer in quantum dot Langmuir-Blodgett nanoassemblies,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(50), 13782–13787 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Crooker, J. A. Hollingsworth, S. Tretiak, and V. I. Klimov, “Spectrally resolved dynamics of energy transfer in quantum-dot assemblies: towards engineered energy flows in artificial materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(18), 186802 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, K.

M. Naruse, H. Hori, K. Kobayashi, P. Holmström, L. Thylén, and M. Ohtsu, “Lower bound of energy dissipation in optical excitation transfer via optical near-field interactions,” Opt. Express 18(Suppl 4), A544–A553 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kobayashi, S. Sangu, T. Kawazoe, and M. Ohtsu, “Exciton dynamics and logic operations in a near-field optically coupled quantum-dot system,” J. Lumin. 112(1-4), 117–121 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Kawazoe, K. Kobayashi, J. Lim, Y. Narita, and M. Ohtsu, “Direct observation of optically forbidden energy transfer between CuCl quantum cubes via near-field optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(6), 067404 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kobayashi, S. Sangu, H. Ito, and M. Ohtsu, “Near-field optical potential for a neutral atom,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 013806 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Koktysh, D. S.

T. Franzl, D. S. Koktysh, T. A. Klar, A. L. Rogach, J. Feldmann, and N. Gaponik, “Fast energy transfer in layer-by-layer aAssembled CdTe nanocrystal bilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15), 2904–2906 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lim, J.

T. Kawazoe, K. Kobayashi, J. Lim, Y. Narita, and M. Ohtsu, “Direct observation of optically forbidden energy transfer between CuCl quantum cubes via near-field optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(6), 067404 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lischka, K.

M. Strassburg, M. Dworzak, H. Born, R. Heitz, A. Hoffmann, M. Bartels, K. Lischka, D. Schikora, and J. Christen, “Lateral redistribution of excitons in CdSe/ZnSe quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(3), 473–475 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Masumoto, Y.

N. Sakakura and Y. Masumoto, “Persistent spectral-hole-burning spectroscopy of CuCl quantum cubes,” Phys. Rev. B 56(7), 4051–4055 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Murray, C. B.

C. R. Kagan, C. B. Murray, and M. G. Bawendi, “Long-range resonance transfer of electronic excitations in close-packed CdSe quantum-dot solids,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(12), 8633–8643 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Narita, Y.

T. Kawazoe, K. Kobayashi, J. Lim, Y. Narita, and M. Ohtsu, “Direct observation of optically forbidden energy transfer between CuCl quantum cubes via near-field optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(6), 067404 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naruse, M.

T. Kawazoe, M. Ohtsu, S. Aso, Y. Sawado, Y. Hosoda, K. Yoshizawa, K. Akahane, N. Yamamoto, and M. Naruse, “Two-dimensional array of room-temperature nanophotonic logic gates using InAs quantum dots in mesa structures,” Appl. Phys. B 103(3), 537–546 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Naruse, H. Hori, K. Kobayashi, P. Holmström, L. Thylén, and M. Ohtsu, “Lower bound of energy dissipation in optical excitation transfer via optical near-field interactions,” Opt. Express 18(Suppl 4), A544–A553 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Tate, W. Nomura, T. Yatsui, T. Kawazoe, M. Naruse, and M. Ohtsu, “Parallel retrieval of nanometer-scale light-matter interactions for nanophotonic systems,” Nat. Comput. 2, 298–307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Naruse, T. Kawazoe, R. Ohta, W. Nomura, and M. Ohtsu, “Optimal mixture of randomly dispersed quantum dots for optical excitation transfer via optical near-field interactions,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 125325 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Ohtsu, T. Kawazoe, T. Yatsui, and M. Naruse, “Nanophotonics: application of dressed photons to novel photonic devices and systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(6), 1404–1417 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nie, S.

M. Han, X. Gao, J. Z. Su, and S. Nie, “Quantum-dot-tagged microbeads for multiplexed optical coding of biomolecules,” Nat. Biotechnol. 19(7), 631–635 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nomura, W.

N. Tate, W. Nomura, T. Yatsui, T. Kawazoe, M. Naruse, and M. Ohtsu, “Parallel retrieval of nanometer-scale light-matter interactions for nanophotonic systems,” Nat. Comput. 2, 298–307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Naruse, T. Kawazoe, R. Ohta, W. Nomura, and M. Ohtsu, “Optimal mixture of randomly dispersed quantum dots for optical excitation transfer via optical near-field interactions,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 125325 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Nomura, T. Yatsui, T. Kawazoe, and M. Ohtsu, “The observation of dissipated optical energy transfer between CdSe quantum dots,” J. Nanophotonics 1, 011591 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ohta, R.

M. Naruse, T. Kawazoe, R. Ohta, W. Nomura, and M. Ohtsu, “Optimal mixture of randomly dispersed quantum dots for optical excitation transfer via optical near-field interactions,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 125325 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsu, M.

T. Kawazoe, M. Ohtsu, S. Aso, Y. Sawado, Y. Hosoda, K. Yoshizawa, K. Akahane, N. Yamamoto, and M. Naruse, “Two-dimensional array of room-temperature nanophotonic logic gates using InAs quantum dots in mesa structures,” Appl. Phys. B 103(3), 537–546 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Naruse, H. Hori, K. Kobayashi, P. Holmström, L. Thylén, and M. Ohtsu, “Lower bound of energy dissipation in optical excitation transfer via optical near-field interactions,” Opt. Express 18(Suppl 4), A544–A553 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Tate, W. Nomura, T. Yatsui, T. Kawazoe, M. Naruse, and M. Ohtsu, “Parallel retrieval of nanometer-scale light-matter interactions for nanophotonic systems,” Nat. Comput. 2, 298–307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Naruse, T. Kawazoe, R. Ohta, W. Nomura, and M. Ohtsu, “Optimal mixture of randomly dispersed quantum dots for optical excitation transfer via optical near-field interactions,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 125325 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Ohtsu, T. Kawazoe, T. Yatsui, and M. Naruse, “Nanophotonics: application of dressed photons to novel photonic devices and systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(6), 1404–1417 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Nomura, T. Yatsui, T. Kawazoe, and M. Ohtsu, “The observation of dissipated optical energy transfer between CdSe quantum dots,” J. Nanophotonics 1, 011591 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Kobayashi, S. Sangu, T. Kawazoe, and M. Ohtsu, “Exciton dynamics and logic operations in a near-field optically coupled quantum-dot system,” J. Lumin. 112(1-4), 117–121 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Kawazoe, K. Kobayashi, J. Lim, Y. Narita, and M. Ohtsu, “Direct observation of optically forbidden energy transfer between CuCl quantum cubes via near-field optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(6), 067404 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kobayashi, S. Sangu, H. Ito, and M. Ohtsu, “Near-field optical potential for a neutral atom,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 013806 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Petruska, M. A.

M. Achermann, M. A. Petruska, S. A. Crooker, and V. I. Klimov, “Picosecond energy transfer in quantum dot Langmuir-Blodgett nanoassemblies,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(50), 13782–13787 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rogach, A. L.

T. Franzl, T. A. Klar, S. Schietinger, A. L. Rogach, and J. Feldmann, “Exciton recycling in graded gap nanocrystal structures,” Nano Lett. 4(9), 1599–1603 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Franzl, D. S. Koktysh, T. A. Klar, A. L. Rogach, J. Feldmann, and N. Gaponik, “Fast energy transfer in layer-by-layer aAssembled CdTe nanocrystal bilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15), 2904–2906 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sakakura, N.

N. Sakakura and Y. Masumoto, “Persistent spectral-hole-burning spectroscopy of CuCl quantum cubes,” Phys. Rev. B 56(7), 4051–4055 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sangu, S.

K. Kobayashi, S. Sangu, T. Kawazoe, and M. Ohtsu, “Exciton dynamics and logic operations in a near-field optically coupled quantum-dot system,” J. Lumin. 112(1-4), 117–121 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Kobayashi, S. Sangu, H. Ito, and M. Ohtsu, “Near-field optical potential for a neutral atom,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 013806 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sawado, Y.

T. Kawazoe, M. Ohtsu, S. Aso, Y. Sawado, Y. Hosoda, K. Yoshizawa, K. Akahane, N. Yamamoto, and M. Naruse, “Two-dimensional array of room-temperature nanophotonic logic gates using InAs quantum dots in mesa structures,” Appl. Phys. B 103(3), 537–546 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schietinger, S.

T. Franzl, T. A. Klar, S. Schietinger, A. L. Rogach, and J. Feldmann, “Exciton recycling in graded gap nanocrystal structures,” Nano Lett. 4(9), 1599–1603 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schikora, D.

M. Strassburg, M. Dworzak, H. Born, R. Heitz, A. Hoffmann, M. Bartels, K. Lischka, D. Schikora, and J. Christen, “Lateral redistribution of excitons in CdSe/ZnSe quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(3), 473–475 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Segawa, Y.

Z. K. Tang, A. Yanase, T. Yasui, Y. Segawa, and K. Cho, “Optical selection rule and oscillator strength of confined exciton system in CuCl thin films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(9), 1431–1434 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strassburg, M.

M. Strassburg, M. Dworzak, H. Born, R. Heitz, A. Hoffmann, M. Bartels, K. Lischka, D. Schikora, and J. Christen, “Lateral redistribution of excitons in CdSe/ZnSe quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(3), 473–475 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Su, J. Z.

M. Han, X. Gao, J. Z. Su, and S. Nie, “Quantum-dot-tagged microbeads for multiplexed optical coding of biomolecules,” Nat. Biotechnol. 19(7), 631–635 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, Z. K.

Z. K. Tang, A. Yanase, T. Yasui, Y. Segawa, and K. Cho, “Optical selection rule and oscillator strength of confined exciton system in CuCl thin films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(9), 1431–1434 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tate, N.

N. Tate, W. Nomura, T. Yatsui, T. Kawazoe, M. Naruse, and M. Ohtsu, “Parallel retrieval of nanometer-scale light-matter interactions for nanophotonic systems,” Nat. Comput. 2, 298–307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Thylén, L.

Tretiak, S.

S. A. Crooker, J. A. Hollingsworth, S. Tretiak, and V. I. Klimov, “Spectrally resolved dynamics of energy transfer in quantum-dot assemblies: towards engineered energy flows in artificial materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(18), 186802 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, N.

T. Kawazoe, M. Ohtsu, S. Aso, Y. Sawado, Y. Hosoda, K. Yoshizawa, K. Akahane, N. Yamamoto, and M. Naruse, “Two-dimensional array of room-temperature nanophotonic logic gates using InAs quantum dots in mesa structures,” Appl. Phys. B 103(3), 537–546 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yanase, A.

Z. K. Tang, A. Yanase, T. Yasui, Y. Segawa, and K. Cho, “Optical selection rule and oscillator strength of confined exciton system in CuCl thin films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(9), 1431–1434 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yasui, T.

Z. K. Tang, A. Yanase, T. Yasui, Y. Segawa, and K. Cho, “Optical selection rule and oscillator strength of confined exciton system in CuCl thin films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(9), 1431–1434 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yatsui, T.

N. Tate, W. Nomura, T. Yatsui, T. Kawazoe, M. Naruse, and M. Ohtsu, “Parallel retrieval of nanometer-scale light-matter interactions for nanophotonic systems,” Nat. Comput. 2, 298–307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Ohtsu, T. Kawazoe, T. Yatsui, and M. Naruse, “Nanophotonics: application of dressed photons to novel photonic devices and systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(6), 1404–1417 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Nomura, T. Yatsui, T. Kawazoe, and M. Ohtsu, “The observation of dissipated optical energy transfer between CdSe quantum dots,” J. Nanophotonics 1, 011591 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yoshizawa, K.

T. Kawazoe, M. Ohtsu, S. Aso, Y. Sawado, Y. Hosoda, K. Yoshizawa, K. Akahane, N. Yamamoto, and M. Naruse, “Two-dimensional array of room-temperature nanophotonic logic gates using InAs quantum dots in mesa structures,” Appl. Phys. B 103(3), 537–546 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

T. Kawazoe, M. Ohtsu, S. Aso, Y. Sawado, Y. Hosoda, K. Yoshizawa, K. Akahane, N. Yamamoto, and M. Naruse, “Two-dimensional array of room-temperature nanophotonic logic gates using InAs quantum dots in mesa structures,” Appl. Phys. B 103(3), 537–546 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. Strassburg, M. Dworzak, H. Born, R. Heitz, A. Hoffmann, M. Bartels, K. Lischka, D. Schikora, and J. Christen, “Lateral redistribution of excitons in CdSe/ZnSe quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(3), 473–475 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Franzl, D. S. Koktysh, T. A. Klar, A. L. Rogach, J. Feldmann, and N. Gaponik, “Fast energy transfer in layer-by-layer aAssembled CdTe nanocrystal bilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15), 2904–2906 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Ohtsu, T. Kawazoe, T. Yatsui, and M. Naruse, “Nanophotonics: application of dressed photons to novel photonic devices and systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(6), 1404–1417 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (1)

K. Kobayashi, S. Sangu, T. Kawazoe, and M. Ohtsu, “Exciton dynamics and logic operations in a near-field optically coupled quantum-dot system,” J. Lumin. 112(1-4), 117–121 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Nanophotonics (1)

W. Nomura, T. Yatsui, T. Kawazoe, and M. Ohtsu, “The observation of dissipated optical energy transfer between CdSe quantum dots,” J. Nanophotonics 1, 011591 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

M. Achermann, M. A. Petruska, S. A. Crooker, and V. I. Klimov, “Picosecond energy transfer in quantum dot Langmuir-Blodgett nanoassemblies,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(50), 13782–13787 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

T. Franzl, T. A. Klar, S. Schietinger, A. L. Rogach, and J. Feldmann, “Exciton recycling in graded gap nanocrystal structures,” Nano Lett. 4(9), 1599–1603 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

M. Han, X. Gao, J. Z. Su, and S. Nie, “Quantum-dot-tagged microbeads for multiplexed optical coding of biomolecules,” Nat. Biotechnol. 19(7), 631–635 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Comput. (1)

N. Tate, W. Nomura, T. Yatsui, T. Kawazoe, M. Naruse, and M. Ohtsu, “Parallel retrieval of nanometer-scale light-matter interactions for nanophotonic systems,” Nat. Comput. 2, 298–307 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

K. Kobayashi, S. Sangu, H. Ito, and M. Ohtsu, “Near-field optical potential for a neutral atom,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 013806 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

M. Naruse, T. Kawazoe, R. Ohta, W. Nomura, and M. Ohtsu, “Optimal mixture of randomly dispersed quantum dots for optical excitation transfer via optical near-field interactions,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 125325 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Sakakura and Y. Masumoto, “Persistent spectral-hole-burning spectroscopy of CuCl quantum cubes,” Phys. Rev. B 56(7), 4051–4055 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (1)

C. R. Kagan, C. B. Murray, and M. G. Bawendi, “Long-range resonance transfer of electronic excitations in close-packed CdSe quantum-dot solids,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(12), 8633–8643 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

S. A. Crooker, J. A. Hollingsworth, S. Tretiak, and V. I. Klimov, “Spectrally resolved dynamics of energy transfer in quantum-dot assemblies: towards engineered energy flows in artificial materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(18), 186802 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. K. Tang, A. Yanase, T. Yasui, Y. Segawa, and K. Cho, “Optical selection rule and oscillator strength of confined exciton system in CuCl thin films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(9), 1431–1434 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kawazoe, K. Kobayashi, J. Lim, Y. Narita, and M. Ohtsu, “Direct observation of optically forbidden energy transfer between CuCl quantum cubes via near-field optical spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(6), 067404 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

H. J. Calmichael, Statistical Methods in Quantum Optics 1. (Springer-Verlag, 1999).

M. Ohtsu, K. Kobayashi, T. Kawazoe, T. Yatsui, and M. Naruse, eds., Principles of Nanophotonics, (Taylor and Francis, 2008).

M. Ohtsu and K. Kobayashi, Optical Near Fields (Springer-Verlag, 2003), pp. 109–150.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Conceptual diagram of one-to-many correspondence in nanophotonic device based on concept of Modulatable Nanophotonics using resonant QDs. Induced nanometric modulations should be revealed as multiple outputs in the optical far-field region. [Inset] Schematic of local energy transfer between closely spaced small and large QDs. Energy transfer and subsequent energy dissipation are allowed only via optical near-fields induced between the two QDs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic diagram of modulatable optical near-field interactions between resonant QD pairs dispersed on flexible substrates. (b) Definition of sampled optical intensities on emission spectra I and I for quantitative evaluation of systems based on modulatability M sp , by using resonant QD pairs.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Schematic diagram of independent emissions from dispersed non-resonant QD pairs. (b) Definition of sampled optical intensities on emission spectra I and I for quantitative evaluation of systems based on modulatability M sp , by using non-resonant QD pairs.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic diagrams of four-QD calculation model for numerical demonstration of multiple-QD system, showing (a) their geometrical alignment and (b) the conditions of optical near-field interactions between each QD. In our model, each parameter is variable, and their variations are assumed to be imposed by flexion of the substrate.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic diagram of (a) stretch model and (c) shear model, and evolutions of the population of the radiation from four QDs by (b) stretching and (d) shearing the substrate.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic diagram of experimental setup for demonstration of modulatable nanophotonic system using a flexible substrate on which resonant QD pairs are randomly dispersed. Flexion of the sample substrate is achieved by vacuum evacuation.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Obtained emission spectra with (a) resonant and (b) non-resonant samples before (blue curves) and after (red curves) flexion of the substrate. Dashed curves represent results of Gaussian fitting of each spectrum.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Calculated modulatabilites M ch with (a) resonant and (b) non-resonant samples. An evident difference in M ch , defined as the distance between the chromaticity coordinates before and after flexion, was observed.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Calculated Modulatabilites M sp for Several Samples with Various Fractional Ratios and Dilution Rates*

Tables Icon

Table 2 Calculated Modulatabilites M ch for Several Samples with Various Fractional Ratios and Dilution Rates.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

U = A exp ( μ r ) r ,
M sp = | I ( λ S ) I ( λ S ) I ( λ L ) I ( λ L ) | ,

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