Abstract

We have built a new camera system to measure the downwelling polarized radiance distribution in the ocean. This system uses 4 fisheye lenses and coherent fiber bundles behind each image to transmit all 4 fisheye images onto a single camera image. This allows simultaneous images to be collected with 4 unique polarization states, and thus the full Stokes vector of the rapidly changing downwelling light field.

© 2011 OSA

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References

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  1. J. S. Tyo, D. L. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, and J. A. Shaw, “Review of passive imaging polarimetry for remote sensing applications,” Appl. Opt. 45(22), 5453–5469 (2006).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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  14. P. Bhandari, The Design of a polarimeter and its use for the study of the variation of downwelling polarized radiance distribution with depth in the ocean, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Miami (2011)
  15. A. Ivanoff and T. H. Waterman, “Elliptical polarization in submarine illumination,” J. Mar. Res. 16, 255–282 (1958).

2010 (2)

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2002 (2)

1997 (3)

1989 (1)

K. J. Voss and G. Zibordi, ““Radiometric and geometric calibration of a visible spectral electro-optic “Fisheye” camera radiance distribution system,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 6(4), 652–662 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

1958 (1)

A. Ivanoff and T. H. Waterman, “Elliptical polarization in submarine illumination,” J. Mar. Res. 16, 255–282 (1958).

Austin, R. W.

Barta, A.

Chapin, A. L.

Chenault, D. B.

Du, H.

Duggin, M. J.

Gál, J.

Goldstein, D. L.

Gruev, V.

Haiman, O.

Horváth, G.

Ivanoff, A.

A. Ivanoff and T. H. Waterman, “Elliptical polarization in submarine illumination,” J. Mar. Res. 16, 255–282 (1958).

Liu, Y.

North, J. A.

Perkins, R.

Shaw, J. A.

Smith, R. C.

Souaidia, N.

Suhai, B.

Tyler, J. E.

Tyo, J. S.

Voss, K. J.

Waterman, T. H.

A. Ivanoff and T. H. Waterman, “Elliptical polarization in submarine illumination,” J. Mar. Res. 16, 255–282 (1958).

York, T.

Zibordi, G.

K. J. Voss and G. Zibordi, ““Radiometric and geometric calibration of a visible spectral electro-optic “Fisheye” camera radiance distribution system,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 6(4), 652–662 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (8)

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (1)

K. J. Voss and G. Zibordi, ““Radiometric and geometric calibration of a visible spectral electro-optic “Fisheye” camera radiance distribution system,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 6(4), 652–662 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Mar. Res. (1)

A. Ivanoff and T. H. Waterman, “Elliptical polarization in submarine illumination,” J. Mar. Res. 16, 255–282 (1958).

Opt. Express (3)

Other (2)

H. Dennis, Goldstein, Polarized Light (Marcel Dekker, 2003).

P. Bhandari, The Design of a polarimeter and its use for the study of the variation of downwelling polarized radiance distribution with depth in the ocean, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Miami (2011)

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sample image from Polarization camera system. There are 4 separate fisheye images shown in this one camera image, the result of our quadfricated fiber bundle. Each small fisheye image carries different polarization information. Three of the images have linear polarizers in line with the image optical path, the remaining image contains a circular polarization analyzer. By combining these images, the 4 Stokes vectors can be determined. Data was at 520 nm, the solar zenith angle was 90°. Data was collected in very clear water off of the Hawaiian Islands from the R/P Flip on September 7, 2009. Measurement depth is 1 m. The area which appears illuminated in this figure is the portion of the in-water radiance distribution with zenith angles from 0 – 48°. The rest of the image is darker because no above-water radiance is refracted into this outer area. Each image has a slightly different illumination pattern because of the interplay between the sky polarization and polarizer for that specific lens. The polarizer arrangements are (angles are with respect to the horizontal axis): (A) Linear polarizer at 60°, (B) linear polarizer at 0°, (C) linear polarizer at 120°, and (D) circular polarization analyzer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Picture of the top of the polarization camera system. One can see the 4 fisheye lenses all aligned in a row. On the left are connectors to allow the system to be used, either over a dedicated cable (the big connector) or through the ROV system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The image resulting from illuminating the ends of the fibers with an integrating sphere.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Example line across a sample image showing the effect of using the flat-field correction.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

) Experimental set up for the measurement of the fast axis angle and the retardation angle of the LHCP used. S is nearly unpolarized source of monochromatic light.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The camera counts versus the angle of external linear (A) and circular (B) polarizer as seen by the different lenses. Behind lens 1, lens 2, lens 3 are linear polarizers at approximately 0°, 60° and 120° respective to an arbitrary axis and behind the fourth lens is a circular analyzer. In the circular case, lens 4 data has been multiplied by a factor of 10.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Normalized Stokes Vectors and difference between predicted and constructed normalized Stokes vectors (Delta).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Radiance (A) and log Radiance (B). In this and the following figures, the zenith angle for the data increases linearly with radius from the center. The two semicircle cutouts in the data are the clamps that hold on the dome window. The sun is towards the top of the image. Data was at 520 nm, the solar zenith angle was 90°. Data was collected in very clear water off of the Hawaiian Islands from the R/P Flip on September 7, 2009. Measurement depth is 1 m.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Q/I (A), U/I (B), and V/I (C) for data shown in Fig. 8.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Degree of linear polarization, DOLP, and plane of polarization, χ, for data shown in Fig. 8.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 LHCP Values and Associated Transmitted Stokes Vector for Unpolarized Incident Light

Tables Icon

Table 2 Maximum (Lmax(λ)) and Minimum (Lmin(λ)) Measurable Radiances

Equations (5)

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M L P = [ 1 cos 2 θ sin 2 θ 0 cos 2 θ cos 2 2 θ cos 2 θ sin 2 θ 0 sin 2 θ cos 2 θ sin 2 θ sin 2 2 θ 0 0 0 0 0 ]   .
M r e t ( θ f , ϕ ) = [ 1 0 0 0 0 c o s 2 2 θ f + c o s ϕ s i n 2 2 θ f ( 1 c o s ϕ ) s i n 2 θ f c o s 2 θ f s i n ϕ s i n 2 θ f 0 ( 1 c o s ϕ ) s i n 2 θ f c o s 2 θ f s i n 2 2 θ f + c o s ϕ c o s 2 2 θ f s i n ϕ c o s 2 θ f 0 s i n ϕ s i n 2 θ f s i n ϕ c o s 2 θ f c o s ϕ ] .
S ' = M L P ( θ ) M Re t ( θ f , ϕ ) M L P ( θ p ) S ,
I ' ( θ ) = 1 + c o s 2 θ [ c o s 2 θ p ( c o s 2 2 θ f + c o s ϕ s i n 2 2 θ f ) + s i n 2 θ p ( 1 c o s ϕ ) s i n 2 θ f c o s 2 θ f ] + s i n 2 θ [ c o s 2 θ p ( 1 c o s ϕ ) s i n 2 θ f c o s 2 θ f + s i n 2 θ p ( s i n 2 2 θ f + c o s ϕ c o s 2 2 θ f ) ] .
[ 1 Q / I U / I V / I ] = [ T 11 T 12 T 13 T 14 T 21 T 22 T 23 T 24 T 31 T 32 T 33 T 34 T 41 T 42 T 43 T 44 ] [ I 1 ( θ ) I 2 ( θ ) I 3 ( θ ) I 4 ( θ ) ] .

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