Abstract

Femtosecond laser pulses are focused on a thin film of Ge2Sb2Te5 phase-change material, and the transfer of the illuminated material to a nearby substrate is investigated. The size, shape, and phase-state of the fabricated pattern can be effectively controlled by the laser fluence and by the thickness of the Ge2Sb2Te5 film. Results show multi-level electrical and optical reflection states of the fabricated patterns, which may provide a simple and efficient foundation for patterning future phase-change devices.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. T. Ohta, K. Nishiuchi, K. Narumi, Y. Kitaoka, H. Ishibashi, N. Yamada, and T. Kozaki, “Overview and the future of phase-change optical disk technology,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 1, No. 2B), 770–774 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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  7. M. Terao, T. Morikawa, and T. Ohta, “Electrical phase-change memory: fundamentals and state of the art,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(8), 080001 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. B. Peng, L. Cheng, and M. Mansuripur, “Experimental and theoretical investigations of laser-induced crystallization and amorphization in phase-change optical recording media,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(9), 4183–4191 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. G. F. Zhou, “Materials aspects in phase change optical recording,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 73, 304–306 (2001).
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    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Pandian, B. J. Kooi, G. Palasantzas, J. T. M. De Hosson, and A. Pauza, “Nanoscale electrolytic switching in phase-change chalcogenide films,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 19(24), 4431–4437 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. S.-W. Nam, T.-Y. Lee, J.-S. Wi, D. Lee, H.-S. Lee, K.-B. Jin, M.-H. Lee, H.-M. Kim, and K.-B. Kim, “Electron-beam lithography patterning of Ge2Sb2Te5 nanostructures using hydrogen silsesquioxane and amorphous Si intermediate layer,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 154(9), H844–H847 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  31. J. Bohandy, B. F. Kim, and F. J. Adrian, “Metal deposition from a supported metal film using an excimer laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 60(4), 1538–1540 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  32. H. Shin, H. Kim, H. Lee, H. Yoo, J. Kim, H. Kim, and M. Lee, “Photoresist-free lithographic patterning of solution-processed nanostructured metal thin films,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(18), 3457–3461 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  34. S. Zergioti, S. Mailis, N. A. Vainos, A. Ikiades, C. P. Grigoropoulos, and C. Fotakis, “Microprinting and microetching of diffractive structures using ultrashort laser pulse,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 138–139(1-2), 82–86 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  35. D. P. Banks, C. Grivas, J. D. Mills, R. W. Eason, and I. Zergioti, “Nanodroplets de-posited in microarrays by femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser induced forward transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 193107 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  36. A. I. Kuznetsov, R. Kiyan, and B. N. Chichkov, “Laser fabrication of 2D and 3D metal nanoparticle structures and arrays,” Opt. Express 18(20), 21198–21203 (2010).
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    [CrossRef]
  39. M. Colina, P. Serra, J. M. Fernández-Pradas, L. Sevilla, and J. L. Morenza, “DNA deposition through laser induced forward transfer,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 20(8), 1638–1642 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. T. V. Kononenko, P. Alloncle, V. I. Konov, and M. Sentis, “Laser transfer of diamond nanopowder induced by metal film blistering,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 94(3), 531–536 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  41. E. Fogarassy, C. Fuchs, F. Kerherve, G. Hauchecorne, and J. Perriere, “Laser-induced forward transfer of high-Tc YBaCuO and BiSrCaCuO superconducting thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 66(1), 457 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  42. S. Mailis, I. Zergioti, G. Koundourakis, A. Ikiades, A. Patentalaki, P. Papakonstantinou, N. A. Vainos, and C. Fotakis, “Etching and printing of diffractive optical microstructures by a femtosecond excimer laser,” Appl. Opt. 38(11), 2301–2308 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  43. M. C. Suh, B. D. Chin, M.-H. Kim, T. M. Kang, and S. T. Lee, “Enhanced luminance of blue light-emitting polymers by blending with hole-transporting materials,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 15(15), 1254–1258 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  44. J. Lee and S. Lee, “Laser-induced thermal imaging of polymer light-emitting materials on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): silane hole-transport layer,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 16(1), 51–54 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  45. C. M. Chang, C. H. Chu, M. L. Tseng, H.-P. Chiang, M. Mansuripur, and D. P. Tsai, “Local electrical characterization of laser-recorded phase-change marks on amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9492–9504 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  46. C. H. Chu, B. J. Wu, T. S. Kao, Y. H. Fu, H.-P. Chiang, and D. P. Tsai, “Imaging of recording marks and their jitters with different writing strategy and terminal resistance of optical output,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 45(5), 2221–2223 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  47. S. K. Lin, I. C. Lin, and D. P. Tsai, “Characterization of nano recorded marks at different writing strategies on phase-change recording layer of optical disks,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4452–4458 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  48. T. Nonaka, G. Ohbayashi, Y. Toriumi, Y. Mori, and H. Hashimoto, “Crystal structure of GeTe and Ge2Sb2Te5 meta-stable phase,” Thin Solid Films 370(1-2), 258–261 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  49. S. Danto, F. Sorin, N. D. Orf, Z. Wang, S. A. Speakman, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Fiber field-effect device via in situ channel crystallization,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(37), 4162–4166 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

2010 (4)

C. H. Chu, C. Da Shiue, H. W. Cheng, M. L. Tseng, H.-P. Chiang, M. Mansuripur, and D. P. Tsai, “Laser-induced phase transitions of Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films used in optical and electronic data storage and in thermal lithography,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18383–18393 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. I. Kuznetsov, R. Kiyan, and B. N. Chichkov, “Laser fabrication of 2D and 3D metal nanoparticle structures and arrays,” Opt. Express 18(20), 21198–21203 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Danto, F. Sorin, N. D. Orf, Z. Wang, S. A. Speakman, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Fiber field-effect device via in situ channel crystallization,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(37), 4162–4166 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Tanaka, Y. Ikuma, Y. Shoji, M. Kuwahara, X. Wang, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, and H. Tsuda, “Demonstration of 1000-times switching of phase-change optical gate with Si wire waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 46, 1460 (2010).

2009 (7)

P. Serra, M. Duocastella, J. M. Fernandez-Pradas, and J. L. Morenza, “Liquids microprinting through laser-induced forward transfer,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(10), 5342–5345 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. V. Kononenko, P. Alloncle, V. I. Konov, and M. Sentis, “Laser transfer of diamond nanopowder induced by metal film blistering,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 94(3), 531–536 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yin, T. Noguchi, H. Ohno, and S. Hosaka, “Programming margin enlargement by material engineering for multilevel storage in phase-change memory,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 133503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K.-F. Kao, C.-M. Lee, M.-J. Chen, M.-J. Tsai, and T.-S. Chin, “Ga2Te3Sb5—A Candidate for Fast and Ultralong retention phase-change memory,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(17), 1695–1699 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Terao, T. Morikawa, and T. Ohta, “Electrical phase-change memory: fundamentals and state of the art,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(8), 080001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chu, B. J. Wu, T. S. Kao, Y. H. Fu, H.-P. Chiang, and D. P. Tsai, “Imaging of recording marks and their jitters with different writing strategy and terminal resistance of optical output,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 45(5), 2221–2223 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Wang, M. Kuwahara, K. Awazu, P. Fons, J. Tominaga, and Y. Ohki, “Proposal of a grating-based optical reflection switch using phase change materials,” Opt. Express 17(19), 16947–16956 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (6)

K. P. Chiu, K. F. Lai, and D. P. Tsai, “Application of surface polariton coupling between nano recording marks to optical data storage,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13885–13892 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. S. Kao, Y. H. Fu, H. W. Hsu, and D. P. Tsai, “Study of the optical response of phase-change recording layer with zinc oxide nanostructured thin film,” J. Microsc. 229(3), 561–566 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Guo, M. H. Li, Y. Li, L. P. Shi, T. C. Chong, J. A. Kalb, and C. V. Thompson, “Crystallization-induced stress in thin phase change films of different thicknesses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221907 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, S. Raoux, D. Krebs, L. E. Krupp, T. Topuria, M. A. Caldwell, D. J. Milliron, A. Kellock, P. M. Rice, J. L. Jordan-Sweet, and H.-S. P. Wong, “Phase change nanodots patterning using a self-assembled polymer lithography and crystallization analysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 074312 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Shin, H. Kim, H. Lee, H. Yoo, J. Kim, H. Kim, and M. Lee, “Photoresist-free lithographic patterning of solution-processed nanostructured metal thin films,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(18), 3457–3461 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jung, S. H. Lee, A. T. Jennings, and R. Agarwal, “Core-shell heterostructured phase change nanowire multistate memory,” Nano Lett. 8(7), 2056–2062 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

S.-W. Nam, T.-Y. Lee, J.-S. Wi, D. Lee, H.-S. Lee, K.-B. Jin, M.-H. Lee, H.-M. Kim, and K.-B. Kim, “Electron-beam lithography patterning of Ge2Sb2Te5 nanostructures using hydrogen silsesquioxane and amorphous Si intermediate layer,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 154(9), H844–H847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Yang, S. H. Hong, D. K. Kim, B. K. Cheong, and H. Lee, “Patterning of Ge2Sb2Te5 phase change material using UV nano-imprint lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(1), 21–24 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Pandian, B. J. Kooi, G. Palasantzas, J. T. M. De Hosson, and A. Pauza, “Nanoscale electrolytic switching in phase-change chalcogenide films,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 19(24), 4431–4437 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Wuttig and N. Yamada, “Phase-change materials for rewriteable data storage,” Nat. Mater. 6(11), 824–832 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

H. F. Hamann, M. O’Boyle, Y. C. Martin, M. Rooks, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Ultra-high-density phase-change storage and memory,” Nat. Mater. 5(5), 383–387 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. P. Banks, C. Grivas, J. D. Mills, R. W. Eason, and I. Zergioti, “Nanodroplets de-posited in microarrays by femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser induced forward transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 193107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Colina, M. Duocastella, J. M. Fernandez-Pradas, P. Serra, and J. L. Morenza, “Laser-induced forward transfer of liquids: Study of the droplet ejection process,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(8), 084909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Lin, I. C. Lin, and D. P. Tsai, “Characterization of nano recorded marks at different writing strategies on phase-change recording layer of optical disks,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4452–4458 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

D. A. Willis and V. Grosu, “Microdroplet deposition by laser-induced forward transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Colina, P. Serra, J. M. Fernández-Pradas, L. Sevilla, and J. L. Morenza, “DNA deposition through laser induced forward transfer,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 20(8), 1638–1642 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Greer and N. Mathur, “Materials science: changing face of the chameleon,” Nature 437(7063), 1246–1247 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

J. Lee and S. Lee, “Laser-induced thermal imaging of polymer light-emitting materials on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): silane hole-transport layer,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 16(1), 51–54 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Shintani, Y. Anzai, H. Minemura, H. Miyamoto, and J. Ushiyama, “Nanosize fabrication using etching of phase-change recording films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 639–641 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

M. C. Suh, B. D. Chin, M.-H. Kim, T. M. Kang, and S. T. Lee, “Enhanced luminance of blue light-emitting polymers by blending with hole-transporting materials,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 15(15), 1254–1258 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Lin, T. S. Kao, H. H. Chang, Y. H. Lin, Y. H. Fu, C. T. Wu, K. H. Chen, and D. P. Tsai, “Study of a super-resolution optical structure: polycarbonate/ZnS-SiO2/ZnO/ZnS-SiO2/Ge2Sb2Te5/ZnS-SiO2,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 1, No. 2B), 1029–1030 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

S. R. Ovshinsky and W. Czubatyj, “New developments in optical phase-change memory,” Proc. SPIE 4085, 15–22 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Zhou, “Materials aspects in phase change optical recording,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 73, 304–306 (2001).

2000 (4)

P. Khulbe, E. M. Wright, and M. Mansuripur, “Crystallization behavior of as-deposited, melt-quenched, and primed amorphous states of Ge2Sb2.3Te5 films,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(7), 3926–3933 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Ohta, K. Nishiuchi, K. Narumi, Y. Kitaoka, H. Ishibashi, N. Yamada, and T. Kozaki, “Overview and the future of phase-change optical disk technology,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 1, No. 2B), 770–774 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Wright, P. K. Khulbe, and M. Mansuripur, “Dynamic theory of crystallization in Ge2Sb2.3Te5 phase-change optical recording media,” Appl. Opt. 39(35), 6695–6701 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nonaka, G. Ohbayashi, Y. Toriumi, Y. Mori, and H. Hashimoto, “Crystal structure of GeTe and Ge2Sb2Te5 meta-stable phase,” Thin Solid Films 370(1-2), 258–261 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

S. Mailis, I. Zergioti, G. Koundourakis, A. Ikiades, A. Patentalaki, P. Papakonstantinou, N. A. Vainos, and C. Fotakis, “Etching and printing of diffractive optical microstructures by a femtosecond excimer laser,” Appl. Opt. 38(11), 2301–2308 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. P. Shi, T. C. Chong, P. K. Tan, X. S. Miao, Y. M. Huang, and R. Zhao, “Study of the partial crystallization properties of phase-change optical recording disks,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 1, No. 3B), 1645–1648 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Zergioti, S. Mailis, N. A. Vainos, A. Ikiades, C. P. Grigoropoulos, and C. Fotakis, “Microprinting and microetching of diffractive structures using ultrashort laser pulse,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 138–139(1-2), 82–86 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

C. B. Peng, L. Cheng, and M. Mansuripur, “Experimental and theoretical investigations of laser-induced crystallization and amorphization in phase-change optical recording media,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(9), 4183–4191 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

N. Yamada, E. Ohno, K. Nishiuchi, N. Akahira, and M. Takao, “Rapid-phase transitions of GeTe-Sb2Te3 pseudobinary amorphous thin films for an optical disk memory,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(5), 2849–2856 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

E. Fogarassy, C. Fuchs, F. Kerherve, G. Hauchecorne, and J. Perriere, “Laser-induced forward transfer of high-Tc YBaCuO and BiSrCaCuO superconducting thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 66(1), 457 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

J. Bohandy, B. F. Kim, and F. J. Adrian, “Metal deposition from a supported metal film using an excimer laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 60(4), 1538–1540 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

S. R. Ovshinsky, “Reversible electrical switching phenomena in disordered structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 21(20), 1450–1453 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Adrian, F. J.

J. Bohandy, B. F. Kim, and F. J. Adrian, “Metal deposition from a supported metal film using an excimer laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 60(4), 1538–1540 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, R.

Y. Jung, S. H. Lee, A. T. Jennings, and R. Agarwal, “Core-shell heterostructured phase change nanowire multistate memory,” Nano Lett. 8(7), 2056–2062 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akahira, N.

N. Yamada, E. Ohno, K. Nishiuchi, N. Akahira, and M. Takao, “Rapid-phase transitions of GeTe-Sb2Te3 pseudobinary amorphous thin films for an optical disk memory,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(5), 2849–2856 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Alloncle, P.

T. V. Kononenko, P. Alloncle, V. I. Konov, and M. Sentis, “Laser transfer of diamond nanopowder induced by metal film blistering,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 94(3), 531–536 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Anzai, Y.

T. Shintani, Y. Anzai, H. Minemura, H. Miyamoto, and J. Ushiyama, “Nanosize fabrication using etching of phase-change recording films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 639–641 (2004).
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K. Y. Yang, S. H. Hong, D. K. Kim, B. K. Cheong, and H. Lee, “Patterning of Ge2Sb2Te5 phase change material using UV nano-imprint lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(1), 21–24 (2007).
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L. P. Shi, T. C. Chong, P. K. Tan, X. S. Miao, Y. M. Huang, and R. Zhao, “Study of the partial crystallization properties of phase-change optical recording disks,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 1, No. 3B), 1645–1648 (1999).
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S. Zergioti, S. Mailis, N. A. Vainos, A. Ikiades, C. P. Grigoropoulos, and C. Fotakis, “Microprinting and microetching of diffractive structures using ultrashort laser pulse,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 138–139(1-2), 82–86 (1999).
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S. Mailis, I. Zergioti, G. Koundourakis, A. Ikiades, A. Patentalaki, P. Papakonstantinou, N. A. Vainos, and C. Fotakis, “Etching and printing of diffractive optical microstructures by a femtosecond excimer laser,” Appl. Opt. 38(11), 2301–2308 (1999).
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T. Ohta, K. Nishiuchi, K. Narumi, Y. Kitaoka, H. Ishibashi, N. Yamada, and T. Kozaki, “Overview and the future of phase-change optical disk technology,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 1, No. 2B), 770–774 (2000).
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S. Danto, F. Sorin, N. D. Orf, Z. Wang, S. A. Speakman, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Fiber field-effect device via in situ channel crystallization,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(37), 4162–4166 (2010).
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Y. Zhang, S. Raoux, D. Krebs, L. E. Krupp, T. Topuria, M. A. Caldwell, D. J. Milliron, A. Kellock, P. M. Rice, J. L. Jordan-Sweet, and H.-S. P. Wong, “Phase change nanodots patterning using a self-assembled polymer lithography and crystallization analysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 074312 (2008).
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Y. Jung, S. H. Lee, A. T. Jennings, and R. Agarwal, “Core-shell heterostructured phase change nanowire multistate memory,” Nano Lett. 8(7), 2056–2062 (2008).
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M. C. Suh, B. D. Chin, M.-H. Kim, T. M. Kang, and S. T. Lee, “Enhanced luminance of blue light-emitting polymers by blending with hole-transporting materials,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 15(15), 1254–1258 (2003).
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Kao, K.-F.

K.-F. Kao, C.-M. Lee, M.-J. Chen, M.-J. Tsai, and T.-S. Chin, “Ga2Te3Sb5—A Candidate for Fast and Ultralong retention phase-change memory,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(17), 1695–1699 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kao, T. S.

C. H. Chu, B. J. Wu, T. S. Kao, Y. H. Fu, H.-P. Chiang, and D. P. Tsai, “Imaging of recording marks and their jitters with different writing strategy and terminal resistance of optical output,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 45(5), 2221–2223 (2009).
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T. S. Kao, Y. H. Fu, H. W. Hsu, and D. P. Tsai, “Study of the optical response of phase-change recording layer with zinc oxide nanostructured thin film,” J. Microsc. 229(3), 561–566 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. C. Lin, T. S. Kao, H. H. Chang, Y. H. Lin, Y. H. Fu, C. T. Wu, K. H. Chen, and D. P. Tsai, “Study of a super-resolution optical structure: polycarbonate/ZnS-SiO2/ZnO/ZnS-SiO2/Ge2Sb2Te5/ZnS-SiO2,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 1, No. 2B), 1029–1030 (2003).
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Kellock, A.

Y. Zhang, S. Raoux, D. Krebs, L. E. Krupp, T. Topuria, M. A. Caldwell, D. J. Milliron, A. Kellock, P. M. Rice, J. L. Jordan-Sweet, and H.-S. P. Wong, “Phase change nanodots patterning using a self-assembled polymer lithography and crystallization analysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 074312 (2008).
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Kim, B. F.

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Kim, D. K.

K. Y. Yang, S. H. Hong, D. K. Kim, B. K. Cheong, and H. Lee, “Patterning of Ge2Sb2Te5 phase change material using UV nano-imprint lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(1), 21–24 (2007).
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Kim, H.

H. Shin, H. Kim, H. Lee, H. Yoo, J. Kim, H. Kim, and M. Lee, “Photoresist-free lithographic patterning of solution-processed nanostructured metal thin films,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(18), 3457–3461 (2008).
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H. Shin, H. Kim, H. Lee, H. Yoo, J. Kim, H. Kim, and M. Lee, “Photoresist-free lithographic patterning of solution-processed nanostructured metal thin films,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(18), 3457–3461 (2008).
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Kim, H.-M.

S.-W. Nam, T.-Y. Lee, J.-S. Wi, D. Lee, H.-S. Lee, K.-B. Jin, M.-H. Lee, H.-M. Kim, and K.-B. Kim, “Electron-beam lithography patterning of Ge2Sb2Te5 nanostructures using hydrogen silsesquioxane and amorphous Si intermediate layer,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 154(9), H844–H847 (2007).
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Kim, J.

H. Shin, H. Kim, H. Lee, H. Yoo, J. Kim, H. Kim, and M. Lee, “Photoresist-free lithographic patterning of solution-processed nanostructured metal thin films,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(18), 3457–3461 (2008).
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Kim, K.-B.

S.-W. Nam, T.-Y. Lee, J.-S. Wi, D. Lee, H.-S. Lee, K.-B. Jin, M.-H. Lee, H.-M. Kim, and K.-B. Kim, “Electron-beam lithography patterning of Ge2Sb2Te5 nanostructures using hydrogen silsesquioxane and amorphous Si intermediate layer,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 154(9), H844–H847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M.-H.

M. C. Suh, B. D. Chin, M.-H. Kim, T. M. Kang, and S. T. Lee, “Enhanced luminance of blue light-emitting polymers by blending with hole-transporting materials,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 15(15), 1254–1258 (2003).
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Kintaka, K.

D. Tanaka, Y. Ikuma, Y. Shoji, M. Kuwahara, X. Wang, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, and H. Tsuda, “Demonstration of 1000-times switching of phase-change optical gate with Si wire waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 46, 1460 (2010).

Kitaoka, Y.

T. Ohta, K. Nishiuchi, K. Narumi, Y. Kitaoka, H. Ishibashi, N. Yamada, and T. Kozaki, “Overview and the future of phase-change optical disk technology,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 1, No. 2B), 770–774 (2000).
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R. Pandian, B. J. Kooi, G. Palasantzas, J. T. M. De Hosson, and A. Pauza, “Nanoscale electrolytic switching in phase-change chalcogenide films,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 19(24), 4431–4437 (2007).
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Koundourakis, G.

Kozaki, T.

T. Ohta, K. Nishiuchi, K. Narumi, Y. Kitaoka, H. Ishibashi, N. Yamada, and T. Kozaki, “Overview and the future of phase-change optical disk technology,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 1, No. 2B), 770–774 (2000).
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Krebs, D.

Y. Zhang, S. Raoux, D. Krebs, L. E. Krupp, T. Topuria, M. A. Caldwell, D. J. Milliron, A. Kellock, P. M. Rice, J. L. Jordan-Sweet, and H.-S. P. Wong, “Phase change nanodots patterning using a self-assembled polymer lithography and crystallization analysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 074312 (2008).
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Krupp, L. E.

Y. Zhang, S. Raoux, D. Krebs, L. E. Krupp, T. Topuria, M. A. Caldwell, D. J. Milliron, A. Kellock, P. M. Rice, J. L. Jordan-Sweet, and H.-S. P. Wong, “Phase change nanodots patterning using a self-assembled polymer lithography and crystallization analysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 074312 (2008).
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Kuwahara, M.

D. Tanaka, Y. Ikuma, Y. Shoji, M. Kuwahara, X. Wang, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, and H. Tsuda, “Demonstration of 1000-times switching of phase-change optical gate with Si wire waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 46, 1460 (2010).

X. M. Wang, M. Kuwahara, K. Awazu, P. Fons, J. Tominaga, and Y. Ohki, “Proposal of a grating-based optical reflection switch using phase change materials,” Opt. Express 17(19), 16947–16956 (2009).
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Kuznetsov, A. I.

Lai, K. F.

Lee, C.-M.

K.-F. Kao, C.-M. Lee, M.-J. Chen, M.-J. Tsai, and T.-S. Chin, “Ga2Te3Sb5—A Candidate for Fast and Ultralong retention phase-change memory,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(17), 1695–1699 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D.

S.-W. Nam, T.-Y. Lee, J.-S. Wi, D. Lee, H.-S. Lee, K.-B. Jin, M.-H. Lee, H.-M. Kim, and K.-B. Kim, “Electron-beam lithography patterning of Ge2Sb2Te5 nanostructures using hydrogen silsesquioxane and amorphous Si intermediate layer,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 154(9), H844–H847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.

H. Shin, H. Kim, H. Lee, H. Yoo, J. Kim, H. Kim, and M. Lee, “Photoresist-free lithographic patterning of solution-processed nanostructured metal thin films,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(18), 3457–3461 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Yang, S. H. Hong, D. K. Kim, B. K. Cheong, and H. Lee, “Patterning of Ge2Sb2Te5 phase change material using UV nano-imprint lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(1), 21–24 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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T. Shintani, Y. Anzai, H. Minemura, H. Miyamoto, and J. Ushiyama, “Nanosize fabrication using etching of phase-change recording films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 639–641 (2004).
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Y. Zhang, S. Raoux, D. Krebs, L. E. Krupp, T. Topuria, M. A. Caldwell, D. J. Milliron, A. Kellock, P. M. Rice, J. L. Jordan-Sweet, and H.-S. P. Wong, “Phase change nanodots patterning using a self-assembled polymer lithography and crystallization analysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 074312 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wright, E. M.

P. Khulbe, E. M. Wright, and M. Mansuripur, “Crystallization behavior of as-deposited, melt-quenched, and primed amorphous states of Ge2Sb2.3Te5 films,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(7), 3926–3933 (2000).
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E. M. Wright, P. K. Khulbe, and M. Mansuripur, “Dynamic theory of crystallization in Ge2Sb2.3Te5 phase-change optical recording media,” Appl. Opt. 39(35), 6695–6701 (2000).
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Wu, B. J.

C. H. Chu, B. J. Wu, T. S. Kao, Y. H. Fu, H.-P. Chiang, and D. P. Tsai, “Imaging of recording marks and their jitters with different writing strategy and terminal resistance of optical output,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 45(5), 2221–2223 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. T.

W. C. Lin, T. S. Kao, H. H. Chang, Y. H. Lin, Y. H. Fu, C. T. Wu, K. H. Chen, and D. P. Tsai, “Study of a super-resolution optical structure: polycarbonate/ZnS-SiO2/ZnO/ZnS-SiO2/Ge2Sb2Te5/ZnS-SiO2,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 1, No. 2B), 1029–1030 (2003).
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Wuttig, M.

D. Lencer, M. Salinga, and M. Wuttig, “Design rules for phase-change materials in data storage applications,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(18), 2030–2058 (2011).
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M. Wuttig and N. Yamada, “Phase-change materials for rewriteable data storage,” Nat. Mater. 6(11), 824–832 (2007).
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M. Wuttig and N. Yamada, “Phase-change materials for rewriteable data storage,” Nat. Mater. 6(11), 824–832 (2007).
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T. Ohta, K. Nishiuchi, K. Narumi, Y. Kitaoka, H. Ishibashi, N. Yamada, and T. Kozaki, “Overview and the future of phase-change optical disk technology,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 1, No. 2B), 770–774 (2000).
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N. Yamada, E. Ohno, K. Nishiuchi, N. Akahira, and M. Takao, “Rapid-phase transitions of GeTe-Sb2Te3 pseudobinary amorphous thin films for an optical disk memory,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(5), 2849–2856 (1991).
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K. Y. Yang, S. H. Hong, D. K. Kim, B. K. Cheong, and H. Lee, “Patterning of Ge2Sb2Te5 phase change material using UV nano-imprint lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(1), 21–24 (2007).
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Y. Yin, T. Noguchi, H. Ohno, and S. Hosaka, “Programming margin enlargement by material engineering for multilevel storage in phase-change memory,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 133503 (2009).
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Yoo, H.

H. Shin, H. Kim, H. Lee, H. Yoo, J. Kim, H. Kim, and M. Lee, “Photoresist-free lithographic patterning of solution-processed nanostructured metal thin films,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(18), 3457–3461 (2008).
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Zergioti, I.

D. P. Banks, C. Grivas, J. D. Mills, R. W. Eason, and I. Zergioti, “Nanodroplets de-posited in microarrays by femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser induced forward transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 193107 (2006).
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S. Mailis, I. Zergioti, G. Koundourakis, A. Ikiades, A. Patentalaki, P. Papakonstantinou, N. A. Vainos, and C. Fotakis, “Etching and printing of diffractive optical microstructures by a femtosecond excimer laser,” Appl. Opt. 38(11), 2301–2308 (1999).
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S. Zergioti, S. Mailis, N. A. Vainos, A. Ikiades, C. P. Grigoropoulos, and C. Fotakis, “Microprinting and microetching of diffractive structures using ultrashort laser pulse,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 138–139(1-2), 82–86 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, S. Raoux, D. Krebs, L. E. Krupp, T. Topuria, M. A. Caldwell, D. J. Milliron, A. Kellock, P. M. Rice, J. L. Jordan-Sweet, and H.-S. P. Wong, “Phase change nanodots patterning using a self-assembled polymer lithography and crystallization analysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 074312 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, R.

L. P. Shi, T. C. Chong, P. K. Tan, X. S. Miao, Y. M. Huang, and R. Zhao, “Study of the partial crystallization properties of phase-change optical recording disks,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 1, No. 3B), 1645–1648 (1999).
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Zhou, G. F.

G. F. Zhou, “Materials aspects in phase change optical recording,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 73, 304–306 (2001).

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (7)

K.-F. Kao, C.-M. Lee, M.-J. Chen, M.-J. Tsai, and T.-S. Chin, “Ga2Te3Sb5—A Candidate for Fast and Ultralong retention phase-change memory,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(17), 1695–1699 (2009).
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D. Lencer, M. Salinga, and M. Wuttig, “Design rules for phase-change materials in data storage applications,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(18), 2030–2058 (2011).
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R. Pandian, B. J. Kooi, G. Palasantzas, J. T. M. De Hosson, and A. Pauza, “Nanoscale electrolytic switching in phase-change chalcogenide films,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 19(24), 4431–4437 (2007).
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H. Shin, H. Kim, H. Lee, H. Yoo, J. Kim, H. Kim, and M. Lee, “Photoresist-free lithographic patterning of solution-processed nanostructured metal thin films,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(18), 3457–3461 (2008).
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M. C. Suh, B. D. Chin, M.-H. Kim, T. M. Kang, and S. T. Lee, “Enhanced luminance of blue light-emitting polymers by blending with hole-transporting materials,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 15(15), 1254–1258 (2003).
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J. Lee and S. Lee, “Laser-induced thermal imaging of polymer light-emitting materials on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): silane hole-transport layer,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 16(1), 51–54 (2004).
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S. Danto, F. Sorin, N. D. Orf, Z. Wang, S. A. Speakman, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Fiber field-effect device via in situ channel crystallization,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(37), 4162–4166 (2010).
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Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

T. Shintani, Y. Anzai, H. Minemura, H. Miyamoto, and J. Ushiyama, “Nanosize fabrication using etching of phase-change recording films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 639–641 (2004).
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D. A. Willis and V. Grosu, “Microdroplet deposition by laser-induced forward transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 244103 (2005).
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D. P. Banks, C. Grivas, J. D. Mills, R. W. Eason, and I. Zergioti, “Nanodroplets de-posited in microarrays by femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser induced forward transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 193107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yin, T. Noguchi, H. Ohno, and S. Hosaka, “Programming margin enlargement by material engineering for multilevel storage in phase-change memory,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 133503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Guo, M. H. Li, Y. Li, L. P. Shi, T. C. Chong, J. A. Kalb, and C. V. Thompson, “Crystallization-induced stress in thin phase change films of different thicknesses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221907 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

T. V. Kononenko, P. Alloncle, V. I. Konov, and M. Sentis, “Laser transfer of diamond nanopowder induced by metal film blistering,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 94(3), 531–536 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (2)

P. Serra, M. Duocastella, J. M. Fernandez-Pradas, and J. L. Morenza, “Liquids microprinting through laser-induced forward transfer,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(10), 5342–5345 (2009).
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S. Zergioti, S. Mailis, N. A. Vainos, A. Ikiades, C. P. Grigoropoulos, and C. Fotakis, “Microprinting and microetching of diffractive structures using ultrashort laser pulse,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 138–139(1-2), 82–86 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

M. Colina, P. Serra, J. M. Fernández-Pradas, L. Sevilla, and J. L. Morenza, “DNA deposition through laser induced forward transfer,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 20(8), 1638–1642 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electron. Lett. (1)

D. Tanaka, Y. Ikuma, Y. Shoji, M. Kuwahara, X. Wang, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, and H. Tsuda, “Demonstration of 1000-times switching of phase-change optical gate with Si wire waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 46, 1460 (2010).

IEEE Trans. Magn. (1)

C. H. Chu, B. J. Wu, T. S. Kao, Y. H. Fu, H.-P. Chiang, and D. P. Tsai, “Imaging of recording marks and their jitters with different writing strategy and terminal resistance of optical output,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 45(5), 2221–2223 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (7)

E. Fogarassy, C. Fuchs, F. Kerherve, G. Hauchecorne, and J. Perriere, “Laser-induced forward transfer of high-Tc YBaCuO and BiSrCaCuO superconducting thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 66(1), 457 (1989).
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M. Colina, M. Duocastella, J. M. Fernandez-Pradas, P. Serra, and J. L. Morenza, “Laser-induced forward transfer of liquids: Study of the droplet ejection process,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(8), 084909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, S. Raoux, D. Krebs, L. E. Krupp, T. Topuria, M. A. Caldwell, D. J. Milliron, A. Kellock, P. M. Rice, J. L. Jordan-Sweet, and H.-S. P. Wong, “Phase change nanodots patterning using a self-assembled polymer lithography and crystallization analysis,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 074312 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Khulbe, E. M. Wright, and M. Mansuripur, “Crystallization behavior of as-deposited, melt-quenched, and primed amorphous states of Ge2Sb2.3Te5 films,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(7), 3926–3933 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Yamada, E. Ohno, K. Nishiuchi, N. Akahira, and M. Takao, “Rapid-phase transitions of GeTe-Sb2Te3 pseudobinary amorphous thin films for an optical disk memory,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(5), 2849–2856 (1991).
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C. B. Peng, L. Cheng, and M. Mansuripur, “Experimental and theoretical investigations of laser-induced crystallization and amorphization in phase-change optical recording media,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(9), 4183–4191 (1997).
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J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

S.-W. Nam, T.-Y. Lee, J.-S. Wi, D. Lee, H.-S. Lee, K.-B. Jin, M.-H. Lee, H.-M. Kim, and K.-B. Kim, “Electron-beam lithography patterning of Ge2Sb2Te5 nanostructures using hydrogen silsesquioxane and amorphous Si intermediate layer,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 154(9), H844–H847 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

T. S. Kao, Y. H. Fu, H. W. Hsu, and D. P. Tsai, “Study of the optical response of phase-change recording layer with zinc oxide nanostructured thin film,” J. Microsc. 229(3), 561–566 (2008).
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Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (4)

W. C. Lin, T. S. Kao, H. H. Chang, Y. H. Lin, Y. H. Fu, C. T. Wu, K. H. Chen, and D. P. Tsai, “Study of a super-resolution optical structure: polycarbonate/ZnS-SiO2/ZnO/ZnS-SiO2/Ge2Sb2Te5/ZnS-SiO2,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 1, No. 2B), 1029–1030 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Shi, T. C. Chong, P. K. Tan, X. S. Miao, Y. M. Huang, and R. Zhao, “Study of the partial crystallization properties of phase-change optical recording disks,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 1, No. 3B), 1645–1648 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Ohta, K. Nishiuchi, K. Narumi, Y. Kitaoka, H. Ishibashi, N. Yamada, and T. Kozaki, “Overview and the future of phase-change optical disk technology,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 1, No. 2B), 770–774 (2000).
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M. Terao, T. Morikawa, and T. Ohta, “Electrical phase-change memory: fundamentals and state of the art,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(8), 080001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. A (1)

G. F. Zhou, “Materials aspects in phase change optical recording,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 73, 304–306 (2001).

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

K. Y. Yang, S. H. Hong, D. K. Kim, B. K. Cheong, and H. Lee, “Patterning of Ge2Sb2Te5 phase change material using UV nano-imprint lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(1), 21–24 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

Y. Jung, S. H. Lee, A. T. Jennings, and R. Agarwal, “Core-shell heterostructured phase change nanowire multistate memory,” Nano Lett. 8(7), 2056–2062 (2008).
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Nat. Mater. (2)

H. F. Hamann, M. O’Boyle, Y. C. Martin, M. Rooks, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Ultra-high-density phase-change storage and memory,” Nat. Mater. 5(5), 383–387 (2006).
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M. Wuttig and N. Yamada, “Phase-change materials for rewriteable data storage,” Nat. Mater. 6(11), 824–832 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

A. L. Greer and N. Mathur, “Materials science: changing face of the chameleon,” Nature 437(7063), 1246–1247 (2005).
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Opt. Express (7)

S. K. Lin, I. C. Lin, and D. P. Tsai, “Characterization of nano recorded marks at different writing strategies on phase-change recording layer of optical disks,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4452–4458 (2006).
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K. P. Chiu, K. F. Lai, and D. P. Tsai, “Application of surface polariton coupling between nano recording marks to optical data storage,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13885–13892 (2008).
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X. M. Wang, M. Kuwahara, K. Awazu, P. Fons, J. Tominaga, and Y. Ohki, “Proposal of a grating-based optical reflection switch using phase change materials,” Opt. Express 17(19), 16947–16956 (2009).
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C. H. Chu, C. Da Shiue, H. W. Cheng, M. L. Tseng, H.-P. Chiang, M. Mansuripur, and D. P. Tsai, “Laser-induced phase transitions of Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films used in optical and electronic data storage and in thermal lithography,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18383–18393 (2010).
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A. I. Kuznetsov, R. Kiyan, and B. N. Chichkov, “Laser fabrication of 2D and 3D metal nanoparticle structures and arrays,” Opt. Express 18(20), 21198–21203 (2010).
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C. M. Chang, C. H. Chu, M. L. Tseng, H.-P. Chiang, M. Mansuripur, and D. P. Tsai, “Local electrical characterization of laser-recorded phase-change marks on amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9492–9504 (2011).
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C. H. Chu, M. L. Tseng, C. Da Shiue, S. W. Chen, H.-P. Chiang, M. Mansuripur, and D. P. Tsai, “Fabrication of phase-change Ge2Sb2Te5 nano-rings,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12652 (2011).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

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Proc. SPIE (1)

S. R. Ovshinsky and W. Czubatyj, “New developments in optical phase-change memory,” Proc. SPIE 4085, 15–22 (2001).
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Thin Solid Films (1)

T. Nonaka, G. Ohbayashi, Y. Toriumi, Y. Mori, and H. Hashimoto, “Crystal structure of GeTe and Ge2Sb2Te5 meta-stable phase,” Thin Solid Films 370(1-2), 258–261 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of the LIFT technique.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic illustration of the C-AFM measurement. (b) Magnified SEM image of the C-AFM probe.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) AFM image of the donor film (80-nm-thick as-deposited Ge2Sb2Te5) exposed to different laser fluences. (b) AFM image of the corresponding receiver film. (c) Magnified AFM image of the donor and the corresponding cross-sectional profile (red line) under the laser fluence of 9-36 mJ/cm2; bumps appear at 9 mJ/cm2. (d) and (e) Magnified AFM images of the receiver under laser fluences of 9-36 mJ/cm2 and 63-90 mJ/cm2, respectively; LIFT dots and rings can be seen on the receiver. The corresponding cross-sectional profiles of the dots/rings are displayed below each AFM image.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) and (b) Three-dimensional AFM images of LIFT dots for 50-nm-thick and 20-nm-thick Ge2Sb2Te5 donor films, respectively. (c)-(e) AFM measurements of height, diameter, and volume of LIFT dots as functions of laser fluence for donor films of differing thickness.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a)-(d) AFM, optical transmission, optical reflection, and C-AFM images of LIFT dots obtained from a 50nm-thick as-deposited Ge2Sb2Te5 donor. The four images are shown on the same scale. (e) Cross-sectional profile of LIFT dots extracted from the reflection optical-micrograph. Background color indicates different states. (f) Cross-sectional profiles of LIFT dots extracted from the C-AFM images—the arrow points to the conductivity at the center of the dot. (g) Average current passing through each LIFT dot as a function of laser fluence.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Fabrication of the venation pattern. (a) Optical image of real leaf. (b) Monochrome image of venation. (c), (d) Three-dimensional AFM images of donor and receiver.

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