Abstract

This study achieved a substantial enhancement in electroluminescence by coupling localized surface plasmons in a single layer of Ag nanoparticles. Thermal evaporation was used to fabricate 20-nm Ag particles sandwiched between a gallium-doped zinc oxide film and a glass substrate to form novel window materials for use in polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs). The PLEDs discussed herein are single-layer devices based on a poly(9,9-di-n-octyl-2,7-fluorene) (PFO) emissive layer. In addition to low cost, this novel fabrication method can effectively prevent interruption or degradation of the charge transport properties of the active layer to meet the high performance requirements of PLEDs. Due to the surface-plasmon-enhanced emission, the electroluminescence intensity was increased by nearly 1-fold, compared to that of the same PLED without the interlayer of Ag nanoparticles.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. T. D. Neal, K. Okamoto, and A. Scherer, “Surface plasmon enhanced emission from dye doped polymer layers,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5522–5527 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Ishifuji, M. Mitsuishi, and T. Miyashita, “Enhanced optical second harmonic generation in hybrid polymer nanoassemblies based on coupled surface plasmon resonance of a gold nanoparticle array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(1), 011903 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. A. Clymer and M. A. Matin, “Characterization of thin-metal anode buffers in organic devices,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 48(10), 2070–2072 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Zhou, J. Yang, Y. Sun, D. Zhang, J. Shen, Q. Zhang, and K. Wang, “Effect of silver nanoparticles on photo-induced reorientation of azo groups in polymer films,” Thin Solid Films 515(18), 7242–7246 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C.-F. Yu, S.-H. Chen, S.-J. Sun, and H. Chou, “Influence of the grain boundary barrier height on the electrical properties of Gallium doped ZnO thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(15), 6498–6502 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Douketis, T. L. Haslett, Z. Wang, M. Moskovits, and S. Iannotta, “Self-affine silver films and surface-enhanced Raman scattering: linking spectroscopy to morphology,” J. Chem. Phys. 113(24), 11315–11323 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. A. Weimer and M. J. Dyer, “Tunable surface plasmon resonance silver films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(19), 3164–3166 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Gupta, M. J. Dyer, and W. A. Weimer, “Preparation and characterization of surface plasmon resonance tunable gold and silver films,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(9), 5264–5271 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. N. Lin, H. L. Lin, S. S. Wang, L. S. Yu, G. Y. Perng, S. A. Chen, and S. H. Chen, “Nanoscale charge transport in an electroluminescent polymer investigated by conducting atomic force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(14), 2572 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S.-H. Chen, “Work function changes of treated indium-tin-oxide films for organic light emitting diodes investigated using scanning surface potential microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(7), 073713 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S.-H. Chen, C.-F. Yu, Y.-S. Lin, W.-J. Xie, T.-W. Hsu, and D. P. Tsai, “Nanoscale surface electrical properties of aluminum zinc oxide thin ðlms investigated by scanning probe microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(11), 114314 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S.-H. Chen, S.-T. Yu, Y.-Y. Liou, C.-F. Yu, C.-F. Lin, and P.-C. Kao, “Increasing the PLED luminescence efficiency by exploiting the surface plasmon resonance effect,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(3), J53–J57 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Kawamura, J. Sakurai, M. Nakano, and M. Takagi, “Recrystallization of Si on amorphous substrates by doughnut‐shaped cw Ar laser beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40(5), 394–395 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. N. Islam, T. B. Ghosh, K. L. Chopra, and H. N. Acharya, “XPS and X-ray diffraction studies of aluminum-doped zinc oxide transparent conducting films,” Thin Solid Films 280(1–2), 20–25 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. Kameswara Rao and V. Vinni, “Novel mechanism for high speed growth of transparent and conducting tin oxide thin films by spray pyrolysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(5), 608–611 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. C. C. Fan and J. B. Goodenough, “X-ray photoemission spectroscopy studies of Sn-doped indium-oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 48(8), 3524–3531 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. J. Campbell, D. D. C. Bradley, E. Werner, and W. Brütting, “Transient capacitance measurements of the transport and trap states distributions in a conjugated polymer,” Org. Electron. 1(1), 21–26 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Å. Johansson and S. Stafström, “Polaron dynamics in a system of coupled conjugated polymer chains,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(16), 3602–3605 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. W. Brütting, S. Berleb, and A. G. Mückl, “Space-charge limited conduction with a field and temperature dependent mobility in Alq light-emitting devices,” Synth. Met. 122(1), 99–104 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. M. Basko and E. M. Conwell, “Stationary polaron motion in a polymer chain at high electric fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(5), 056401 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

C.-F. Yu, S.-H. Chen, S.-J. Sun, and H. Chou, “Influence of the grain boundary barrier height on the electrical properties of Gallium doped ZnO thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(15), 6498–6502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Chen, S.-T. Yu, Y.-Y. Liou, C.-F. Yu, C.-F. Lin, and P.-C. Kao, “Increasing the PLED luminescence efficiency by exploiting the surface plasmon resonance effect,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(3), J53–J57 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

S.-H. Chen, C.-F. Yu, Y.-S. Lin, W.-J. Xie, T.-W. Hsu, and D. P. Tsai, “Nanoscale surface electrical properties of aluminum zinc oxide thin ðlms investigated by scanning probe microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(11), 114314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

J. Zhou, J. Yang, Y. Sun, D. Zhang, J. Shen, Q. Zhang, and K. Wang, “Effect of silver nanoparticles on photo-induced reorientation of azo groups in polymer films,” Thin Solid Films 515(18), 7242–7246 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

M. Ishifuji, M. Mitsuishi, and T. Miyashita, “Enhanced optical second harmonic generation in hybrid polymer nanoassemblies based on coupled surface plasmon resonance of a gold nanoparticle array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(1), 011903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Clymer and M. A. Matin, “Characterization of thin-metal anode buffers in organic devices,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 48(10), 2070–2072 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

S.-H. Chen, “Work function changes of treated indium-tin-oxide films for organic light emitting diodes investigated using scanning surface potential microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(7), 073713 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Neal, K. Okamoto, and A. Scherer, “Surface plasmon enhanced emission from dye doped polymer layers,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5522–5527 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

D. M. Basko and E. M. Conwell, “Stationary polaron motion in a polymer chain at high electric fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(5), 056401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Gupta, M. J. Dyer, and W. A. Weimer, “Preparation and characterization of surface plasmon resonance tunable gold and silver films,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(9), 5264–5271 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Lin, H. L. Lin, S. S. Wang, L. S. Yu, G. Y. Perng, S. A. Chen, and S. H. Chen, “Nanoscale charge transport in an electroluminescent polymer investigated by conducting atomic force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(14), 2572 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

W. A. Weimer and M. J. Dyer, “Tunable surface plasmon resonance silver films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(19), 3164–3166 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Å. Johansson and S. Stafström, “Polaron dynamics in a system of coupled conjugated polymer chains,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(16), 3602–3605 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Brütting, S. Berleb, and A. G. Mückl, “Space-charge limited conduction with a field and temperature dependent mobility in Alq light-emitting devices,” Synth. Met. 122(1), 99–104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

C. Douketis, T. L. Haslett, Z. Wang, M. Moskovits, and S. Iannotta, “Self-affine silver films and surface-enhanced Raman scattering: linking spectroscopy to morphology,” J. Chem. Phys. 113(24), 11315–11323 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Campbell, D. D. C. Bradley, E. Werner, and W. Brütting, “Transient capacitance measurements of the transport and trap states distributions in a conjugated polymer,” Org. Electron. 1(1), 21–26 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. N. Islam, T. B. Ghosh, K. L. Chopra, and H. N. Acharya, “XPS and X-ray diffraction studies of aluminum-doped zinc oxide transparent conducting films,” Thin Solid Films 280(1–2), 20–25 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

L. Kameswara Rao and V. Vinni, “Novel mechanism for high speed growth of transparent and conducting tin oxide thin films by spray pyrolysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(5), 608–611 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

S. Kawamura, J. Sakurai, M. Nakano, and M. Takagi, “Recrystallization of Si on amorphous substrates by doughnut‐shaped cw Ar laser beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40(5), 394–395 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

J. C. C. Fan and J. B. Goodenough, “X-ray photoemission spectroscopy studies of Sn-doped indium-oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 48(8), 3524–3531 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Acharya, H. N.

M. N. Islam, T. B. Ghosh, K. L. Chopra, and H. N. Acharya, “XPS and X-ray diffraction studies of aluminum-doped zinc oxide transparent conducting films,” Thin Solid Films 280(1–2), 20–25 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Basko, D. M.

D. M. Basko and E. M. Conwell, “Stationary polaron motion in a polymer chain at high electric fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(5), 056401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berleb, S.

W. Brütting, S. Berleb, and A. G. Mückl, “Space-charge limited conduction with a field and temperature dependent mobility in Alq light-emitting devices,” Synth. Met. 122(1), 99–104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, D. D. C.

A. J. Campbell, D. D. C. Bradley, E. Werner, and W. Brütting, “Transient capacitance measurements of the transport and trap states distributions in a conjugated polymer,” Org. Electron. 1(1), 21–26 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brütting, W.

W. Brütting, S. Berleb, and A. G. Mückl, “Space-charge limited conduction with a field and temperature dependent mobility in Alq light-emitting devices,” Synth. Met. 122(1), 99–104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Campbell, D. D. C. Bradley, E. Werner, and W. Brütting, “Transient capacitance measurements of the transport and trap states distributions in a conjugated polymer,” Org. Electron. 1(1), 21–26 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, A. J.

A. J. Campbell, D. D. C. Bradley, E. Werner, and W. Brütting, “Transient capacitance measurements of the transport and trap states distributions in a conjugated polymer,” Org. Electron. 1(1), 21–26 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S. A.

H. N. Lin, H. L. Lin, S. S. Wang, L. S. Yu, G. Y. Perng, S. A. Chen, and S. H. Chen, “Nanoscale charge transport in an electroluminescent polymer investigated by conducting atomic force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(14), 2572 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S. H.

H. N. Lin, H. L. Lin, S. S. Wang, L. S. Yu, G. Y. Perng, S. A. Chen, and S. H. Chen, “Nanoscale charge transport in an electroluminescent polymer investigated by conducting atomic force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(14), 2572 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.-H.

C.-F. Yu, S.-H. Chen, S.-J. Sun, and H. Chou, “Influence of the grain boundary barrier height on the electrical properties of Gallium doped ZnO thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(15), 6498–6502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Chen, S.-T. Yu, Y.-Y. Liou, C.-F. Yu, C.-F. Lin, and P.-C. Kao, “Increasing the PLED luminescence efficiency by exploiting the surface plasmon resonance effect,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(3), J53–J57 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Chen, C.-F. Yu, Y.-S. Lin, W.-J. Xie, T.-W. Hsu, and D. P. Tsai, “Nanoscale surface electrical properties of aluminum zinc oxide thin ðlms investigated by scanning probe microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(11), 114314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Chen, “Work function changes of treated indium-tin-oxide films for organic light emitting diodes investigated using scanning surface potential microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(7), 073713 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chopra, K. L.

M. N. Islam, T. B. Ghosh, K. L. Chopra, and H. N. Acharya, “XPS and X-ray diffraction studies of aluminum-doped zinc oxide transparent conducting films,” Thin Solid Films 280(1–2), 20–25 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chou, H.

C.-F. Yu, S.-H. Chen, S.-J. Sun, and H. Chou, “Influence of the grain boundary barrier height on the electrical properties of Gallium doped ZnO thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(15), 6498–6502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Clymer, D. A.

D. A. Clymer and M. A. Matin, “Characterization of thin-metal anode buffers in organic devices,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 48(10), 2070–2072 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Conwell, E. M.

D. M. Basko and E. M. Conwell, “Stationary polaron motion in a polymer chain at high electric fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(5), 056401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Douketis, C.

C. Douketis, T. L. Haslett, Z. Wang, M. Moskovits, and S. Iannotta, “Self-affine silver films and surface-enhanced Raman scattering: linking spectroscopy to morphology,” J. Chem. Phys. 113(24), 11315–11323 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dyer, M. J.

R. Gupta, M. J. Dyer, and W. A. Weimer, “Preparation and characterization of surface plasmon resonance tunable gold and silver films,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(9), 5264–5271 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Weimer and M. J. Dyer, “Tunable surface plasmon resonance silver films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(19), 3164–3166 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fan, J. C. C.

J. C. C. Fan and J. B. Goodenough, “X-ray photoemission spectroscopy studies of Sn-doped indium-oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 48(8), 3524–3531 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, T. B.

M. N. Islam, T. B. Ghosh, K. L. Chopra, and H. N. Acharya, “XPS and X-ray diffraction studies of aluminum-doped zinc oxide transparent conducting films,” Thin Solid Films 280(1–2), 20–25 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Goodenough, J. B.

J. C. C. Fan and J. B. Goodenough, “X-ray photoemission spectroscopy studies of Sn-doped indium-oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 48(8), 3524–3531 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, R.

R. Gupta, M. J. Dyer, and W. A. Weimer, “Preparation and characterization of surface plasmon resonance tunable gold and silver films,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(9), 5264–5271 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Haslett, T. L.

C. Douketis, T. L. Haslett, Z. Wang, M. Moskovits, and S. Iannotta, “Self-affine silver films and surface-enhanced Raman scattering: linking spectroscopy to morphology,” J. Chem. Phys. 113(24), 11315–11323 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, T.-W.

S.-H. Chen, C.-F. Yu, Y.-S. Lin, W.-J. Xie, T.-W. Hsu, and D. P. Tsai, “Nanoscale surface electrical properties of aluminum zinc oxide thin ðlms investigated by scanning probe microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(11), 114314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Iannotta, S.

C. Douketis, T. L. Haslett, Z. Wang, M. Moskovits, and S. Iannotta, “Self-affine silver films and surface-enhanced Raman scattering: linking spectroscopy to morphology,” J. Chem. Phys. 113(24), 11315–11323 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ishifuji, M.

M. Ishifuji, M. Mitsuishi, and T. Miyashita, “Enhanced optical second harmonic generation in hybrid polymer nanoassemblies based on coupled surface plasmon resonance of a gold nanoparticle array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(1), 011903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Islam, M. N.

M. N. Islam, T. B. Ghosh, K. L. Chopra, and H. N. Acharya, “XPS and X-ray diffraction studies of aluminum-doped zinc oxide transparent conducting films,” Thin Solid Films 280(1–2), 20–25 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Johansson, Å.

Å. Johansson and S. Stafström, “Polaron dynamics in a system of coupled conjugated polymer chains,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(16), 3602–3605 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kameswara Rao, L.

L. Kameswara Rao and V. Vinni, “Novel mechanism for high speed growth of transparent and conducting tin oxide thin films by spray pyrolysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(5), 608–611 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kao, P.-C.

S.-H. Chen, S.-T. Yu, Y.-Y. Liou, C.-F. Yu, C.-F. Lin, and P.-C. Kao, “Increasing the PLED luminescence efficiency by exploiting the surface plasmon resonance effect,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(3), J53–J57 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kawamura, S.

S. Kawamura, J. Sakurai, M. Nakano, and M. Takagi, “Recrystallization of Si on amorphous substrates by doughnut‐shaped cw Ar laser beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40(5), 394–395 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-F.

S.-H. Chen, S.-T. Yu, Y.-Y. Liou, C.-F. Yu, C.-F. Lin, and P.-C. Kao, “Increasing the PLED luminescence efficiency by exploiting the surface plasmon resonance effect,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(3), J53–J57 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H. L.

H. N. Lin, H. L. Lin, S. S. Wang, L. S. Yu, G. Y. Perng, S. A. Chen, and S. H. Chen, “Nanoscale charge transport in an electroluminescent polymer investigated by conducting atomic force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(14), 2572 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H. N.

H. N. Lin, H. L. Lin, S. S. Wang, L. S. Yu, G. Y. Perng, S. A. Chen, and S. H. Chen, “Nanoscale charge transport in an electroluminescent polymer investigated by conducting atomic force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(14), 2572 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.-S.

S.-H. Chen, C.-F. Yu, Y.-S. Lin, W.-J. Xie, T.-W. Hsu, and D. P. Tsai, “Nanoscale surface electrical properties of aluminum zinc oxide thin ðlms investigated by scanning probe microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(11), 114314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liou, Y.-Y.

S.-H. Chen, S.-T. Yu, Y.-Y. Liou, C.-F. Yu, C.-F. Lin, and P.-C. Kao, “Increasing the PLED luminescence efficiency by exploiting the surface plasmon resonance effect,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(3), J53–J57 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Matin, M. A.

D. A. Clymer and M. A. Matin, “Characterization of thin-metal anode buffers in organic devices,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 48(10), 2070–2072 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mitsuishi, M.

M. Ishifuji, M. Mitsuishi, and T. Miyashita, “Enhanced optical second harmonic generation in hybrid polymer nanoassemblies based on coupled surface plasmon resonance of a gold nanoparticle array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(1), 011903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miyashita, T.

M. Ishifuji, M. Mitsuishi, and T. Miyashita, “Enhanced optical second harmonic generation in hybrid polymer nanoassemblies based on coupled surface plasmon resonance of a gold nanoparticle array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(1), 011903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moskovits, M.

C. Douketis, T. L. Haslett, Z. Wang, M. Moskovits, and S. Iannotta, “Self-affine silver films and surface-enhanced Raman scattering: linking spectroscopy to morphology,” J. Chem. Phys. 113(24), 11315–11323 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mückl, A. G.

W. Brütting, S. Berleb, and A. G. Mückl, “Space-charge limited conduction with a field and temperature dependent mobility in Alq light-emitting devices,” Synth. Met. 122(1), 99–104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nakano, M.

S. Kawamura, J. Sakurai, M. Nakano, and M. Takagi, “Recrystallization of Si on amorphous substrates by doughnut‐shaped cw Ar laser beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40(5), 394–395 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Neal, T. D.

Okamoto, K.

Perng, G. Y.

H. N. Lin, H. L. Lin, S. S. Wang, L. S. Yu, G. Y. Perng, S. A. Chen, and S. H. Chen, “Nanoscale charge transport in an electroluminescent polymer investigated by conducting atomic force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(14), 2572 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sakurai, J.

S. Kawamura, J. Sakurai, M. Nakano, and M. Takagi, “Recrystallization of Si on amorphous substrates by doughnut‐shaped cw Ar laser beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40(5), 394–395 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

Shen, J.

J. Zhou, J. Yang, Y. Sun, D. Zhang, J. Shen, Q. Zhang, and K. Wang, “Effect of silver nanoparticles on photo-induced reorientation of azo groups in polymer films,” Thin Solid Films 515(18), 7242–7246 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stafström, S.

Å. Johansson and S. Stafström, “Polaron dynamics in a system of coupled conjugated polymer chains,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(16), 3602–3605 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, S.-J.

C.-F. Yu, S.-H. Chen, S.-J. Sun, and H. Chou, “Influence of the grain boundary barrier height on the electrical properties of Gallium doped ZnO thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(15), 6498–6502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

J. Zhou, J. Yang, Y. Sun, D. Zhang, J. Shen, Q. Zhang, and K. Wang, “Effect of silver nanoparticles on photo-induced reorientation of azo groups in polymer films,” Thin Solid Films 515(18), 7242–7246 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Takagi, M.

S. Kawamura, J. Sakurai, M. Nakano, and M. Takagi, “Recrystallization of Si on amorphous substrates by doughnut‐shaped cw Ar laser beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40(5), 394–395 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, D. P.

S.-H. Chen, C.-F. Yu, Y.-S. Lin, W.-J. Xie, T.-W. Hsu, and D. P. Tsai, “Nanoscale surface electrical properties of aluminum zinc oxide thin ðlms investigated by scanning probe microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(11), 114314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vinni, V.

L. Kameswara Rao and V. Vinni, “Novel mechanism for high speed growth of transparent and conducting tin oxide thin films by spray pyrolysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(5), 608–611 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K.

J. Zhou, J. Yang, Y. Sun, D. Zhang, J. Shen, Q. Zhang, and K. Wang, “Effect of silver nanoparticles on photo-induced reorientation of azo groups in polymer films,” Thin Solid Films 515(18), 7242–7246 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. S.

H. N. Lin, H. L. Lin, S. S. Wang, L. S. Yu, G. Y. Perng, S. A. Chen, and S. H. Chen, “Nanoscale charge transport in an electroluminescent polymer investigated by conducting atomic force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(14), 2572 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

C. Douketis, T. L. Haslett, Z. Wang, M. Moskovits, and S. Iannotta, “Self-affine silver films and surface-enhanced Raman scattering: linking spectroscopy to morphology,” J. Chem. Phys. 113(24), 11315–11323 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Weimer, W. A.

R. Gupta, M. J. Dyer, and W. A. Weimer, “Preparation and characterization of surface plasmon resonance tunable gold and silver films,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(9), 5264–5271 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Weimer and M. J. Dyer, “Tunable surface plasmon resonance silver films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(19), 3164–3166 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Werner, E.

A. J. Campbell, D. D. C. Bradley, E. Werner, and W. Brütting, “Transient capacitance measurements of the transport and trap states distributions in a conjugated polymer,” Org. Electron. 1(1), 21–26 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Xie, W.-J.

S.-H. Chen, C.-F. Yu, Y.-S. Lin, W.-J. Xie, T.-W. Hsu, and D. P. Tsai, “Nanoscale surface electrical properties of aluminum zinc oxide thin ðlms investigated by scanning probe microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(11), 114314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

J. Zhou, J. Yang, Y. Sun, D. Zhang, J. Shen, Q. Zhang, and K. Wang, “Effect of silver nanoparticles on photo-induced reorientation of azo groups in polymer films,” Thin Solid Films 515(18), 7242–7246 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C.-F.

C.-F. Yu, S.-H. Chen, S.-J. Sun, and H. Chou, “Influence of the grain boundary barrier height on the electrical properties of Gallium doped ZnO thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(15), 6498–6502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Chen, S.-T. Yu, Y.-Y. Liou, C.-F. Yu, C.-F. Lin, and P.-C. Kao, “Increasing the PLED luminescence efficiency by exploiting the surface plasmon resonance effect,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(3), J53–J57 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Chen, C.-F. Yu, Y.-S. Lin, W.-J. Xie, T.-W. Hsu, and D. P. Tsai, “Nanoscale surface electrical properties of aluminum zinc oxide thin ðlms investigated by scanning probe microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(11), 114314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, L. S.

H. N. Lin, H. L. Lin, S. S. Wang, L. S. Yu, G. Y. Perng, S. A. Chen, and S. H. Chen, “Nanoscale charge transport in an electroluminescent polymer investigated by conducting atomic force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(14), 2572 (2002).
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Yu, S.-T.

S.-H. Chen, S.-T. Yu, Y.-Y. Liou, C.-F. Yu, C.-F. Lin, and P.-C. Kao, “Increasing the PLED luminescence efficiency by exploiting the surface plasmon resonance effect,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(3), J53–J57 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, D.

J. Zhou, J. Yang, Y. Sun, D. Zhang, J. Shen, Q. Zhang, and K. Wang, “Effect of silver nanoparticles on photo-induced reorientation of azo groups in polymer films,” Thin Solid Films 515(18), 7242–7246 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

J. Zhou, J. Yang, Y. Sun, D. Zhang, J. Shen, Q. Zhang, and K. Wang, “Effect of silver nanoparticles on photo-induced reorientation of azo groups in polymer films,” Thin Solid Films 515(18), 7242–7246 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou, J. Yang, Y. Sun, D. Zhang, J. Shen, Q. Zhang, and K. Wang, “Effect of silver nanoparticles on photo-induced reorientation of azo groups in polymer films,” Thin Solid Films 515(18), 7242–7246 (2007).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

M. Ishifuji, M. Mitsuishi, and T. Miyashita, “Enhanced optical second harmonic generation in hybrid polymer nanoassemblies based on coupled surface plasmon resonance of a gold nanoparticle array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(1), 011903 (2006).
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H. N. Lin, H. L. Lin, S. S. Wang, L. S. Yu, G. Y. Perng, S. A. Chen, and S. H. Chen, “Nanoscale charge transport in an electroluminescent polymer investigated by conducting atomic force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(14), 2572 (2002).
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Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

C.-F. Yu, S.-H. Chen, S.-J. Sun, and H. Chou, “Influence of the grain boundary barrier height on the electrical properties of Gallium doped ZnO thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(15), 6498–6502 (2011).
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J. Appl. Phys. (4)

S.-H. Chen, “Work function changes of treated indium-tin-oxide films for organic light emitting diodes investigated using scanning surface potential microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(7), 073713 (2005).
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S.-H. Chen, C.-F. Yu, Y.-S. Lin, W.-J. Xie, T.-W. Hsu, and D. P. Tsai, “Nanoscale surface electrical properties of aluminum zinc oxide thin ðlms investigated by scanning probe microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(11), 114314 (2008).
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R. Gupta, M. J. Dyer, and W. A. Weimer, “Preparation and characterization of surface plasmon resonance tunable gold and silver films,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(9), 5264–5271 (2002).
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J. Chem. Phys. (1)

C. Douketis, T. L. Haslett, Z. Wang, M. Moskovits, and S. Iannotta, “Self-affine silver films and surface-enhanced Raman scattering: linking spectroscopy to morphology,” J. Chem. Phys. 113(24), 11315–11323 (2000).
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J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

S.-H. Chen, S.-T. Yu, Y.-Y. Liou, C.-F. Yu, C.-F. Lin, and P.-C. Kao, “Increasing the PLED luminescence efficiency by exploiting the surface plasmon resonance effect,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(3), J53–J57 (2011).
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Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

D. A. Clymer and M. A. Matin, “Characterization of thin-metal anode buffers in organic devices,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 48(10), 2070–2072 (2006).
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Opt. Express (1)

Org. Electron. (1)

A. J. Campbell, D. D. C. Bradley, E. Werner, and W. Brütting, “Transient capacitance measurements of the transport and trap states distributions in a conjugated polymer,” Org. Electron. 1(1), 21–26 (2000).
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Å. Johansson and S. Stafström, “Polaron dynamics in a system of coupled conjugated polymer chains,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(16), 3602–3605 (2001).
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Synth. Met. (1)

W. Brütting, S. Berleb, and A. G. Mückl, “Space-charge limited conduction with a field and temperature dependent mobility in Alq light-emitting devices,” Synth. Met. 122(1), 99–104 (2001).
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Thin Solid Films (2)

M. N. Islam, T. B. Ghosh, K. L. Chopra, and H. N. Acharya, “XPS and X-ray diffraction studies of aluminum-doped zinc oxide transparent conducting films,” Thin Solid Films 280(1–2), 20–25 (1996).
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J. Zhou, J. Yang, Y. Sun, D. Zhang, J. Shen, Q. Zhang, and K. Wang, “Effect of silver nanoparticles on photo-induced reorientation of azo groups in polymer films,” Thin Solid Films 515(18), 7242–7246 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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