Abstract

We experimentally study the statistics of the white-light continuum generated by focusing of 130 fs, 800 nm pulses in a sapphire plate and show that the statistical distributions of the spectral intensity of the blue-shifted continuum components obey the extreme-value statistics. This rogue-wave-like behavior is detected only within a narrow input-pulse energy interval. By the use of numerical simulations, we show that the observed rogue-wave-like behavior is associated with pulse splitting and build-up of intense trailing pulse. The extreme events are thereafter suppressed by the intensity clamping.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. N. Akhmediev and E. Pelinovsky eds., “Rogue waves – Towards a unifying concept?,” Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 185, 1–266 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. I. Dyachenko and V. E. Zakharov, “Modulation instability of stokes wave implies a freak wave,” JETP Lett. 81, 255–259 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and A. Ankiewicz, “Extreme waves that appear from nowhere: On the nature of rogue waves,” Phys. Lett. A 373, 2137–2145 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450, 1054–1057 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Erkintalo, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Giant dispersive wave generation through soliton collision,” Opt. Lett. 35, 658–660 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and B. J. Eggleton, “Harnessing and control of optical rogue waves in supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 16, 3644–3651 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-16-6-3644 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Mussot, A. Kudlinski, M. Kolobov, E. Louvergeneaux, M. Douay, and M. Taki, “Observation of extreme temporal events in CW-pumped supercontinuum,” Opt. Express 17, 17010–17015 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-19-17010 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, and B. Jalali, “Active control of rogue waves for stimulated supercontinuum generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 233902 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Erkintalo, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Rogue-wave-like characteristics in femtosecond supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2468–1470 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Kudlinski, B. Barviau, A. Leray, C. Spriet, L. Héliot, and A. Mussot, “Control of pulse-to-pulse fluctuations in visible supercontinuum,” Opt. Express 18, 27445–27454 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-26-27445 .
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Aalto, G. Genty, and J. Toivonen, “Extreme-value statistics in supercontinuum generation by cascaded stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Express 18, 1234–1239 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-18-2-1234 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. K. Hammani, A. Picozzi, and C. Finot, “Extreme statistics in Raman fiber amplifiers: From analytical description to experiments,” Opt. Commun. 284, 2594–2603 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Kasparian, P. Béjot, J.-P. Wolf, and J. M. Dudley, “Optical rogue wave statistics in laser filamentation,” Opt. Express 17, 12070 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-14-12070 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. Majus, V. Jukna, G. Valiulis, D. Faccio, and A. Dubietis, “Spatio-temporal rogue events in femtosecond filamentation,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 025802 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. Bergé, S. Mauger, and S. Skupin, “Multifilamentation of powerful optical pulses in silica,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 013817 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. Conti, S. Trillo, P. Di Trapani, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, O. Jedrkiewicz, and J. Trull, “Nonlinear electromagnetic X waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 170406 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. D. Faccio, M. A. Porras, A. Dubietis, F. Bragheri, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Conical emission, pulse splitting, and X-wave parametric amplification in nonlinear dynamics of ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 193901 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. M. Bradler, P. Baum, and E. Riedle, “Femtosecond continuum generation in bulk laser host materials with sub-μJ pump pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 561–574 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Brodeur and S. L. Chin, “Ultrafast white-light continuum generation and self-focusing in transparent condensed medium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 637–650 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Kolesik, G. Katona, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, “Physical factors limiting the spectral extent and band gap dependence of supercontinuum generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043905 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. A. L. Gaeta, “Catastrophic collapse of ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3582–3585 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

K. Hammani, A. Picozzi, and C. Finot, “Extreme statistics in Raman fiber amplifiers: From analytical description to experiments,” Opt. Commun. 284, 2594–2603 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Majus, V. Jukna, G. Valiulis, D. Faccio, and A. Dubietis, “Spatio-temporal rogue events in femtosecond filamentation,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 025802 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

L. Bergé, S. Mauger, and S. Skupin, “Multifilamentation of powerful optical pulses in silica,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 013817 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Akhmediev and E. Pelinovsky eds., “Rogue waves – Towards a unifying concept?,” Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 185, 1–266 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Erkintalo, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Giant dispersive wave generation through soliton collision,” Opt. Lett. 35, 658–660 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

M. Erkintalo, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Rogue-wave-like characteristics in femtosecond supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2468–1470 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bradler, P. Baum, and E. Riedle, “Femtosecond continuum generation in bulk laser host materials with sub-μJ pump pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 561–574 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and A. Ankiewicz, “Extreme waves that appear from nowhere: On the nature of rogue waves,” Phys. Lett. A 373, 2137–2145 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, and B. Jalali, “Active control of rogue waves for stimulated supercontinuum generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 233902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450, 1054–1057 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

D. Faccio, M. A. Porras, A. Dubietis, F. Bragheri, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Conical emission, pulse splitting, and X-wave parametric amplification in nonlinear dynamics of ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 193901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

A. I. Dyachenko and V. E. Zakharov, “Modulation instability of stokes wave implies a freak wave,” JETP Lett. 81, 255–259 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

C. Conti, S. Trillo, P. Di Trapani, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, O. Jedrkiewicz, and J. Trull, “Nonlinear electromagnetic X waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 170406 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kolesik, G. Katona, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, “Physical factors limiting the spectral extent and band gap dependence of supercontinuum generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

A. L. Gaeta, “Catastrophic collapse of ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3582–3585 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

Akhmediev, N.

N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and A. Ankiewicz, “Extreme waves that appear from nowhere: On the nature of rogue waves,” Phys. Lett. A 373, 2137–2145 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ankiewicz, A.

N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and A. Ankiewicz, “Extreme waves that appear from nowhere: On the nature of rogue waves,” Phys. Lett. A 373, 2137–2145 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baum, P.

M. Bradler, P. Baum, and E. Riedle, “Femtosecond continuum generation in bulk laser host materials with sub-μJ pump pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 561–574 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bergé, L.

L. Bergé, S. Mauger, and S. Skupin, “Multifilamentation of powerful optical pulses in silica,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 013817 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bradler, M.

M. Bradler, P. Baum, and E. Riedle, “Femtosecond continuum generation in bulk laser host materials with sub-μJ pump pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 561–574 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bragheri, F.

D. Faccio, M. A. Porras, A. Dubietis, F. Bragheri, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Conical emission, pulse splitting, and X-wave parametric amplification in nonlinear dynamics of ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 193901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brodeur, A.

Chin, S. L.

Conti, C.

C. Conti, S. Trillo, P. Di Trapani, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, O. Jedrkiewicz, and J. Trull, “Nonlinear electromagnetic X waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 170406 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Couairon, A.

D. Faccio, M. A. Porras, A. Dubietis, F. Bragheri, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Conical emission, pulse splitting, and X-wave parametric amplification in nonlinear dynamics of ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 193901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Di Trapani, P.

D. Faccio, M. A. Porras, A. Dubietis, F. Bragheri, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Conical emission, pulse splitting, and X-wave parametric amplification in nonlinear dynamics of ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 193901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Conti, S. Trillo, P. Di Trapani, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, O. Jedrkiewicz, and J. Trull, “Nonlinear electromagnetic X waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 170406 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dubietis, A.

D. Majus, V. Jukna, G. Valiulis, D. Faccio, and A. Dubietis, “Spatio-temporal rogue events in femtosecond filamentation,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 025802 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, M. A. Porras, A. Dubietis, F. Bragheri, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Conical emission, pulse splitting, and X-wave parametric amplification in nonlinear dynamics of ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 193901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dudley, J. M.

Dyachenko, A. I.

A. I. Dyachenko and V. E. Zakharov, “Modulation instability of stokes wave implies a freak wave,” JETP Lett. 81, 255–259 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Erkintalo, M.

Faccio, D.

D. Majus, V. Jukna, G. Valiulis, D. Faccio, and A. Dubietis, “Spatio-temporal rogue events in femtosecond filamentation,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 025802 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, M. A. Porras, A. Dubietis, F. Bragheri, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Conical emission, pulse splitting, and X-wave parametric amplification in nonlinear dynamics of ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 193901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Finot, C.

K. Hammani, A. Picozzi, and C. Finot, “Extreme statistics in Raman fiber amplifiers: From analytical description to experiments,” Opt. Commun. 284, 2594–2603 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gaeta, A. L.

A. L. Gaeta, “Catastrophic collapse of ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3582–3585 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genty, G.

Hammani, K.

K. Hammani, A. Picozzi, and C. Finot, “Extreme statistics in Raman fiber amplifiers: From analytical description to experiments,” Opt. Commun. 284, 2594–2603 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, and B. Jalali, “Active control of rogue waves for stimulated supercontinuum generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 233902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450, 1054–1057 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jedrkiewicz, O.

C. Conti, S. Trillo, P. Di Trapani, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, O. Jedrkiewicz, and J. Trull, “Nonlinear electromagnetic X waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 170406 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jukna, V.

D. Majus, V. Jukna, G. Valiulis, D. Faccio, and A. Dubietis, “Spatio-temporal rogue events in femtosecond filamentation,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 025802 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Katona, G.

M. Kolesik, G. Katona, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, “Physical factors limiting the spectral extent and band gap dependence of supercontinuum generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kolesik, M.

M. Kolesik, G. Katona, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, “Physical factors limiting the spectral extent and band gap dependence of supercontinuum generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koonath, P.

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450, 1054–1057 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Majus, D.

D. Majus, V. Jukna, G. Valiulis, D. Faccio, and A. Dubietis, “Spatio-temporal rogue events in femtosecond filamentation,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 025802 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mauger, S.

L. Bergé, S. Mauger, and S. Skupin, “Multifilamentation of powerful optical pulses in silica,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 013817 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moloney, J. V.

M. Kolesik, G. Katona, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, “Physical factors limiting the spectral extent and band gap dependence of supercontinuum generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Picozzi, A.

K. Hammani, A. Picozzi, and C. Finot, “Extreme statistics in Raman fiber amplifiers: From analytical description to experiments,” Opt. Commun. 284, 2594–2603 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Piskarskas, A.

C. Conti, S. Trillo, P. Di Trapani, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, O. Jedrkiewicz, and J. Trull, “Nonlinear electromagnetic X waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 170406 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Porras, M. A.

D. Faccio, M. A. Porras, A. Dubietis, F. Bragheri, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Conical emission, pulse splitting, and X-wave parametric amplification in nonlinear dynamics of ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 193901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riedle, E.

M. Bradler, P. Baum, and E. Riedle, “Femtosecond continuum generation in bulk laser host materials with sub-μJ pump pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 561–574 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ropers, C.

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, and B. Jalali, “Active control of rogue waves for stimulated supercontinuum generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 233902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450, 1054–1057 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skupin, S.

L. Bergé, S. Mauger, and S. Skupin, “Multifilamentation of powerful optical pulses in silica,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 013817 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Solli, D. R.

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, and B. Jalali, “Active control of rogue waves for stimulated supercontinuum generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 233902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450, 1054–1057 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soto-Crespo, J. M.

N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and A. Ankiewicz, “Extreme waves that appear from nowhere: On the nature of rogue waves,” Phys. Lett. A 373, 2137–2145 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Trillo, S.

C. Conti, S. Trillo, P. Di Trapani, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, O. Jedrkiewicz, and J. Trull, “Nonlinear electromagnetic X waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 170406 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trull, J.

C. Conti, S. Trillo, P. Di Trapani, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, O. Jedrkiewicz, and J. Trull, “Nonlinear electromagnetic X waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 170406 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valiulis, G.

D. Majus, V. Jukna, G. Valiulis, D. Faccio, and A. Dubietis, “Spatio-temporal rogue events in femtosecond filamentation,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 025802 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Conti, S. Trillo, P. Di Trapani, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, O. Jedrkiewicz, and J. Trull, “Nonlinear electromagnetic X waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 170406 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wright, E. M.

M. Kolesik, G. Katona, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, “Physical factors limiting the spectral extent and band gap dependence of supercontinuum generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zakharov, V. E.

A. I. Dyachenko and V. E. Zakharov, “Modulation instability of stokes wave implies a freak wave,” JETP Lett. 81, 255–259 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

M. Bradler, P. Baum, and E. Riedle, “Femtosecond continuum generation in bulk laser host materials with sub-μJ pump pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 97, 561–574 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

JETP Lett.

A. I. Dyachenko and V. E. Zakharov, “Modulation instability of stokes wave implies a freak wave,” JETP Lett. 81, 255–259 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nature

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450, 1054–1057 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

K. Hammani, A. Picozzi, and C. Finot, “Extreme statistics in Raman fiber amplifiers: From analytical description to experiments,” Opt. Commun. 284, 2594–2603 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Lett. A

N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and A. Ankiewicz, “Extreme waves that appear from nowhere: On the nature of rogue waves,” Phys. Lett. A 373, 2137–2145 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

D. Majus, V. Jukna, G. Valiulis, D. Faccio, and A. Dubietis, “Spatio-temporal rogue events in femtosecond filamentation,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 025802 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Bergé, S. Mauger, and S. Skupin, “Multifilamentation of powerful optical pulses in silica,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 013817 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

C. Conti, S. Trillo, P. Di Trapani, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, O. Jedrkiewicz, and J. Trull, “Nonlinear electromagnetic X waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 170406 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Faccio, M. A. Porras, A. Dubietis, F. Bragheri, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, “Conical emission, pulse splitting, and X-wave parametric amplification in nonlinear dynamics of ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 193901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, and B. Jalali, “Active control of rogue waves for stimulated supercontinuum generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 233902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kolesik, G. Katona, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, “Physical factors limiting the spectral extent and band gap dependence of supercontinuum generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Gaeta, “Catastrophic collapse of ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3582–3585 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

N. Akhmediev and E. Pelinovsky eds., “Rogue waves – Towards a unifying concept?,” Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 185, 1–266 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and B. J. Eggleton, “Harnessing and control of optical rogue waves in supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 16, 3644–3651 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-16-6-3644 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mussot, A. Kudlinski, M. Kolobov, E. Louvergeneaux, M. Douay, and M. Taki, “Observation of extreme temporal events in CW-pumped supercontinuum,” Opt. Express 17, 17010–17015 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-19-17010 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kudlinski, B. Barviau, A. Leray, C. Spriet, L. Héliot, and A. Mussot, “Control of pulse-to-pulse fluctuations in visible supercontinuum,” Opt. Express 18, 27445–27454 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-26-27445 .
[CrossRef]

A. Aalto, G. Genty, and J. Toivonen, “Extreme-value statistics in supercontinuum generation by cascaded stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Express 18, 1234–1239 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-18-2-1234 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kasparian, P. Béjot, J.-P. Wolf, and J. M. Dudley, “Optical rogue wave statistics in laser filamentation,” Opt. Express 17, 12070 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-14-12070 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) 2000 individual WLC spectra (gray curves) generated at E in = 0.44 μJ. The average spectrum is shown by the black curve. (b) Expanded view of the blue edge of WLC. Statistical distributions of (c) the input-pulse energy fluctuations, (d) and (e) the spectral intensity of the WLC at 500 nm and 650 nm, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Statistical distributions of (a) the input-pulse energy, selected in ±0.1% energy range from the average value, (b) the resulting spectral intensity at 500 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) and (b) the same as in Fig. 1, recorded at E in = 0.94 μJ. Statistical distributions of the spectral intensity at (c) 425 nm, (d) 500 nm and (e) 650 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Dynamics of the spectral broadening expressed as the wavelength of the blue edge. Dashed curve depicts the peak intensity inside the sapphire sample. (b) Shape parameter of the Weibull fit function vs input-pulse energy. Shaded area marks the energy (intensity) range where extreme-value statistics is detected. (c)–(e) Numerically simulated on-axis intensity profiles. Dashed curve shows the input-pulse. See text for details.

Equations (1)

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f ( x ) = C ( x x 0 l ) k 1 exp ( ( x x 0 l ) k ) ,

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