Abstract

The direct replication of W/Si multilayers and the effect of separating layer thickness on the performance of the multilayer before and after replication are investigated systematically. Platinum separating layers with different layer thicknesses were first deposited onto different supersmooth mandrels and then W/Si multilayers with the similar structure were deposited onto these Pt-coated mandrels by using a high vacuum DC magnetron sputtering system. After the deposition, these multilayers were replicated onto the commercially available float glass substrates by epoxy replication technique. These multilayers before and after replication are characterized by grazing-incident X-ray reflectance measurement and atomic force microscope. The measured results show that before and after replication, the reflectivity curves are much similar to those calculated and the surface roughness of each sample is close to that of the mandrel, when the separating layer thickness is larger than 1.5 nm. These results reveal that the W/Si multilayer with the separating layer thickness larger than 1.5 nm can be successfully replicated onto a substrate without modification of the structure, significant increase of surface roughness or apparent change of reflectivity.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. Pareschi, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, A. Mengali, and C. Misiano, “Nickel replicated multilayer optics for soft and hard X-ray telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 4012, 284–293 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Pareschi, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, P. Gorenstein, S. Romaine, and G. Parodi, “Replication by Ni electroforming approach to produce the Con-X/HXT hard X-ray mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 4851, 528–537 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. P. Ulmer, R. Altkorn, A. Madan, M. Graham, Y.-W. Chung, A. Krieger, C. Liu, B. Lai, D. C. Mancini, and P. Takacs, “The fabrication of Wolter I multilayer coated optics via electroforming: an update,” Proc. SPIE 3773, 113–121 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Soong, L. Jalota, and P. J. Serlemitsos, “Conical thin foil X-ray mirror fabrication via surface replication,” Proc. SPIE 2515, 64–69 (1995).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. D. L. Windt, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, C. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, M. Jimenez-Garate, R. Kalyanaraman, and P. H. Mao, “Growth, structure, and performance of depth-graded W/Si multilayers for hard X-ray optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(1), 460–470 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. K. Madsen, F. E. Christensen, C. P. Jensen, E. Ziegler, W. W. Craig, K. Gunderson, J. E. Koglin, and K. Pedersen, “X-ray study of W/Si multilayers for the HEFT hard X-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5168, 41–52 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, T. Miyazawa, Y. Fukaya, T. Iwahara, N. Sasaki, A. Furuzawa, Y. Haba, Y. Kanou, D. Ueno, H. Kunieda, K. Yamashita, R. Shibata, T. Okajima, J. Tueller, P. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Uesugi, Y. Suzuki, and Y. Namba, “Thin-foil multilayer-supermirror hard X-ray telescope for InFOCμS/SUMIT balloon experiments and NeXT satellite program,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668803, 668803-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

G. Pareschi, S. Basso, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, D. Spiga, W. Burkert, M. Freyberg, G. D. Hartner, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, G. Grisoni, G. Balsecchi, B. Negri, G. Parodi, and A. Marzorati, “Development of grazing-incidence multilayer mirrors by direct Ni electroforming replication: a status report,” Proc. SPIE 5900, 590008, 590008-12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

K. K. Madsen, F. E. Christensen, C. P. Jensen, E. Ziegler, W. W. Craig, K. Gunderson, J. E. Koglin, and K. Pedersen, “X-ray study of W/Si multilayers for the HEFT hard X-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5168, 41–52 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

G. Pareschi, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, P. Gorenstein, S. Romaine, and G. Parodi, “Replication by Ni electroforming approach to produce the Con-X/HXT hard X-ray mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 4851, 528–537 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Ulmer, R. Altkorn, M. E. Graham, A. Madan, and Y. S. Chu, “Production and performance of multilayer-coated conical x-ray mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 42(34), 6945–6952 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, K. Haga, T. Okajima, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, A. Gotou, H. Kitou, S. Fukuda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Kunieida, J. Tueller, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K. Chan, S. M. Owens, B. Barber, E. Dereniak, and E. E. Young, “A hard X-ray telescope with multilayer supermirrors for balloon observations of cosmic X-ray sources,” Adv. Space Res. 30(5), 1313–1319 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Soong, K. Chan, and P. J. Serlemitsos, “Recent advance in segmented thin-foil X-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 4496, 54–61 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

G. Pareschi, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, A. Mengali, and C. Misiano, “Nickel replicated multilayer optics for soft and hard X-ray telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 4012, 284–293 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Jimenez-Garate, W. W. Craig, C. J. Hailey, F. E. Christensen, and A. Hussain, “Fabrication, performance, and figure metrology of epoxy-replicated aluminum foils for hard x-ray focusing mulitlyaer-coated segmented conical optics,” Opt. Eng. 39(11), 2982–2994 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Windt, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, C. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, M. Jimenez-Garate, R. Kalyanaraman, and P. H. Mao, “Growth, structure, and performance of depth-graded W/Si multilayers for hard X-ray optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(1), 460–470 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. P. Ulmer, R. Altkorn, A. Madan, M. Graham, Y.-W. Chung, A. Krieger, C. Liu, B. Lai, D. C. Mancini, and P. Takacs, “The fabrication of Wolter I multilayer coated optics via electroforming: an update,” Proc. SPIE 3773, 113–121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, K. Tamura, K. Haga, N. Nakamura, N. Nakajo, H. Takata, T. Okajima, Y. Ogasaka, G. S. Lodha, and Y. Nanba, “Replication of multilayer supermirror,” Proc. SPIE 3444, 576–582 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Tamura, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, N. Nakajo, T. Okajima, H. Takata, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Soong, K. Chan, G. S. Lodha, Y. Namba, and J. Yu, “Development of multilayer supermirror for hard X-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 3444, 569–575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Y. Soong, L. Jalota, and P. J. Serlemitsos, “Conical thin foil X-ray mirror fabrication via surface replication,” Proc. SPIE 2515, 64–69 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

1984 (1)

Altkorn, R.

M. P. Ulmer, R. Altkorn, M. E. Graham, A. Madan, and Y. S. Chu, “Production and performance of multilayer-coated conical x-ray mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 42(34), 6945–6952 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Ulmer, R. Altkorn, A. Madan, M. Graham, Y.-W. Chung, A. Krieger, C. Liu, B. Lai, D. C. Mancini, and P. Takacs, “The fabrication of Wolter I multilayer coated optics via electroforming: an update,” Proc. SPIE 3773, 113–121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Balsecchi, G.

G. Pareschi, S. Basso, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, D. Spiga, W. Burkert, M. Freyberg, G. D. Hartner, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, G. Grisoni, G. Balsecchi, B. Negri, G. Parodi, and A. Marzorati, “Development of grazing-incidence multilayer mirrors by direct Ni electroforming replication: a status report,” Proc. SPIE 5900, 590008, 590008-12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barber, B.

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, K. Haga, T. Okajima, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, A. Gotou, H. Kitou, S. Fukuda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Kunieida, J. Tueller, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K. Chan, S. M. Owens, B. Barber, E. Dereniak, and E. E. Young, “A hard X-ray telescope with multilayer supermirrors for balloon observations of cosmic X-ray sources,” Adv. Space Res. 30(5), 1313–1319 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Basso, S.

G. Pareschi, S. Basso, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, D. Spiga, W. Burkert, M. Freyberg, G. D. Hartner, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, G. Grisoni, G. Balsecchi, B. Negri, G. Parodi, and A. Marzorati, “Development of grazing-incidence multilayer mirrors by direct Ni electroforming replication: a status report,” Proc. SPIE 5900, 590008, 590008-12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bedford, D. K.

Bonelli, G.

Brauninger, H.

Burkert, W.

G. Pareschi, S. Basso, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, D. Spiga, W. Burkert, M. Freyberg, G. D. Hartner, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, G. Grisoni, G. Balsecchi, B. Negri, G. Parodi, and A. Marzorati, “Development of grazing-incidence multilayer mirrors by direct Ni electroforming replication: a status report,” Proc. SPIE 5900, 590008, 590008-12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. Citterio, G. Bonelli, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, E. Santambrogio, B. Sacco, E. Lanzara, H. Brauninger, and W. Burkert, “Optics for the x-ray imaging concentrators aboard the x-ray astronomy satellite SAX,” Appl. Opt. 27(8), 1470–1475 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, K.

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, K. Haga, T. Okajima, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, A. Gotou, H. Kitou, S. Fukuda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Kunieida, J. Tueller, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K. Chan, S. M. Owens, B. Barber, E. Dereniak, and E. E. Young, “A hard X-ray telescope with multilayer supermirrors for balloon observations of cosmic X-ray sources,” Adv. Space Res. 30(5), 1313–1319 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Soong, K. Chan, and P. J. Serlemitsos, “Recent advance in segmented thin-foil X-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 4496, 54–61 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Tamura, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, N. Nakajo, T. Okajima, H. Takata, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Soong, K. Chan, G. S. Lodha, Y. Namba, and J. Yu, “Development of multilayer supermirror for hard X-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 3444, 569–575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chan, K.-W.

Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, T. Miyazawa, Y. Fukaya, T. Iwahara, N. Sasaki, A. Furuzawa, Y. Haba, Y. Kanou, D. Ueno, H. Kunieda, K. Yamashita, R. Shibata, T. Okajima, J. Tueller, P. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Uesugi, Y. Suzuki, and Y. Namba, “Thin-foil multilayer-supermirror hard X-ray telescope for InFOCμS/SUMIT balloon experiments and NeXT satellite program,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668803, 668803-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Christensen, F. E.

K. K. Madsen, F. E. Christensen, C. P. Jensen, E. Ziegler, W. W. Craig, K. Gunderson, J. E. Koglin, and K. Pedersen, “X-ray study of W/Si multilayers for the HEFT hard X-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5168, 41–52 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Jimenez-Garate, W. W. Craig, C. J. Hailey, F. E. Christensen, and A. Hussain, “Fabrication, performance, and figure metrology of epoxy-replicated aluminum foils for hard x-ray focusing mulitlyaer-coated segmented conical optics,” Opt. Eng. 39(11), 2982–2994 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Windt, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, C. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, M. Jimenez-Garate, R. Kalyanaraman, and P. H. Mao, “Growth, structure, and performance of depth-graded W/Si multilayers for hard X-ray optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(1), 460–470 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chu, Y. S.

Chung, Y.-W.

M. P. Ulmer, R. Altkorn, A. Madan, M. Graham, Y.-W. Chung, A. Krieger, C. Liu, B. Lai, D. C. Mancini, and P. Takacs, “The fabrication of Wolter I multilayer coated optics via electroforming: an update,” Proc. SPIE 3773, 113–121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Citterio, O.

G. Pareschi, S. Basso, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, D. Spiga, W. Burkert, M. Freyberg, G. D. Hartner, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, G. Grisoni, G. Balsecchi, B. Negri, G. Parodi, and A. Marzorati, “Development of grazing-incidence multilayer mirrors by direct Ni electroforming replication: a status report,” Proc. SPIE 5900, 590008, 590008-12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Pareschi, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, P. Gorenstein, S. Romaine, and G. Parodi, “Replication by Ni electroforming approach to produce the Con-X/HXT hard X-ray mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 4851, 528–537 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Pareschi, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, A. Mengali, and C. Misiano, “Nickel replicated multilayer optics for soft and hard X-ray telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 4012, 284–293 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Citterio, G. Bonelli, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, E. Santambrogio, B. Sacco, E. Lanzara, H. Brauninger, and W. Burkert, “Optics for the x-ray imaging concentrators aboard the x-ray astronomy satellite SAX,” Appl. Opt. 27(8), 1470–1475 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conti, G.

G. Pareschi, S. Basso, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, D. Spiga, W. Burkert, M. Freyberg, G. D. Hartner, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, G. Grisoni, G. Balsecchi, B. Negri, G. Parodi, and A. Marzorati, “Development of grazing-incidence multilayer mirrors by direct Ni electroforming replication: a status report,” Proc. SPIE 5900, 590008, 590008-12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. Citterio, G. Bonelli, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, E. Santambrogio, B. Sacco, E. Lanzara, H. Brauninger, and W. Burkert, “Optics for the x-ray imaging concentrators aboard the x-ray astronomy satellite SAX,” Appl. Opt. 27(8), 1470–1475 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Craig, W. W.

K. K. Madsen, F. E. Christensen, C. P. Jensen, E. Ziegler, W. W. Craig, K. Gunderson, J. E. Koglin, and K. Pedersen, “X-ray study of W/Si multilayers for the HEFT hard X-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5168, 41–52 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Jimenez-Garate, W. W. Craig, C. J. Hailey, F. E. Christensen, and A. Hussain, “Fabrication, performance, and figure metrology of epoxy-replicated aluminum foils for hard x-ray focusing mulitlyaer-coated segmented conical optics,” Opt. Eng. 39(11), 2982–2994 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Windt, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, C. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, M. Jimenez-Garate, R. Kalyanaraman, and P. H. Mao, “Growth, structure, and performance of depth-graded W/Si multilayers for hard X-ray optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(1), 460–470 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dereniak, E.

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, K. Haga, T. Okajima, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, A. Gotou, H. Kitou, S. Fukuda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Kunieida, J. Tueller, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K. Chan, S. M. Owens, B. Barber, E. Dereniak, and E. E. Young, “A hard X-ray telescope with multilayer supermirrors for balloon observations of cosmic X-ray sources,” Adv. Space Res. 30(5), 1313–1319 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Freyberg, M.

G. Pareschi, S. Basso, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, D. Spiga, W. Burkert, M. Freyberg, G. D. Hartner, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, G. Grisoni, G. Balsecchi, B. Negri, G. Parodi, and A. Marzorati, “Development of grazing-incidence multilayer mirrors by direct Ni electroforming replication: a status report,” Proc. SPIE 5900, 590008, 590008-12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fukaya, Y.

Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, T. Miyazawa, Y. Fukaya, T. Iwahara, N. Sasaki, A. Furuzawa, Y. Haba, Y. Kanou, D. Ueno, H. Kunieda, K. Yamashita, R. Shibata, T. Okajima, J. Tueller, P. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Uesugi, Y. Suzuki, and Y. Namba, “Thin-foil multilayer-supermirror hard X-ray telescope for InFOCμS/SUMIT balloon experiments and NeXT satellite program,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668803, 668803-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, S.

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, K. Haga, T. Okajima, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, A. Gotou, H. Kitou, S. Fukuda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Kunieida, J. Tueller, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K. Chan, S. M. Owens, B. Barber, E. Dereniak, and E. E. Young, “A hard X-ray telescope with multilayer supermirrors for balloon observations of cosmic X-ray sources,” Adv. Space Res. 30(5), 1313–1319 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Furuzawa, A.

Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, T. Miyazawa, Y. Fukaya, T. Iwahara, N. Sasaki, A. Furuzawa, Y. Haba, Y. Kanou, D. Ueno, H. Kunieda, K. Yamashita, R. Shibata, T. Okajima, J. Tueller, P. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Uesugi, Y. Suzuki, and Y. Namba, “Thin-foil multilayer-supermirror hard X-ray telescope for InFOCμS/SUMIT balloon experiments and NeXT satellite program,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668803, 668803-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Tamura, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, N. Nakajo, T. Okajima, H. Takata, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Soong, K. Chan, G. S. Lodha, Y. Namba, and J. Yu, “Development of multilayer supermirror for hard X-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 3444, 569–575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, K. Tamura, K. Haga, N. Nakamura, N. Nakajo, H. Takata, T. Okajima, Y. Ogasaka, G. S. Lodha, and Y. Nanba, “Replication of multilayer supermirror,” Proc. SPIE 3444, 576–582 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ghigo, M.

G. Pareschi, S. Basso, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, D. Spiga, W. Burkert, M. Freyberg, G. D. Hartner, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, G. Grisoni, G. Balsecchi, B. Negri, G. Parodi, and A. Marzorati, “Development of grazing-incidence multilayer mirrors by direct Ni electroforming replication: a status report,” Proc. SPIE 5900, 590008, 590008-12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Pareschi, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, P. Gorenstein, S. Romaine, and G. Parodi, “Replication by Ni electroforming approach to produce the Con-X/HXT hard X-ray mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 4851, 528–537 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Pareschi, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, A. Mengali, and C. Misiano, “Nickel replicated multilayer optics for soft and hard X-ray telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 4012, 284–293 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gorenstein, P.

G. Pareschi, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, P. Gorenstein, S. Romaine, and G. Parodi, “Replication by Ni electroforming approach to produce the Con-X/HXT hard X-ray mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 4851, 528–537 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gotou, A.

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, K. Haga, T. Okajima, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, A. Gotou, H. Kitou, S. Fukuda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Kunieida, J. Tueller, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K. Chan, S. M. Owens, B. Barber, E. Dereniak, and E. E. Young, “A hard X-ray telescope with multilayer supermirrors for balloon observations of cosmic X-ray sources,” Adv. Space Res. 30(5), 1313–1319 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Graham, M.

M. P. Ulmer, R. Altkorn, A. Madan, M. Graham, Y.-W. Chung, A. Krieger, C. Liu, B. Lai, D. C. Mancini, and P. Takacs, “The fabrication of Wolter I multilayer coated optics via electroforming: an update,” Proc. SPIE 3773, 113–121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Graham, M. E.

Grisoni, G.

G. Pareschi, S. Basso, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, D. Spiga, W. Burkert, M. Freyberg, G. D. Hartner, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, G. Grisoni, G. Balsecchi, B. Negri, G. Parodi, and A. Marzorati, “Development of grazing-incidence multilayer mirrors by direct Ni electroforming replication: a status report,” Proc. SPIE 5900, 590008, 590008-12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gunderson, K.

K. K. Madsen, F. E. Christensen, C. P. Jensen, E. Ziegler, W. W. Craig, K. Gunderson, J. E. Koglin, and K. Pedersen, “X-ray study of W/Si multilayers for the HEFT hard X-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5168, 41–52 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Haba, Y.

Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, T. Miyazawa, Y. Fukaya, T. Iwahara, N. Sasaki, A. Furuzawa, Y. Haba, Y. Kanou, D. Ueno, H. Kunieda, K. Yamashita, R. Shibata, T. Okajima, J. Tueller, P. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Uesugi, Y. Suzuki, and Y. Namba, “Thin-foil multilayer-supermirror hard X-ray telescope for InFOCμS/SUMIT balloon experiments and NeXT satellite program,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668803, 668803-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Haga, K.

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, K. Haga, T. Okajima, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, A. Gotou, H. Kitou, S. Fukuda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Kunieida, J. Tueller, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K. Chan, S. M. Owens, B. Barber, E. Dereniak, and E. E. Young, “A hard X-ray telescope with multilayer supermirrors for balloon observations of cosmic X-ray sources,” Adv. Space Res. 30(5), 1313–1319 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, K. Tamura, K. Haga, N. Nakamura, N. Nakajo, H. Takata, T. Okajima, Y. Ogasaka, G. S. Lodha, and Y. Nanba, “Replication of multilayer supermirror,” Proc. SPIE 3444, 576–582 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Tamura, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, N. Nakajo, T. Okajima, H. Takata, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Soong, K. Chan, G. S. Lodha, Y. Namba, and J. Yu, “Development of multilayer supermirror for hard X-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 3444, 569–575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hailey, C.

D. L. Windt, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, C. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, M. Jimenez-Garate, R. Kalyanaraman, and P. H. Mao, “Growth, structure, and performance of depth-graded W/Si multilayers for hard X-ray optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(1), 460–470 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hailey, C. J.

M. A. Jimenez-Garate, W. W. Craig, C. J. Hailey, F. E. Christensen, and A. Hussain, “Fabrication, performance, and figure metrology of epoxy-replicated aluminum foils for hard x-ray focusing mulitlyaer-coated segmented conical optics,” Opt. Eng. 39(11), 2982–2994 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, F. A.

D. L. Windt, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, C. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, M. Jimenez-Garate, R. Kalyanaraman, and P. H. Mao, “Growth, structure, and performance of depth-graded W/Si multilayers for hard X-ray optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(1), 460–470 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hartner, G. D.

G. Pareschi, S. Basso, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, D. Spiga, W. Burkert, M. Freyberg, G. D. Hartner, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, G. Grisoni, G. Balsecchi, B. Negri, G. Parodi, and A. Marzorati, “Development of grazing-incidence multilayer mirrors by direct Ni electroforming replication: a status report,” Proc. SPIE 5900, 590008, 590008-12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hussain, A.

M. A. Jimenez-Garate, W. W. Craig, C. J. Hailey, F. E. Christensen, and A. Hussain, “Fabrication, performance, and figure metrology of epoxy-replicated aluminum foils for hard x-ray focusing mulitlyaer-coated segmented conical optics,” Opt. Eng. 39(11), 2982–2994 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ichimaru, S.

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, K. Haga, T. Okajima, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, A. Gotou, H. Kitou, S. Fukuda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Kunieida, J. Tueller, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K. Chan, S. M. Owens, B. Barber, E. Dereniak, and E. E. Young, “A hard X-ray telescope with multilayer supermirrors for balloon observations of cosmic X-ray sources,” Adv. Space Res. 30(5), 1313–1319 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Iwahara, T.

Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, T. Miyazawa, Y. Fukaya, T. Iwahara, N. Sasaki, A. Furuzawa, Y. Haba, Y. Kanou, D. Ueno, H. Kunieda, K. Yamashita, R. Shibata, T. Okajima, J. Tueller, P. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Uesugi, Y. Suzuki, and Y. Namba, “Thin-foil multilayer-supermirror hard X-ray telescope for InFOCμS/SUMIT balloon experiments and NeXT satellite program,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668803, 668803-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jalota, L.

Y. Soong, L. Jalota, and P. J. Serlemitsos, “Conical thin foil X-ray mirror fabrication via surface replication,” Proc. SPIE 2515, 64–69 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, C. P.

K. K. Madsen, F. E. Christensen, C. P. Jensen, E. Ziegler, W. W. Craig, K. Gunderson, J. E. Koglin, and K. Pedersen, “X-ray study of W/Si multilayers for the HEFT hard X-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5168, 41–52 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jimenez-Garate, M.

D. L. Windt, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, C. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, M. Jimenez-Garate, R. Kalyanaraman, and P. H. Mao, “Growth, structure, and performance of depth-graded W/Si multilayers for hard X-ray optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(1), 460–470 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jimenez-Garate, M. A.

M. A. Jimenez-Garate, W. W. Craig, C. J. Hailey, F. E. Christensen, and A. Hussain, “Fabrication, performance, and figure metrology of epoxy-replicated aluminum foils for hard x-ray focusing mulitlyaer-coated segmented conical optics,” Opt. Eng. 39(11), 2982–2994 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kalyanaraman, R.

D. L. Windt, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, C. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, M. Jimenez-Garate, R. Kalyanaraman, and P. H. Mao, “Growth, structure, and performance of depth-graded W/Si multilayers for hard X-ray optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(1), 460–470 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kanou, Y.

Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, T. Miyazawa, Y. Fukaya, T. Iwahara, N. Sasaki, A. Furuzawa, Y. Haba, Y. Kanou, D. Ueno, H. Kunieda, K. Yamashita, R. Shibata, T. Okajima, J. Tueller, P. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Uesugi, Y. Suzuki, and Y. Namba, “Thin-foil multilayer-supermirror hard X-ray telescope for InFOCμS/SUMIT balloon experiments and NeXT satellite program,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668803, 668803-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kitou, H.

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, K. Haga, T. Okajima, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, A. Gotou, H. Kitou, S. Fukuda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Kunieida, J. Tueller, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K. Chan, S. M. Owens, B. Barber, E. Dereniak, and E. E. Young, “A hard X-ray telescope with multilayer supermirrors for balloon observations of cosmic X-ray sources,” Adv. Space Res. 30(5), 1313–1319 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Koglin, J. E.

K. K. Madsen, F. E. Christensen, C. P. Jensen, E. Ziegler, W. W. Craig, K. Gunderson, J. E. Koglin, and K. Pedersen, “X-ray study of W/Si multilayers for the HEFT hard X-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5168, 41–52 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kowalski, M. P.

Krieger, A.

M. P. Ulmer, R. Altkorn, A. Madan, M. Graham, Y.-W. Chung, A. Krieger, C. Liu, B. Lai, D. C. Mancini, and P. Takacs, “The fabrication of Wolter I multilayer coated optics via electroforming: an update,” Proc. SPIE 3773, 113–121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kunieda, H.

Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, T. Miyazawa, Y. Fukaya, T. Iwahara, N. Sasaki, A. Furuzawa, Y. Haba, Y. Kanou, D. Ueno, H. Kunieda, K. Yamashita, R. Shibata, T. Okajima, J. Tueller, P. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Uesugi, Y. Suzuki, and Y. Namba, “Thin-foil multilayer-supermirror hard X-ray telescope for InFOCμS/SUMIT balloon experiments and NeXT satellite program,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668803, 668803-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Tamura, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, N. Nakajo, T. Okajima, H. Takata, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Soong, K. Chan, G. S. Lodha, Y. Namba, and J. Yu, “Development of multilayer supermirror for hard X-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 3444, 569–575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, K. Tamura, K. Haga, N. Nakamura, N. Nakajo, H. Takata, T. Okajima, Y. Ogasaka, G. S. Lodha, and Y. Nanba, “Replication of multilayer supermirror,” Proc. SPIE 3444, 576–582 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kunieida, H.

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, K. Haga, T. Okajima, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, A. Gotou, H. Kitou, S. Fukuda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Kunieida, J. Tueller, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K. Chan, S. M. Owens, B. Barber, E. Dereniak, and E. E. Young, “A hard X-ray telescope with multilayer supermirrors for balloon observations of cosmic X-ray sources,” Adv. Space Res. 30(5), 1313–1319 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lai, B.

M. P. Ulmer, R. Altkorn, A. Madan, M. Graham, Y.-W. Chung, A. Krieger, C. Liu, B. Lai, D. C. Mancini, and P. Takacs, “The fabrication of Wolter I multilayer coated optics via electroforming: an update,” Proc. SPIE 3773, 113–121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lanzara, E.

Liu, C.

M. P. Ulmer, R. Altkorn, A. Madan, M. Graham, Y.-W. Chung, A. Krieger, C. Liu, B. Lai, D. C. Mancini, and P. Takacs, “The fabrication of Wolter I multilayer coated optics via electroforming: an update,” Proc. SPIE 3773, 113–121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lodha, G. S.

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Tamura, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, N. Nakajo, T. Okajima, H. Takata, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Soong, K. Chan, G. S. Lodha, Y. Namba, and J. Yu, “Development of multilayer supermirror for hard X-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 3444, 569–575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, K. Tamura, K. Haga, N. Nakamura, N. Nakajo, H. Takata, T. Okajima, Y. Ogasaka, G. S. Lodha, and Y. Nanba, “Replication of multilayer supermirror,” Proc. SPIE 3444, 576–582 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Loughlin, J. E. A.

Madan, A.

M. P. Ulmer, R. Altkorn, M. E. Graham, A. Madan, and Y. S. Chu, “Production and performance of multilayer-coated conical x-ray mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 42(34), 6945–6952 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Ulmer, R. Altkorn, A. Madan, M. Graham, Y.-W. Chung, A. Krieger, C. Liu, B. Lai, D. C. Mancini, and P. Takacs, “The fabrication of Wolter I multilayer coated optics via electroforming: an update,” Proc. SPIE 3773, 113–121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Madsen, K. K.

K. K. Madsen, F. E. Christensen, C. P. Jensen, E. Ziegler, W. W. Craig, K. Gunderson, J. E. Koglin, and K. Pedersen, “X-ray study of W/Si multilayers for the HEFT hard X-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5168, 41–52 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mancini, D. C.

M. P. Ulmer, R. Altkorn, A. Madan, M. Graham, Y.-W. Chung, A. Krieger, C. Liu, B. Lai, D. C. Mancini, and P. Takacs, “The fabrication of Wolter I multilayer coated optics via electroforming: an update,” Proc. SPIE 3773, 113–121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mao, P. H.

D. L. Windt, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, C. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, M. Jimenez-Garate, R. Kalyanaraman, and P. H. Mao, “Growth, structure, and performance of depth-graded W/Si multilayers for hard X-ray optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(1), 460–470 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Marzorati, A.

G. Pareschi, S. Basso, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, D. Spiga, W. Burkert, M. Freyberg, G. D. Hartner, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, G. Grisoni, G. Balsecchi, B. Negri, G. Parodi, and A. Marzorati, “Development of grazing-incidence multilayer mirrors by direct Ni electroforming replication: a status report,” Proc. SPIE 5900, 590008, 590008-12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Matsui, Y.

Mattaini, E.

G. Pareschi, S. Basso, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, D. Spiga, W. Burkert, M. Freyberg, G. D. Hartner, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, G. Grisoni, G. Balsecchi, B. Negri, G. Parodi, and A. Marzorati, “Development of grazing-incidence multilayer mirrors by direct Ni electroforming replication: a status report,” Proc. SPIE 5900, 590008, 590008-12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. Citterio, G. Bonelli, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, E. Santambrogio, B. Sacco, E. Lanzara, H. Brauninger, and W. Burkert, “Optics for the x-ray imaging concentrators aboard the x-ray astronomy satellite SAX,” Appl. Opt. 27(8), 1470–1475 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mazzoleni, F.

G. Pareschi, S. Basso, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, D. Spiga, W. Burkert, M. Freyberg, G. D. Hartner, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, G. Grisoni, G. Balsecchi, B. Negri, G. Parodi, and A. Marzorati, “Development of grazing-incidence multilayer mirrors by direct Ni electroforming replication: a status report,” Proc. SPIE 5900, 590008, 590008-12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Pareschi, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, P. Gorenstein, S. Romaine, and G. Parodi, “Replication by Ni electroforming approach to produce the Con-X/HXT hard X-ray mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 4851, 528–537 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Pareschi, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, A. Mengali, and C. Misiano, “Nickel replicated multilayer optics for soft and hard X-ray telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 4012, 284–293 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mengali, A.

G. Pareschi, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, A. Mengali, and C. Misiano, “Nickel replicated multilayer optics for soft and hard X-ray telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 4012, 284–293 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Misiano, C.

G. Pareschi, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, A. Mengali, and C. Misiano, “Nickel replicated multilayer optics for soft and hard X-ray telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 4012, 284–293 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Miyata, E.

Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, T. Miyazawa, Y. Fukaya, T. Iwahara, N. Sasaki, A. Furuzawa, Y. Haba, Y. Kanou, D. Ueno, H. Kunieda, K. Yamashita, R. Shibata, T. Okajima, J. Tueller, P. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Uesugi, Y. Suzuki, and Y. Namba, “Thin-foil multilayer-supermirror hard X-ray telescope for InFOCμS/SUMIT balloon experiments and NeXT satellite program,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668803, 668803-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miyazawa, T.

Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, T. Miyazawa, Y. Fukaya, T. Iwahara, N. Sasaki, A. Furuzawa, Y. Haba, Y. Kanou, D. Ueno, H. Kunieda, K. Yamashita, R. Shibata, T. Okajima, J. Tueller, P. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Uesugi, Y. Suzuki, and Y. Namba, “Thin-foil multilayer-supermirror hard X-ray telescope for InFOCμS/SUMIT balloon experiments and NeXT satellite program,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668803, 668803-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nakajo, N.

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Tamura, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, N. Nakajo, T. Okajima, H. Takata, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Soong, K. Chan, G. S. Lodha, Y. Namba, and J. Yu, “Development of multilayer supermirror for hard X-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 3444, 569–575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, K. Tamura, K. Haga, N. Nakamura, N. Nakajo, H. Takata, T. Okajima, Y. Ogasaka, G. S. Lodha, and Y. Nanba, “Replication of multilayer supermirror,” Proc. SPIE 3444, 576–582 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, N.

A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, K. Tamura, K. Haga, N. Nakamura, N. Nakajo, H. Takata, T. Okajima, Y. Ogasaka, G. S. Lodha, and Y. Nanba, “Replication of multilayer supermirror,” Proc. SPIE 3444, 576–582 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Namba, Y.

Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, T. Miyazawa, Y. Fukaya, T. Iwahara, N. Sasaki, A. Furuzawa, Y. Haba, Y. Kanou, D. Ueno, H. Kunieda, K. Yamashita, R. Shibata, T. Okajima, J. Tueller, P. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Uesugi, Y. Suzuki, and Y. Namba, “Thin-foil multilayer-supermirror hard X-ray telescope for InFOCμS/SUMIT balloon experiments and NeXT satellite program,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668803, 668803-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Tamura, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, N. Nakajo, T. Okajima, H. Takata, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Soong, K. Chan, G. S. Lodha, Y. Namba, and J. Yu, “Development of multilayer supermirror for hard X-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 3444, 569–575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nanba, Y.

A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, K. Tamura, K. Haga, N. Nakamura, N. Nakajo, H. Takata, T. Okajima, Y. Ogasaka, G. S. Lodha, and Y. Nanba, “Replication of multilayer supermirror,” Proc. SPIE 3444, 576–582 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Negri, B.

G. Pareschi, S. Basso, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, D. Spiga, W. Burkert, M. Freyberg, G. D. Hartner, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, G. Grisoni, G. Balsecchi, B. Negri, G. Parodi, and A. Marzorati, “Development of grazing-incidence multilayer mirrors by direct Ni electroforming replication: a status report,” Proc. SPIE 5900, 590008, 590008-12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ogasaka, Y.

Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, T. Miyazawa, Y. Fukaya, T. Iwahara, N. Sasaki, A. Furuzawa, Y. Haba, Y. Kanou, D. Ueno, H. Kunieda, K. Yamashita, R. Shibata, T. Okajima, J. Tueller, P. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Uesugi, Y. Suzuki, and Y. Namba, “Thin-foil multilayer-supermirror hard X-ray telescope for InFOCμS/SUMIT balloon experiments and NeXT satellite program,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668803, 668803-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, K. Haga, T. Okajima, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, A. Gotou, H. Kitou, S. Fukuda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Kunieida, J. Tueller, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K. Chan, S. M. Owens, B. Barber, E. Dereniak, and E. E. Young, “A hard X-ray telescope with multilayer supermirrors for balloon observations of cosmic X-ray sources,” Adv. Space Res. 30(5), 1313–1319 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, K. Tamura, K. Haga, N. Nakamura, N. Nakajo, H. Takata, T. Okajima, Y. Ogasaka, G. S. Lodha, and Y. Nanba, “Replication of multilayer supermirror,” Proc. SPIE 3444, 576–582 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Okajima, T.

Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, T. Miyazawa, Y. Fukaya, T. Iwahara, N. Sasaki, A. Furuzawa, Y. Haba, Y. Kanou, D. Ueno, H. Kunieda, K. Yamashita, R. Shibata, T. Okajima, J. Tueller, P. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Uesugi, Y. Suzuki, and Y. Namba, “Thin-foil multilayer-supermirror hard X-ray telescope for InFOCμS/SUMIT balloon experiments and NeXT satellite program,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668803, 668803-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, K. Haga, T. Okajima, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, A. Gotou, H. Kitou, S. Fukuda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Kunieida, J. Tueller, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K. Chan, S. M. Owens, B. Barber, E. Dereniak, and E. E. Young, “A hard X-ray telescope with multilayer supermirrors for balloon observations of cosmic X-ray sources,” Adv. Space Res. 30(5), 1313–1319 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, K. Tamura, K. Haga, N. Nakamura, N. Nakajo, H. Takata, T. Okajima, Y. Ogasaka, G. S. Lodha, and Y. Nanba, “Replication of multilayer supermirror,” Proc. SPIE 3444, 576–582 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Tamura, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, N. Nakajo, T. Okajima, H. Takata, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Soong, K. Chan, G. S. Lodha, Y. Namba, and J. Yu, “Development of multilayer supermirror for hard X-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 3444, 569–575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Owens, S. M.

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, K. Haga, T. Okajima, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, A. Gotou, H. Kitou, S. Fukuda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Kunieida, J. Tueller, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K. Chan, S. M. Owens, B. Barber, E. Dereniak, and E. E. Young, “A hard X-ray telescope with multilayer supermirrors for balloon observations of cosmic X-ray sources,” Adv. Space Res. 30(5), 1313–1319 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pareschi, G.

G. Pareschi, S. Basso, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, D. Spiga, W. Burkert, M. Freyberg, G. D. Hartner, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, G. Grisoni, G. Balsecchi, B. Negri, G. Parodi, and A. Marzorati, “Development of grazing-incidence multilayer mirrors by direct Ni electroforming replication: a status report,” Proc. SPIE 5900, 590008, 590008-12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Pareschi, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, P. Gorenstein, S. Romaine, and G. Parodi, “Replication by Ni electroforming approach to produce the Con-X/HXT hard X-ray mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 4851, 528–537 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Pareschi, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, A. Mengali, and C. Misiano, “Nickel replicated multilayer optics for soft and hard X-ray telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 4012, 284–293 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Parodi, G.

G. Pareschi, S. Basso, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, D. Spiga, W. Burkert, M. Freyberg, G. D. Hartner, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, G. Grisoni, G. Balsecchi, B. Negri, G. Parodi, and A. Marzorati, “Development of grazing-incidence multilayer mirrors by direct Ni electroforming replication: a status report,” Proc. SPIE 5900, 590008, 590008-12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Pareschi, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, P. Gorenstein, S. Romaine, and G. Parodi, “Replication by Ni electroforming approach to produce the Con-X/HXT hard X-ray mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 4851, 528–537 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, K.

K. K. Madsen, F. E. Christensen, C. P. Jensen, E. Ziegler, W. W. Craig, K. Gunderson, J. E. Koglin, and K. Pedersen, “X-ray study of W/Si multilayers for the HEFT hard X-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5168, 41–52 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Petre, R.

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Tamura, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, N. Nakajo, T. Okajima, H. Takata, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Soong, K. Chan, G. S. Lodha, Y. Namba, and J. Yu, “Development of multilayer supermirror for hard X-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 3444, 569–575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Purcell, W. R.

Romaine, S.

G. Pareschi, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, P. Gorenstein, S. Romaine, and G. Parodi, “Replication by Ni electroforming approach to produce the Con-X/HXT hard X-ray mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 4851, 528–537 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sacco, B.

Santambrogio, E.

Sasaki, N.

Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, T. Miyazawa, Y. Fukaya, T. Iwahara, N. Sasaki, A. Furuzawa, Y. Haba, Y. Kanou, D. Ueno, H. Kunieda, K. Yamashita, R. Shibata, T. Okajima, J. Tueller, P. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Uesugi, Y. Suzuki, and Y. Namba, “Thin-foil multilayer-supermirror hard X-ray telescope for InFOCμS/SUMIT balloon experiments and NeXT satellite program,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668803, 668803-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Serlemitsos, P.

Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, T. Miyazawa, Y. Fukaya, T. Iwahara, N. Sasaki, A. Furuzawa, Y. Haba, Y. Kanou, D. Ueno, H. Kunieda, K. Yamashita, R. Shibata, T. Okajima, J. Tueller, P. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Uesugi, Y. Suzuki, and Y. Namba, “Thin-foil multilayer-supermirror hard X-ray telescope for InFOCμS/SUMIT balloon experiments and NeXT satellite program,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668803, 668803-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Serlemitsos, P. J.

Y. Soong, K. Chan, and P. J. Serlemitsos, “Recent advance in segmented thin-foil X-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 4496, 54–61 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, K. Haga, T. Okajima, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, A. Gotou, H. Kitou, S. Fukuda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Kunieida, J. Tueller, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K. Chan, S. M. Owens, B. Barber, E. Dereniak, and E. E. Young, “A hard X-ray telescope with multilayer supermirrors for balloon observations of cosmic X-ray sources,” Adv. Space Res. 30(5), 1313–1319 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Tamura, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, N. Nakajo, T. Okajima, H. Takata, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Soong, K. Chan, G. S. Lodha, Y. Namba, and J. Yu, “Development of multilayer supermirror for hard X-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 3444, 569–575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Soong, L. Jalota, and P. J. Serlemitsos, “Conical thin foil X-ray mirror fabrication via surface replication,” Proc. SPIE 2515, 64–69 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, R.

Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, T. Miyazawa, Y. Fukaya, T. Iwahara, N. Sasaki, A. Furuzawa, Y. Haba, Y. Kanou, D. Ueno, H. Kunieda, K. Yamashita, R. Shibata, T. Okajima, J. Tueller, P. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Uesugi, Y. Suzuki, and Y. Namba, “Thin-foil multilayer-supermirror hard X-ray telescope for InFOCμS/SUMIT balloon experiments and NeXT satellite program,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668803, 668803-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Simnett, G. M.

Soong, Y.

Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, T. Miyazawa, Y. Fukaya, T. Iwahara, N. Sasaki, A. Furuzawa, Y. Haba, Y. Kanou, D. Ueno, H. Kunieda, K. Yamashita, R. Shibata, T. Okajima, J. Tueller, P. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Uesugi, Y. Suzuki, and Y. Namba, “Thin-foil multilayer-supermirror hard X-ray telescope for InFOCμS/SUMIT balloon experiments and NeXT satellite program,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668803, 668803-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Soong, K. Chan, and P. J. Serlemitsos, “Recent advance in segmented thin-foil X-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 4496, 54–61 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, K. Haga, T. Okajima, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, A. Gotou, H. Kitou, S. Fukuda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Kunieida, J. Tueller, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K. Chan, S. M. Owens, B. Barber, E. Dereniak, and E. E. Young, “A hard X-ray telescope with multilayer supermirrors for balloon observations of cosmic X-ray sources,” Adv. Space Res. 30(5), 1313–1319 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Tamura, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, N. Nakajo, T. Okajima, H. Takata, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Soong, K. Chan, G. S. Lodha, Y. Namba, and J. Yu, “Development of multilayer supermirror for hard X-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 3444, 569–575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Soong, L. Jalota, and P. J. Serlemitsos, “Conical thin foil X-ray mirror fabrication via surface replication,” Proc. SPIE 2515, 64–69 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Spiga, D.

G. Pareschi, S. Basso, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, D. Spiga, W. Burkert, M. Freyberg, G. D. Hartner, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, G. Grisoni, G. Balsecchi, B. Negri, G. Parodi, and A. Marzorati, “Development of grazing-incidence multilayer mirrors by direct Ni electroforming replication: a status report,” Proc. SPIE 5900, 590008, 590008-12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, Y.

Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, T. Miyazawa, Y. Fukaya, T. Iwahara, N. Sasaki, A. Furuzawa, Y. Haba, Y. Kanou, D. Ueno, H. Kunieda, K. Yamashita, R. Shibata, T. Okajima, J. Tueller, P. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Uesugi, Y. Suzuki, and Y. Namba, “Thin-foil multilayer-supermirror hard X-ray telescope for InFOCμS/SUMIT balloon experiments and NeXT satellite program,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668803, 668803-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Takacs, P.

M. P. Ulmer, R. Altkorn, A. Madan, M. Graham, Y.-W. Chung, A. Krieger, C. Liu, B. Lai, D. C. Mancini, and P. Takacs, “The fabrication of Wolter I multilayer coated optics via electroforming: an update,” Proc. SPIE 3773, 113–121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Takacs, P. Z.

Takahashi, S.

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, K. Haga, T. Okajima, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, A. Gotou, H. Kitou, S. Fukuda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Kunieida, J. Tueller, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K. Chan, S. M. Owens, B. Barber, E. Dereniak, and E. E. Young, “A hard X-ray telescope with multilayer supermirrors for balloon observations of cosmic X-ray sources,” Adv. Space Res. 30(5), 1313–1319 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Takata, H.

A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, K. Tamura, K. Haga, N. Nakamura, N. Nakajo, H. Takata, T. Okajima, Y. Ogasaka, G. S. Lodha, and Y. Nanba, “Replication of multilayer supermirror,” Proc. SPIE 3444, 576–582 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Tamura, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, N. Nakajo, T. Okajima, H. Takata, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Soong, K. Chan, G. S. Lodha, Y. Namba, and J. Yu, “Development of multilayer supermirror for hard X-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 3444, 569–575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tamura, K.

Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, T. Miyazawa, Y. Fukaya, T. Iwahara, N. Sasaki, A. Furuzawa, Y. Haba, Y. Kanou, D. Ueno, H. Kunieda, K. Yamashita, R. Shibata, T. Okajima, J. Tueller, P. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Uesugi, Y. Suzuki, and Y. Namba, “Thin-foil multilayer-supermirror hard X-ray telescope for InFOCμS/SUMIT balloon experiments and NeXT satellite program,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668803, 668803-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, K. Haga, T. Okajima, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, A. Gotou, H. Kitou, S. Fukuda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Kunieida, J. Tueller, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K. Chan, S. M. Owens, B. Barber, E. Dereniak, and E. E. Young, “A hard X-ray telescope with multilayer supermirrors for balloon observations of cosmic X-ray sources,” Adv. Space Res. 30(5), 1313–1319 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, K. Tamura, K. Haga, N. Nakamura, N. Nakajo, H. Takata, T. Okajima, Y. Ogasaka, G. S. Lodha, and Y. Nanba, “Replication of multilayer supermirror,” Proc. SPIE 3444, 576–582 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Tamura, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, N. Nakajo, T. Okajima, H. Takata, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Soong, K. Chan, G. S. Lodha, Y. Namba, and J. Yu, “Development of multilayer supermirror for hard X-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 3444, 569–575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tawara, Y.

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, K. Haga, T. Okajima, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, A. Gotou, H. Kitou, S. Fukuda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Kunieida, J. Tueller, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K. Chan, S. M. Owens, B. Barber, E. Dereniak, and E. E. Young, “A hard X-ray telescope with multilayer supermirrors for balloon observations of cosmic X-ray sources,” Adv. Space Res. 30(5), 1313–1319 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, K. Tamura, K. Haga, N. Nakamura, N. Nakajo, H. Takata, T. Okajima, Y. Ogasaka, G. S. Lodha, and Y. Nanba, “Replication of multilayer supermirror,” Proc. SPIE 3444, 576–582 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Tamura, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, N. Nakajo, T. Okajima, H. Takata, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Soong, K. Chan, G. S. Lodha, Y. Namba, and J. Yu, “Development of multilayer supermirror for hard X-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 3444, 569–575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tsunemi, H.

Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, T. Miyazawa, Y. Fukaya, T. Iwahara, N. Sasaki, A. Furuzawa, Y. Haba, Y. Kanou, D. Ueno, H. Kunieda, K. Yamashita, R. Shibata, T. Okajima, J. Tueller, P. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Uesugi, Y. Suzuki, and Y. Namba, “Thin-foil multilayer-supermirror hard X-ray telescope for InFOCμS/SUMIT balloon experiments and NeXT satellite program,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668803, 668803-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tsusaka, Y.

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, K. Haga, T. Okajima, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, A. Gotou, H. Kitou, S. Fukuda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Kunieida, J. Tueller, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K. Chan, S. M. Owens, B. Barber, E. Dereniak, and E. E. Young, “A hard X-ray telescope with multilayer supermirrors for balloon observations of cosmic X-ray sources,” Adv. Space Res. 30(5), 1313–1319 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tueller, J.

Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, T. Miyazawa, Y. Fukaya, T. Iwahara, N. Sasaki, A. Furuzawa, Y. Haba, Y. Kanou, D. Ueno, H. Kunieda, K. Yamashita, R. Shibata, T. Okajima, J. Tueller, P. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Uesugi, Y. Suzuki, and Y. Namba, “Thin-foil multilayer-supermirror hard X-ray telescope for InFOCμS/SUMIT balloon experiments and NeXT satellite program,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668803, 668803-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, K. Haga, T. Okajima, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, A. Gotou, H. Kitou, S. Fukuda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Kunieida, J. Tueller, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K. Chan, S. M. Owens, B. Barber, E. Dereniak, and E. E. Young, “A hard X-ray telescope with multilayer supermirrors for balloon observations of cosmic X-ray sources,” Adv. Space Res. 30(5), 1313–1319 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Tamura, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, N. Nakajo, T. Okajima, H. Takata, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Soong, K. Chan, G. S. Lodha, Y. Namba, and J. Yu, “Development of multilayer supermirror for hard X-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 3444, 569–575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ueno, D.

Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, T. Miyazawa, Y. Fukaya, T. Iwahara, N. Sasaki, A. Furuzawa, Y. Haba, Y. Kanou, D. Ueno, H. Kunieda, K. Yamashita, R. Shibata, T. Okajima, J. Tueller, P. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Uesugi, Y. Suzuki, and Y. Namba, “Thin-foil multilayer-supermirror hard X-ray telescope for InFOCμS/SUMIT balloon experiments and NeXT satellite program,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668803, 668803-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Uesugi, K.

Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, T. Miyazawa, Y. Fukaya, T. Iwahara, N. Sasaki, A. Furuzawa, Y. Haba, Y. Kanou, D. Ueno, H. Kunieda, K. Yamashita, R. Shibata, T. Okajima, J. Tueller, P. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Uesugi, Y. Suzuki, and Y. Namba, “Thin-foil multilayer-supermirror hard X-ray telescope for InFOCμS/SUMIT balloon experiments and NeXT satellite program,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668803, 668803-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ulmer, M. P.

Windt, D. L.

D. L. Windt, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, C. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, M. Jimenez-Garate, R. Kalyanaraman, and P. H. Mao, “Growth, structure, and performance of depth-graded W/Si multilayers for hard X-ray optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(1), 460–470 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, K.

Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, T. Miyazawa, Y. Fukaya, T. Iwahara, N. Sasaki, A. Furuzawa, Y. Haba, Y. Kanou, D. Ueno, H. Kunieda, K. Yamashita, R. Shibata, T. Okajima, J. Tueller, P. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Uesugi, Y. Suzuki, and Y. Namba, “Thin-foil multilayer-supermirror hard X-ray telescope for InFOCμS/SUMIT balloon experiments and NeXT satellite program,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668803, 668803-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, K. Haga, T. Okajima, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, A. Gotou, H. Kitou, S. Fukuda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Kunieida, J. Tueller, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K. Chan, S. M. Owens, B. Barber, E. Dereniak, and E. E. Young, “A hard X-ray telescope with multilayer supermirrors for balloon observations of cosmic X-ray sources,” Adv. Space Res. 30(5), 1313–1319 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, K. Tamura, K. Haga, N. Nakamura, N. Nakajo, H. Takata, T. Okajima, Y. Ogasaka, G. S. Lodha, and Y. Nanba, “Replication of multilayer supermirror,” Proc. SPIE 3444, 576–582 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Tamura, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, N. Nakajo, T. Okajima, H. Takata, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Soong, K. Chan, G. S. Lodha, Y. Namba, and J. Yu, “Development of multilayer supermirror for hard X-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 3444, 569–575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Young, E. E.

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, K. Haga, T. Okajima, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, A. Gotou, H. Kitou, S. Fukuda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Kunieida, J. Tueller, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K. Chan, S. M. Owens, B. Barber, E. Dereniak, and E. E. Young, “A hard X-ray telescope with multilayer supermirrors for balloon observations of cosmic X-ray sources,” Adv. Space Res. 30(5), 1313–1319 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Tamura, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, N. Nakajo, T. Okajima, H. Takata, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Soong, K. Chan, G. S. Lodha, Y. Namba, and J. Yu, “Development of multilayer supermirror for hard X-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 3444, 569–575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ziegler, E.

K. K. Madsen, F. E. Christensen, C. P. Jensen, E. Ziegler, W. W. Craig, K. Gunderson, J. E. Koglin, and K. Pedersen, “X-ray study of W/Si multilayers for the HEFT hard X-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5168, 41–52 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Space Res. (1)

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, K. Haga, T. Okajima, S. Ichimaru, S. Takahashi, A. Gotou, H. Kitou, S. Fukuda, Y. Tsusaka, H. Kunieida, J. Tueller, P. J. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K. Chan, S. M. Owens, B. Barber, E. Dereniak, and E. E. Young, “A hard X-ray telescope with multilayer supermirrors for balloon observations of cosmic X-ray sources,” Adv. Space Res. 30(5), 1313–1319 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. L. Windt, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, C. Hailey, F. A. Harrison, M. Jimenez-Garate, R. Kalyanaraman, and P. H. Mao, “Growth, structure, and performance of depth-graded W/Si multilayers for hard X-ray optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(1), 460–470 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. A. Jimenez-Garate, W. W. Craig, C. J. Hailey, F. E. Christensen, and A. Hussain, “Fabrication, performance, and figure metrology of epoxy-replicated aluminum foils for hard x-ray focusing mulitlyaer-coated segmented conical optics,” Opt. Eng. 39(11), 2982–2994 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (10)

Y. Soong, K. Chan, and P. J. Serlemitsos, “Recent advance in segmented thin-foil X-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 4496, 54–61 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Furuzawa, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, K. Tamura, K. Haga, N. Nakamura, N. Nakajo, H. Takata, T. Okajima, Y. Ogasaka, G. S. Lodha, and Y. Nanba, “Replication of multilayer supermirror,” Proc. SPIE 3444, 576–582 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tawara, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, K. Tamura, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, N. Nakajo, T. Okajima, H. Takata, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Soong, K. Chan, G. S. Lodha, Y. Namba, and J. Yu, “Development of multilayer supermirror for hard X-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 3444, 569–575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Madsen, F. E. Christensen, C. P. Jensen, E. Ziegler, W. W. Craig, K. Gunderson, J. E. Koglin, and K. Pedersen, “X-ray study of W/Si multilayers for the HEFT hard X-ray telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5168, 41–52 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Pareschi, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, A. Mengali, and C. Misiano, “Nickel replicated multilayer optics for soft and hard X-ray telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 4012, 284–293 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Pareschi, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, P. Gorenstein, S. Romaine, and G. Parodi, “Replication by Ni electroforming approach to produce the Con-X/HXT hard X-ray mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 4851, 528–537 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ogasaka, K. Tamura, T. Miyazawa, Y. Fukaya, T. Iwahara, N. Sasaki, A. Furuzawa, Y. Haba, Y. Kanou, D. Ueno, H. Kunieda, K. Yamashita, R. Shibata, T. Okajima, J. Tueller, P. Serlemitsos, Y. Soong, K.-W. Chan, E. Miyata, H. Tsunemi, K. Uesugi, Y. Suzuki, and Y. Namba, “Thin-foil multilayer-supermirror hard X-ray telescope for InFOCμS/SUMIT balloon experiments and NeXT satellite program,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 668803, 668803-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Pareschi, S. Basso, O. Citterio, M. Ghigo, F. Mazzoleni, D. Spiga, W. Burkert, M. Freyberg, G. D. Hartner, G. Conti, E. Mattaini, G. Grisoni, G. Balsecchi, B. Negri, G. Parodi, and A. Marzorati, “Development of grazing-incidence multilayer mirrors by direct Ni electroforming replication: a status report,” Proc. SPIE 5900, 590008, 590008-12 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The measured and fitted reflectivity curves of W/Si multilayers with different Pt thickness: (a) before replication, (b) after replication.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The measured reflectivity curves of (a) ML9 and (b) ML10 with Pt thicknesses of 0.84 and 0.72 nm, respectively. The square and triangle lines correspond to the reflectivity of the multilayer before and after replication, and the dot line represents the reflectivity of the mandrel after replication.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

AFM surface images of (a) the mandrel and (b) the float glass substrate with σ = 0.28 and 0.47 nm, respectively. The typical scan area is 10 µm × 10 µm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

A typical AFM image of W/Si multilayer before replication with Pt thickness of 1.0 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

AFM surface images of W/Si multilayers after replication with Pt thickness of (a) 1.5 nm and (b) 1.0 nm, respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) AFM image of the replicated multilayer with separating layer thickness of 0.84 nm and (b) the picture of the corresponding mandrel after replication.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Structural Parameters of Each W/Si Multilayer Sample Before (Labeled as ML1-ML10) and After (Labeled as ML1’-ML8’) the Replication, Respectively

Tables Icon

Table 2 The Surface Roughness of W/Si Multilayer Samples Before and After Replication

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