Abstract

The principle, fabrication and characterization of a dielectric MEMS cantilever located a few 100 nm above a racetrack ring resonator are presented. After fabrication of the resonators on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers in a foundry process, the cantilevers were integrated by surface micromachining techniques. Off-state deflections of the cantilevers have been optimized to appropriately position them near the evanescent field of the resonator. Using electrostatic actuation, moving the cantilevers into this evanescent field, the propagation properties of the ring waveguide are modulated. We demonstrate 122 pm tuning of the resonance wavelength of the optical ring resonator (in the optical C-band) without change of the optical quality factor, on application of 9 V to a 40 µm long cantilever. This compact integrated device can be used for tuning/switching a specific wavelength, with very little energy for operation and negligible cross talk with surrounding devices.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2011 (2)

S. M. C. Abdulla, L. J. Kauppinen, M. Dijkstra, M. J. de Boer, E. Berenschot, R. M. de Ridder, and G. J. M. Krijnen, “Monolithically integrated cantilevers with self-aligned tips for wavelength tuning in a photonic crystal cavity-based channel-drop filter,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(7), 074004–0740046 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Kauppinen, S. M. C. Abdulla, M. Dijkstra, M. J. de Boer, E. Berenschot, G. J. M. Krijnen, M. Pollnau, and R. M. de Ridder, “Micromechanically tuned ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1047–1049 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide-ring resonators,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2968–2975 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, J. M. Fedeli, and L. Fulbert, “Towards foundry approach for silicon photonics: silicon photonics platform ePIXfab,” Electron. Lett. 45(12), 581–582 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. V. Jansen, M. J. de Boer, S. Unnikrishnan, M. C. Louwerse, and M. C. Elwenspoek, “Black silicon method X: A review on high speed and selective plasma etching of silicon with profile control: An in-depth comparison between Bosch and cryostat DRIE processes as a roadmap to next generation equipment,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19(3), 033001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

D. G. Rabus, Z. Bian, and A. Shakouri, “Ring resonator lasers using passive waveguides and integrated semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1249–1256 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Lipson, “Compact Electro-Optic Modulators on a Silicon Chip,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1520–1526 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Rakich, M. A. Popovic, M. R. Watts, T. Barwicz, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrawide tuning of photonic microcavities via evanescent field perturbation,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1241–1243 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “M. Ayre1, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, “Integrated wavelength-selective optical MEMS switching using ring resonator filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1190–1192 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

P. Mela, N. R. Tas, E. J. Berenschot, J. van Nieuwkasteele, and A. van den Berg, “Electrokinetic pumping and detection of low-volume flows in nanochannels,” Electrophoresis 25(21-22), 3687–3693 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

S. Pamidighantam, R. Puers, K. Baert, and H. A. C. Tilmans, “Pull-in voltage analysis of electrostatically actuated beam structures with fixed–fixed and fixed–free end conditions,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 12(4), 458–464 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, and Y. Kokubun, “Cascaded microring resonators for crosstalk reduction and spectrum cleanup in Add–Drop filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(11), 1423–1425 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

N. Tas, T. Sonnenberg, H. Jansen, R. Legtenberg, and M. Elwenspoek, “Stiction in surface micromachining,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 6(4), 385–397 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. G. E. Gardeniers, H. A. C. Tilmans, and C. C. G. Visser, “LPCVD silicon-rich silicon nitride films for applications in micromechanics, studied with statistical experimental design,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14(5), 2879–2892 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Jansen, H. Gardeniers, M. de Boer, M. Elwenspoek, and J. Fluitman, “A survey on the reactive ion etching of silicon in microtechnology,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 6(1), 14–28 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

R. Legtenberg and H. A. C. Tilmans, “Electrostatically driven vacuum-encapsulated polysilicon resonators Part I. Design and fabrication,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 45(1), 57–66 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Abdulla, S. M. C.

S. M. C. Abdulla, L. J. Kauppinen, M. Dijkstra, M. J. de Boer, E. Berenschot, R. M. de Ridder, and G. J. M. Krijnen, “Monolithically integrated cantilevers with self-aligned tips for wavelength tuning in a photonic crystal cavity-based channel-drop filter,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(7), 074004–0740046 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Kauppinen, S. M. C. Abdulla, M. Dijkstra, M. J. de Boer, E. Berenschot, G. J. M. Krijnen, M. Pollnau, and R. M. de Ridder, “Micromechanically tuned ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1047–1049 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aldridge, J. C.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Anthes-Washburn, M.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Avrahami, Y.

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, “Integrated wavelength-selective optical MEMS switching using ring resonator filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1190–1192 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ayre, M.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “M. Ayre1, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baert, K.

S. Pamidighantam, R. Puers, K. Baert, and H. A. C. Tilmans, “Pull-in voltage analysis of electrostatically actuated beam structures with fixed–fixed and fixed–free end conditions,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 12(4), 458–464 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, J. M. Fedeli, and L. Fulbert, “Towards foundry approach for silicon photonics: silicon photonics platform ePIXfab,” Electron. Lett. 45(12), 581–582 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “M. Ayre1, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barbastathis, G.

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, “Integrated wavelength-selective optical MEMS switching using ring resonator filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1190–1192 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barwicz, T.

Berenschot, E.

L. J. Kauppinen, S. M. C. Abdulla, M. Dijkstra, M. J. de Boer, E. Berenschot, G. J. M. Krijnen, M. Pollnau, and R. M. de Ridder, “Micromechanically tuned ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1047–1049 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. C. Abdulla, L. J. Kauppinen, M. Dijkstra, M. J. de Boer, E. Berenschot, R. M. de Ridder, and G. J. M. Krijnen, “Monolithically integrated cantilevers with self-aligned tips for wavelength tuning in a photonic crystal cavity-based channel-drop filter,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(7), 074004–0740046 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Berenschot, E. J.

P. Mela, N. R. Tas, E. J. Berenschot, J. van Nieuwkasteele, and A. van den Berg, “Electrokinetic pumping and detection of low-volume flows in nanochannels,” Electrophoresis 25(21-22), 3687–3693 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bian, Z.

D. G. Rabus, Z. Bian, and A. Shakouri, “Ring resonator lasers using passive waveguides and integrated semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1249–1256 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bienstman, P.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “M. Ayre1, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, J. M. Fedeli, and L. Fulbert, “Towards foundry approach for silicon photonics: silicon photonics platform ePIXfab,” Electron. Lett. 45(12), 581–582 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “M. Ayre1, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

Chbouki, N.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

Chu, S.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S. T.

S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, and Y. Kokubun, “Cascaded microring resonators for crosstalk reduction and spectrum cleanup in Add–Drop filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(11), 1423–1425 (1999).
[CrossRef]

de Boer, M.

H. Jansen, H. Gardeniers, M. de Boer, M. Elwenspoek, and J. Fluitman, “A survey on the reactive ion etching of silicon in microtechnology,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 6(1), 14–28 (1996).
[CrossRef]

de Boer, M. J.

S. M. C. Abdulla, L. J. Kauppinen, M. Dijkstra, M. J. de Boer, E. Berenschot, R. M. de Ridder, and G. J. M. Krijnen, “Monolithically integrated cantilevers with self-aligned tips for wavelength tuning in a photonic crystal cavity-based channel-drop filter,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(7), 074004–0740046 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Kauppinen, S. M. C. Abdulla, M. Dijkstra, M. J. de Boer, E. Berenschot, G. J. M. Krijnen, M. Pollnau, and R. M. de Ridder, “Micromechanically tuned ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1047–1049 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. V. Jansen, M. J. de Boer, S. Unnikrishnan, M. C. Louwerse, and M. C. Elwenspoek, “Black silicon method X: A review on high speed and selective plasma etching of silicon with profile control: An in-depth comparison between Bosch and cryostat DRIE processes as a roadmap to next generation equipment,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19(3), 033001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

de Ridder, R. M.

L. J. Kauppinen, S. M. C. Abdulla, M. Dijkstra, M. J. de Boer, E. Berenschot, G. J. M. Krijnen, M. Pollnau, and R. M. de Ridder, “Micromechanically tuned ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1047–1049 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. C. Abdulla, L. J. Kauppinen, M. Dijkstra, M. J. de Boer, E. Berenschot, R. M. de Ridder, and G. J. M. Krijnen, “Monolithically integrated cantilevers with self-aligned tips for wavelength tuning in a photonic crystal cavity-based channel-drop filter,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(7), 074004–0740046 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

Desai, T. A.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dijkstra, M.

S. M. C. Abdulla, L. J. Kauppinen, M. Dijkstra, M. J. de Boer, E. Berenschot, R. M. de Ridder, and G. J. M. Krijnen, “Monolithically integrated cantilevers with self-aligned tips for wavelength tuning in a photonic crystal cavity-based channel-drop filter,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(7), 074004–0740046 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Kauppinen, S. M. C. Abdulla, M. Dijkstra, M. J. de Boer, E. Berenschot, G. J. M. Krijnen, M. Pollnau, and R. M. de Ridder, “Micromechanically tuned ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1047–1049 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dumon, P.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, J. M. Fedeli, and L. Fulbert, “Towards foundry approach for silicon photonics: silicon photonics platform ePIXfab,” Electron. Lett. 45(12), 581–582 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Elwenspoek, M.

H. Jansen, H. Gardeniers, M. de Boer, M. Elwenspoek, and J. Fluitman, “A survey on the reactive ion etching of silicon in microtechnology,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 6(1), 14–28 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. Tas, T. Sonnenberg, H. Jansen, R. Legtenberg, and M. Elwenspoek, “Stiction in surface micromachining,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 6(4), 385–397 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Elwenspoek, M. C.

H. V. Jansen, M. J. de Boer, S. Unnikrishnan, M. C. Louwerse, and M. C. Elwenspoek, “Black silicon method X: A review on high speed and selective plasma etching of silicon with profile control: An in-depth comparison between Bosch and cryostat DRIE processes as a roadmap to next generation equipment,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19(3), 033001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fedeli, J. M.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, J. M. Fedeli, and L. Fulbert, “Towards foundry approach for silicon photonics: silicon photonics platform ePIXfab,” Electron. Lett. 45(12), 581–582 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fluitman, J.

H. Jansen, H. Gardeniers, M. de Boer, M. Elwenspoek, and J. Fluitman, “A survey on the reactive ion etching of silicon in microtechnology,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 6(1), 14–28 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fulbert, L.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, J. M. Fedeli, and L. Fulbert, “Towards foundry approach for silicon photonics: silicon photonics platform ePIXfab,” Electron. Lett. 45(12), 581–582 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gardeniers, H.

H. Jansen, H. Gardeniers, M. de Boer, M. Elwenspoek, and J. Fluitman, “A survey on the reactive ion etching of silicon in microtechnology,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 6(1), 14–28 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gardeniers, J. G. E.

J. G. E. Gardeniers, H. A. C. Tilmans, and C. C. G. Visser, “LPCVD silicon-rich silicon nitride films for applications in micromechanics, studied with statistical experimental design,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14(5), 2879–2892 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gill, D.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, B. B.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, “Integrated wavelength-selective optical MEMS switching using ring resonator filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1190–1192 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Holmgaard, T.

Hryniewicz, J.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

Jansen, H.

H. Jansen, H. Gardeniers, M. de Boer, M. Elwenspoek, and J. Fluitman, “A survey on the reactive ion etching of silicon in microtechnology,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 6(1), 14–28 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. Tas, T. Sonnenberg, H. Jansen, R. Legtenberg, and M. Elwenspoek, “Stiction in surface micromachining,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 6(4), 385–397 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jansen, H. V.

H. V. Jansen, M. J. de Boer, S. Unnikrishnan, M. C. Louwerse, and M. C. Elwenspoek, “Black silicon method X: A review on high speed and selective plasma etching of silicon with profile control: An in-depth comparison between Bosch and cryostat DRIE processes as a roadmap to next generation equipment,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19(3), 033001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, T.

S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, and Y. Kokubun, “Cascaded microring resonators for crosstalk reduction and spectrum cleanup in Add–Drop filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(11), 1423–1425 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kauppinen, L. J.

S. M. C. Abdulla, L. J. Kauppinen, M. Dijkstra, M. J. de Boer, E. Berenschot, R. M. de Ridder, and G. J. M. Krijnen, “Monolithically integrated cantilevers with self-aligned tips for wavelength tuning in a photonic crystal cavity-based channel-drop filter,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(7), 074004–0740046 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Kauppinen, S. M. C. Abdulla, M. Dijkstra, M. J. de Boer, E. Berenschot, G. J. M. Krijnen, M. Pollnau, and R. M. de Ridder, “Micromechanically tuned ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1047–1049 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

King, O.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kokubun, Y.

S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, and Y. Kokubun, “Cascaded microring resonators for crosstalk reduction and spectrum cleanup in Add–Drop filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(11), 1423–1425 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Krijnen, G. J. M.

L. J. Kauppinen, S. M. C. Abdulla, M. Dijkstra, M. J. de Boer, E. Berenschot, G. J. M. Krijnen, M. Pollnau, and R. M. de Ridder, “Micromechanically tuned ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1047–1049 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. C. Abdulla, L. J. Kauppinen, M. Dijkstra, M. J. de Boer, E. Berenschot, R. M. de Ridder, and G. J. M. Krijnen, “Monolithically integrated cantilevers with self-aligned tips for wavelength tuning in a photonic crystal cavity-based channel-drop filter,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(7), 074004–0740046 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Legtenberg, R.

N. Tas, T. Sonnenberg, H. Jansen, R. Legtenberg, and M. Elwenspoek, “Stiction in surface micromachining,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 6(4), 385–397 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Legtenberg and H. A. C. Tilmans, “Electrostatically driven vacuum-encapsulated polysilicon resonators Part I. Design and fabrication,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 45(1), 57–66 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

M. Lipson, “Compact Electro-Optic Modulators on a Silicon Chip,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1520–1526 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Little, B. E.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, and Y. Kokubun, “Cascaded microring resonators for crosstalk reduction and spectrum cleanup in Add–Drop filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(11), 1423–1425 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lopez-Royo, F.

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, “Integrated wavelength-selective optical MEMS switching using ring resonator filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1190–1192 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Louwerse, M. C.

H. V. Jansen, M. J. de Boer, S. Unnikrishnan, M. C. Louwerse, and M. C. Elwenspoek, “Black silicon method X: A review on high speed and selective plasma etching of silicon with profile control: An in-depth comparison between Bosch and cryostat DRIE processes as a roadmap to next generation equipment,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19(3), 033001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Markey, L.

Mela, P.

P. Mela, N. R. Tas, E. J. Berenschot, J. van Nieuwkasteele, and A. van den Berg, “Electrokinetic pumping and detection of low-volume flows in nanochannels,” Electrophoresis 25(21-22), 3687–3693 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nielson, G. N.

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, “Integrated wavelength-selective optical MEMS switching using ring resonator filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1190–1192 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pamidighantam, S.

S. Pamidighantam, R. Puers, K. Baert, and H. A. C. Tilmans, “Pull-in voltage analysis of electrostatically actuated beam structures with fixed–fixed and fixed–free end conditions,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 12(4), 458–464 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pan, W.

S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, and Y. Kokubun, “Cascaded microring resonators for crosstalk reduction and spectrum cleanup in Add–Drop filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(11), 1423–1425 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pollnau, M.

Popat, K. C.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Popovic, M. A.

Puers, R.

S. Pamidighantam, R. Puers, K. Baert, and H. A. C. Tilmans, “Pull-in voltage analysis of electrostatically actuated beam structures with fixed–fixed and fixed–free end conditions,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 12(4), 458–464 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rabus, D. G.

D. G. Rabus, Z. Bian, and A. Shakouri, “Ring resonator lasers using passive waveguides and integrated semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1249–1256 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rakich, P. T.

P. T. Rakich, M. A. Popovic, M. R. Watts, T. Barwicz, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrawide tuning of photonic microcavities via evanescent field perturbation,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1241–1243 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, “Integrated wavelength-selective optical MEMS switching using ring resonator filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1190–1192 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Seneviratne, D.

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, “Integrated wavelength-selective optical MEMS switching using ring resonator filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1190–1192 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shakouri, A.

D. G. Rabus, Z. Bian, and A. Shakouri, “Ring resonator lasers using passive waveguides and integrated semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1249–1256 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smith, H. I.

Sonnenberg, T.

N. Tas, T. Sonnenberg, H. Jansen, R. Legtenberg, and M. Elwenspoek, “Stiction in surface micromachining,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 6(4), 385–397 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Taillaert, D.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “M. Ayre1, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tas, N.

N. Tas, T. Sonnenberg, H. Jansen, R. Legtenberg, and M. Elwenspoek, “Stiction in surface micromachining,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 6(4), 385–397 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tas, N. R.

P. Mela, N. R. Tas, E. J. Berenschot, J. van Nieuwkasteele, and A. van den Berg, “Electrokinetic pumping and detection of low-volume flows in nanochannels,” Electrophoresis 25(21-22), 3687–3693 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tilmans, H. A. C.

S. Pamidighantam, R. Puers, K. Baert, and H. A. C. Tilmans, “Pull-in voltage analysis of electrostatically actuated beam structures with fixed–fixed and fixed–free end conditions,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 12(4), 458–464 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. G. E. Gardeniers, H. A. C. Tilmans, and C. C. G. Visser, “LPCVD silicon-rich silicon nitride films for applications in micromechanics, studied with statistical experimental design,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14(5), 2879–2892 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Legtenberg and H. A. C. Tilmans, “Electrostatically driven vacuum-encapsulated polysilicon resonators Part I. Design and fabrication,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 45(1), 57–66 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tuller, H. L.

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, “Integrated wavelength-selective optical MEMS switching using ring resonator filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1190–1192 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Unlu, M. S.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Unnikrishnan, S.

H. V. Jansen, M. J. de Boer, S. Unnikrishnan, M. C. Louwerse, and M. C. Elwenspoek, “Black silicon method X: A review on high speed and selective plasma etching of silicon with profile control: An in-depth comparison between Bosch and cryostat DRIE processes as a roadmap to next generation equipment,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19(3), 033001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Van, V.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van den Berg, A.

P. Mela, N. R. Tas, E. J. Berenschot, J. van Nieuwkasteele, and A. van den Berg, “Electrokinetic pumping and detection of low-volume flows in nanochannels,” Electrophoresis 25(21-22), 3687–3693 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Laere, F.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “M. Ayre1, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van Nieuwkasteele, J.

P. Mela, N. R. Tas, E. J. Berenschot, J. van Nieuwkasteele, and A. van den Berg, “Electrokinetic pumping and detection of low-volume flows in nanochannels,” Electrophoresis 25(21-22), 3687–3693 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Thourhout, D.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “M. Ayre1, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Visser, C. C. G.

J. G. E. Gardeniers, H. A. C. Tilmans, and C. C. G. Visser, “LPCVD silicon-rich silicon nitride films for applications in micromechanics, studied with statistical experimental design,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14(5), 2879–2892 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Watts, M. R.

P. T. Rakich, M. A. Popovic, M. R. Watts, T. Barwicz, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrawide tuning of photonic microcavities via evanescent field perturbation,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1241–1243 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, “Integrated wavelength-selective optical MEMS switching using ring resonator filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1190–1192 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yalcin, A.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, J. M. Fedeli, and L. Fulbert, “Towards foundry approach for silicon photonics: silicon photonics platform ePIXfab,” Electron. Lett. 45(12), 581–582 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Electrophoresis (1)

P. Mela, N. R. Tas, E. J. Berenschot, J. van Nieuwkasteele, and A. van den Berg, “Electrokinetic pumping and detection of low-volume flows in nanochannels,” Electrophoresis 25(21-22), 3687–3693 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (3)

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Rabus, Z. Bian, and A. Shakouri, “Ring resonator lasers using passive waveguides and integrated semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1249–1256 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Lipson, “Compact Electro-Optic Modulators on a Silicon Chip,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1520–1526 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, “Integrated wavelength-selective optical MEMS switching using ring resonator filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1190–1192 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, and Y. Kokubun, “Cascaded microring resonators for crosstalk reduction and spectrum cleanup in Add–Drop filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(11), 1423–1425 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (5)

S. M. C. Abdulla, L. J. Kauppinen, M. Dijkstra, M. J. de Boer, E. Berenschot, R. M. de Ridder, and G. J. M. Krijnen, “Monolithically integrated cantilevers with self-aligned tips for wavelength tuning in a photonic crystal cavity-based channel-drop filter,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 21(7), 074004–0740046 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Pamidighantam, R. Puers, K. Baert, and H. A. C. Tilmans, “Pull-in voltage analysis of electrostatically actuated beam structures with fixed–fixed and fixed–free end conditions,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 12(4), 458–464 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Tas, T. Sonnenberg, H. Jansen, R. Legtenberg, and M. Elwenspoek, “Stiction in surface micromachining,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 6(4), 385–397 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Jansen, H. Gardeniers, M. de Boer, M. Elwenspoek, and J. Fluitman, “A survey on the reactive ion etching of silicon in microtechnology,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 6(1), 14–28 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. V. Jansen, M. J. de Boer, S. Unnikrishnan, M. C. Louwerse, and M. C. Elwenspoek, “Black silicon method X: A review on high speed and selective plasma etching of silicon with profile control: An in-depth comparison between Bosch and cryostat DRIE processes as a roadmap to next generation equipment,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19(3), 033001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

J. G. E. Gardeniers, H. A. C. Tilmans, and C. C. G. Visser, “LPCVD silicon-rich silicon nitride films for applications in micromechanics, studied with statistical experimental design,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14(5), 2879–2892 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “M. Ayre1, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Sens. Actuators A Phys. (1)

R. Legtenberg and H. A. C. Tilmans, “Electrostatically driven vacuum-encapsulated polysilicon resonators Part I. Design and fabrication,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 45(1), 57–66 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

S. D. Senturia, Microsystem Design (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, MA 2001).

S. M.C.Abdulla, Transducers Science and Technology Group, MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE, Enschede, The Netherlands and E. Berenschot, M. Dijkstra, M.J. de Boer, Y. Zhao, H.V. Jansen and G.J.M. Krijnen are preparing a manuscript to be called, “Stringer elimination methods in surface micro and nanomachining.”

E. J. Klein, “Densely integrated microringresonator based components for fiber-to-the home applications,” PhD thesis, University of Twente, ISBN 978–90–265–2495 (2007).

L. J. Kauppinen, “Compact integrated optical devices for optical sensor and switching applications,” PhD thesis, University of Twente, ISBN 978–90–365–3088–0 (2010).

S. M. C. Abdulla, “Integration of microcantilevers with photonic structures for mechano-optical wavelength selective devices,” PhD thesis, University of Twente, ISBN 978–90–365–3176–4 (2011).

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Figures (19)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of the integrated device. (A) top view; (B) cross-sectional view through Y; and (C) cross-sectional view through X.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Close-up of Fig. 1C.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fabrication flow of a silicon racetrack resonator with a tuning cantilever.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SEM image of a 40 µm long cantilever successfully integrated with the racetrack ring resonator showing (A) top view and (B) oblique view.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Off-state tip deflections of cantilevers of various lengths, measured by WLIM.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(A) Static deflection of a 40 µm long cantilever at the off-state (0 V) and at pull-in (9.2 V), measured by WLIM. And (B) OM image of the integrated device which was measured, where the rectangular square represents the WLI scanning area.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Static tip deflection as a function of applied actuation voltage for a cantilever of 60 µm length.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured static pull-in voltage as a function of the length of the cantilever.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Schematic representation of the optical modulation measurement set up.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(A) Through and drop response of the fabricated racetrack ring resonator after cantilever integration. (B) schematic of the ports of the ring resonator (for dimensions see Fig. 1).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Resonance wavelength shifting due to mechanical tuning, by a 40 µm long cantilever, for the device shown in Fig. 4. The inset shows a 122 pm tuning at 1559.57 nm.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Variation in the PL and cantilever layer thickness below the cantilever, after the SLE in BHF.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

WLI images showing two different shapes of the beams after pull-in, (A) half sticking: tilts beam tip, (B) full sticking: deforms beam tip.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

(A) top view and (B) cross-sectional view in X-direction (defined in Fig. 1) of (part of) a cantilever having etch holes which will create a saw toothed etch profile underneath.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Thickness variation of SiN x layer on the etching of a thick SiN x from a thin TEOS layer for (1) tSiNx = 0.95 µm, (2) tSiNx = 1.0 µm and (3) tSiNx = 1.05 µm.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

SEM images showing (A) the ring resonator and access waveguides collapsed by overetching of the SL and PL layer during the RIE of the SiN x cantilever layer and (B) stringer type B distributed all over the wafer.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Various parameters considered in the effective gap calculation for a 40 µm long cantilever.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

(A) SEM image showing the released cantilever in the off-state with its pin (B) protruding into the gap between a port waveguide and a straight resonator waveguide section.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Transmission measured in (A) straight waveguide and (B) ring resonator, before and after the MEMS integration.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured thickness variation across the wafer and the refractive index of different conformal layers

Metrics