Abstract

We evaluate structural dependency of leakage losses in lithium niobate on insulator ridge waveguides. Generally, shallow ridge waveguides based on isotropic materials have inherent leakage loss for TM-like mode. On the other hand, lithium niobate is anisotropic material, thus the optical properties of lithium niobate based ridge waveguides are different from those of isotopic material based ridge waveguides. In this paper, we investigate leakage losses of lithium niobate on insulator ridge waveguides. We show that the shallow ridge waveguide structure without leakage loss can be realized by choosing the waveguide parameters adequately.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(4), 549–551 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Fukazawa, F. Ohno, and T. Baba, “Very compact arrayed-waveguide-grating demultiplexer using Si photonic wire waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 5B), L673–L675 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Sakai, T. Fukazawa, and T. Baba, “Low loss ultra-small branches in a silicon photonic wire waveguide,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E 85-C, 1033–1038 (2002).
  4. Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. S. Weis and T. K. Gaylord, “Lithium niobate: summary of physical properties and crystal structure,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 37(4), 191–203 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. C. Alferness, “Efficient waveguide electro-optic TE⇔TM mode converter / wavelength filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36(7), 513–515 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Papuchon and S. Vatoux, “Integrated optical polariser on LiNbO3:Ti channel waveguides using proton exchange,” Electron. Lett. 19(16), 612–613 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. N. Armenise, “Fabrication techniques of lithium niobate waveguides,” IEE Proc. Pt. J 135, 85–91 (1988).
  12. P. Rabiei and P. Gunter, “Optical and electro-optical properties of submicrometer lithium niobate slab waveguides prepared by crystal ion slicing and wafer bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4603–4605 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. Rabiei and W. H. Steier, “Lithium niobate ridge waveguides and modulators fabricated using smart guide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 161115 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Hu, R. Ricken, and W. Sohler, “Lithium niobate photonic wires,” Opt. Express 17(26), 24261–24268 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Koechlin, F. Sulser, Z. Sitar, G. Poberaj, and P. Günter, “Free-standing lithium niobate microring resonators for hybrid integrated optics,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(4), 251–253 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, A. Mitchell, and T. L. Koch, “Width dependence of inherent TM-mode lateral leakage loss in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(6), 429–431 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Koshiba, K. Kakihara, and K. Saitoh, “Reduced lateral leakage losses of TM-like modes in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 33(17), 2008–2010 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. K. Kakihara, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, “Generalized simple theory for estimating lateral leakage loss behavior in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(23), 5492–5499 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. G. W. Burr, S. Diziain, and M.-P. Bernal, “Theoretical study of lithium niobate slab waveguides for integrated optics applications,” Opt. Mater. 31(10), 1492–1497 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  20. K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element schme: application to photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 927–933 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

M. Koechlin, F. Sulser, Z. Sitar, G. Poberaj, and P. Günter, “Free-standing lithium niobate microring resonators for hybrid integrated optics,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(4), 251–253 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, A. Mitchell, and T. L. Koch, “Width dependence of inherent TM-mode lateral leakage loss in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(6), 429–431 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

P. Rabiei and W. H. Steier, “Lithium niobate ridge waveguides and modulators fabricated using smart guide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 161115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

T. Fukazawa, F. Ohno, and T. Baba, “Very compact arrayed-waveguide-grating demultiplexer using Si photonic wire waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 5B), L673–L675 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Rabiei and P. Gunter, “Optical and electro-optical properties of submicrometer lithium niobate slab waveguides prepared by crystal ion slicing and wafer bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4603–4605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

A. Sakai, T. Fukazawa, and T. Baba, “Low loss ultra-small branches in a silicon photonic wire waveguide,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E 85-C, 1033–1038 (2002).

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element schme: application to photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 927–933 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(4), 549–551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

M. N. Armenise, “Fabrication techniques of lithium niobate waveguides,” IEE Proc. Pt. J 135, 85–91 (1988).

1987 (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

R. S. Weis and T. K. Gaylord, “Lithium niobate: summary of physical properties and crystal structure,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 37(4), 191–203 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

M. Papuchon and S. Vatoux, “Integrated optical polariser on LiNbO3:Ti channel waveguides using proton exchange,” Electron. Lett. 19(16), 612–613 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

R. C. Alferness, “Efficient waveguide electro-optic TE⇔TM mode converter / wavelength filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36(7), 513–515 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Alferness, R. C.

R. C. Alferness, “Efficient waveguide electro-optic TE⇔TM mode converter / wavelength filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36(7), 513–515 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Armenise, M. N.

M. N. Armenise, “Fabrication techniques of lithium niobate waveguides,” IEE Proc. Pt. J 135, 85–91 (1988).

Attanasio, D. V.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Baba, T.

T. Fukazawa, F. Ohno, and T. Baba, “Very compact arrayed-waveguide-grating demultiplexer using Si photonic wire waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 5B), L673–L675 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Sakai, T. Fukazawa, and T. Baba, “Low loss ultra-small branches in a silicon photonic wire waveguide,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E 85-C, 1033–1038 (2002).

Balsamo, S.

C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Becker, C.

C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bernal, M.-P.

G. W. Burr, S. Diziain, and M.-P. Bernal, “Theoretical study of lithium niobate slab waveguides for integrated optics applications,” Opt. Mater. 31(10), 1492–1497 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bossi, D. E.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Burr, G. W.

G. W. Burr, S. Diziain, and M.-P. Bernal, “Theoretical study of lithium niobate slab waveguides for integrated optics applications,” Opt. Mater. 31(10), 1492–1497 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S. T.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(4), 549–551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Diziain, S.

G. W. Burr, S. Diziain, and M.-P. Bernal, “Theoretical study of lithium niobate slab waveguides for integrated optics applications,” Opt. Mater. 31(10), 1492–1497 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Foresi, J. S.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(4), 549–551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fritz, D. J.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fukazawa, T.

T. Fukazawa, F. Ohno, and T. Baba, “Very compact arrayed-waveguide-grating demultiplexer using Si photonic wire waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 5B), L673–L675 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Sakai, T. Fukazawa, and T. Baba, “Low loss ultra-small branches in a silicon photonic wire waveguide,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E 85-C, 1033–1038 (2002).

Gaylord, T. K.

R. S. Weis and T. K. Gaylord, “Lithium niobate: summary of physical properties and crystal structure,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 37(4), 191–203 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Greene, W.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(4), 549–551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gunter, P.

P. Rabiei and P. Gunter, “Optical and electro-optical properties of submicrometer lithium niobate slab waveguides prepared by crystal ion slicing and wafer bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4603–4605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Günter, P.

M. Koechlin, F. Sulser, Z. Sitar, G. Poberaj, and P. Günter, “Free-standing lithium niobate microring resonators for hybrid integrated optics,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(4), 251–253 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hallemeier, P. F.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(4), 549–551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hu, H.

Ippen, E. P.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(4), 549–551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kakihara, K.

Kimerling, L. C.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(4), 549–551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kissa, K. M.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Koch, T. L.

M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, A. Mitchell, and T. L. Koch, “Width dependence of inherent TM-mode lateral leakage loss in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(6), 429–431 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koechlin, M.

M. Koechlin, F. Sulser, Z. Sitar, G. Poberaj, and P. Günter, “Free-standing lithium niobate microring resonators for hybrid integrated optics,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(4), 251–253 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Koshiba, M.

Lafaw, D. A.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Little, B. E.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(4), 549–551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Maack, D.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

McBrien, G. J.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, A.

M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, A. Mitchell, and T. L. Koch, “Width dependence of inherent TM-mode lateral leakage loss in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(6), 429–431 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Montrosset, I.

C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, E. J.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Oesselke, T.

C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ohno, F.

T. Fukazawa, F. Ohno, and T. Baba, “Very compact arrayed-waveguide-grating demultiplexer using Si photonic wire waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 5B), L673–L675 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pafchek, R. M.

M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, A. Mitchell, and T. L. Koch, “Width dependence of inherent TM-mode lateral leakage loss in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(6), 429–431 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pandavenes, J.

C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Papuchon, M.

M. Papuchon and S. Vatoux, “Integrated optical polariser on LiNbO3:Ti channel waveguides using proton exchange,” Electron. Lett. 19(16), 612–613 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Poberaj, G.

M. Koechlin, F. Sulser, Z. Sitar, G. Poberaj, and P. Günter, “Free-standing lithium niobate microring resonators for hybrid integrated optics,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(4), 251–253 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rabiei, P.

P. Rabiei and W. H. Steier, “Lithium niobate ridge waveguides and modulators fabricated using smart guide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 161115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Rabiei and P. Gunter, “Optical and electro-optical properties of submicrometer lithium niobate slab waveguides prepared by crystal ion slicing and wafer bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4603–4605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ricken, R.

H. Hu, R. Ricken, and W. Sohler, “Lithium niobate photonic wires,” Opt. Express 17(26), 24261–24268 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rochhausen, K.

C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Saitoh, K.

Sakai, A.

A. Sakai, T. Fukazawa, and T. Baba, “Low loss ultra-small branches in a silicon photonic wire waveguide,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E 85-C, 1033–1038 (2002).

Schmidt, B.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schreiber, G.

C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sciancalepore, D.

C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sitar, Z.

M. Koechlin, F. Sulser, Z. Sitar, G. Poberaj, and P. Günter, “Free-standing lithium niobate microring resonators for hybrid integrated optics,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(4), 251–253 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sohler, W.

H. Hu, R. Ricken, and W. Sohler, “Lithium niobate photonic wires,” Opt. Express 17(26), 24261–24268 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Steier, W. H.

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B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(4), 549–551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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M. Koechlin, F. Sulser, Z. Sitar, G. Poberaj, and P. Günter, “Free-standing lithium niobate microring resonators for hybrid integrated optics,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(4), 251–253 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(4), 549–551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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M. Papuchon and S. Vatoux, “Integrated optical polariser on LiNbO3:Ti channel waveguides using proton exchange,” Electron. Lett. 19(16), 612–613 (1983).
[CrossRef]

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M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, A. Mitchell, and T. L. Koch, “Width dependence of inherent TM-mode lateral leakage loss in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(6), 429–431 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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R. S. Weis and T. K. Gaylord, “Lithium niobate: summary of physical properties and crystal structure,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 37(4), 191–203 (1985).
[CrossRef]

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C. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiber, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
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E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
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[CrossRef]

P. Rabiei and W. H. Steier, “Lithium niobate ridge waveguides and modulators fabricated using smart guide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 161115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

R. S. Weis and T. K. Gaylord, “Lithium niobate: summary of physical properties and crystal structure,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 37(4), 191–203 (1985).
[CrossRef]

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M. Papuchon and S. Vatoux, “Integrated optical polariser on LiNbO3:Ti channel waveguides using proton exchange,” Electron. Lett. 19(16), 612–613 (1983).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(4), 549–551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Koechlin, F. Sulser, Z. Sitar, G. Poberaj, and P. Günter, “Free-standing lithium niobate microring resonators for hybrid integrated optics,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(4), 251–253 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, A. Mitchell, and T. L. Koch, “Width dependence of inherent TM-mode lateral leakage loss in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(6), 429–431 (2007).
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Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
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[CrossRef]

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross section of LNOI (a) ridge and (b) slab waveguides.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Effective index of slab mode in (a) Z-cut and (b) X-cut Y-propagation LNOI slab waveguides as a function of slab thickness at λ = 1.55 μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Leakage losses of TE- and TM-like modes and (b) optical intensity of TE-slab mode in Z-cut LNOI ridge waveguide with t 1 = 0.55 μm and t 2 = 0.5 μm as a function of ridge width at λ = 1.55 μm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Leakage losses of TE- and TM-like modes and (b) optical intensity of TE-slab mode in X-cut LNOI ridge waveguide as a function of ridge width with t 1 = 0.55 μm and t 2 = 0.5 μm at λ = 1.55 μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Leakage losses of TE- and TM-like modes and (b) optical intensity of TM-slab mode in X-cut LNOI ridge waveguide with t 1 = 1.0 μm and t 2 = 1.1 μm as a function of ridge width at λ = 1.55 μm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Leakage losses of TE- and TM-like modes, (b) optical intensity of slab mode, and (c) effective index in X-cut LNOI ridge waveguide with t 1 = 0.723 μm and t 2 = 0.703 μm as a function of ridge width at λ = 1.55 μm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Effective index of slab mode in X-cut embedded LNOI slab waveguides as a function of slab thickness at λ = 1.55 μm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Leakage losses of TE- and TM-like modes and (b) effective index in X-cut embedded LNOI ridge waveguide with t 1 = 0.637 μm and t 2 = 0.657 μm as a function of ridge width at λ = 1.55 μm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Leakage losses of TE- and TM-like modes in X-cut LNOI ridge waveguides with several ridge heights of t 1t 2 as a function of ridge width at λ = 1.55 μm.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Leakage losses of TE- and TM-like modes in X-cut LNOI ridge waveguides with t 2 = 0.7 μm and several values of t 1 as a function of ridge width at λ = 1.55 μm.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(a) Leakage losses of TE- and TM–like modes and (b) effective index in X-cut LNOI ridge waveguide with t 1 = 0.7 μm and t 2 = 0.65 μm as a function of ridge width at λ = 1.55 μm.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(a) Leakage losses of TE- and TM-like modes and (b) effective index in X-cut LNOI ridge waveguide with t 1 = 0.735 μm and t 2 = 0.715 μm as a function of ridge width at λ = 1.55 μm.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I 2 | ϕ 0 | 2 ( 1 cos k 1 w )
k 1 = k 0 n TE 2 ( t 1 ) N eff,TM 2
k 1 = k 0 n TM 2 ( t 1 ) N eff,TE 2
L e a k a g e l o s s = 8.686 Im { β } [ dB/m ]
( t 1 + t 2 ) / 2 = t c

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