Abstract

A cross-layer network platform may enable introspective access to the physical layer, allowing optical performance monitoring measurements to feedback to higher layers for packet rerouting and protection. We experimentally demonstrate quality-of-service-aware packet protection that leverages cross-layer signaling based on the monitoring of packets’ optical-signal-to-noise ratio. In order to detect degraded data streams, the monitoring system is based on a delay-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer and a field-programmable gate array. The system is realized in an experimental cross-layer enabled optical packet switched fabric, measuring the optical-signal-to-noise ratio for 10-Gb/s OOK streams. The packet protection scheme uses the dynamic performance measurements to actuate a rerouting of high-quality-of-service packets. 8 × 10-Gb/s wavelength-striped optical messages are rerouted through the fabric error-free (bit-error rates less than 10−12).

© 2011 OSA

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References

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  1. D. C. Kilper, R. Bach, D. J. Blumenthal, D. Einstein, T. Landolsi, L. Ostar, M. Preiss, and A. E. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(1), 294–304 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. E. Willner, Z. Pan, and C. Yu, “Optical performance monitoring,” Optical Fiber Telecommunications VB (Elsevier Publishers, Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 2008), Chap. 7.
  3. NSF Center for Integrated Access Networks (CIAN, 2011), http://cian-erc.org/
  4. I. Baldine, “Unique optical networking facilities and cross-layer networking,” in LEOSST '09. IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meeting,2009 (IEEE/LEOS, 2009), pp. 145–146.
  5. Y. K. Lizé, J. Yang, L. C. Christen, X. Wu, S. Nuccio, T. Wu, A. E. Willner, R. Kashyap, and F. Séguin, Simultaneous and independent monitoring of OSNR, chromatic and polarization mode dispersion for NRZ-OOK, DPSK and duobinary,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper OThN2.
  6. J. J. Martínez, M. I. Roche, A. Villafranca, C. D. Heras, J. M. Subias, J. Pelayo, I. Garcés, P. Blasco, and E. Pellejer, “Novel in-band OSNR monitoring system based on a polarization interferometer,” in 2010 36th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) (IEEE, 2010), paper P3.18, p. 1–3.
  7. X. Yi, W. Chen, and W. Shieh, “An OSNR monitor for optical packet switched networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(13), 1448–1450 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Yang, M. R. Chitgarha, L. Zhang, and A. E. Willner, “PMD and OSNR insensitive 40-Gb/s OOK/DPSK chromatic dispersion monitoring using a delay-line interferometer and a <10-GHz photodetector,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper JThE50.
  9. S. M. R. M. Nezam, Y.-W. Song, C. Yu, J. E. McGeehan, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, “First-order PMD monitoring for NRZ data using RF clock regeneration techniques,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(4), 1086–1093 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. O. Gerstel, I. Leung, G. Nicholl, H. Sohel, W. Wakim, and K. Wollenweber, “Near-hitless protection in IPoDWDM networks,” in National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper NWD4.
  11. F. Fidler, P. J. Winzer, C. P. Lai, M. K. Thottan, and K. Bergman, “Cross-layer simulations of fast packet protection mechanisms,” in 35th European Conference on Optical Communication, 2009. ECOC '09 (2009), paper 2.5.2, pp. 1–2.
  12. C. P. Lai, M. S. Wang, A. S. Garg, K. Bergman, J. Yang, M. R. Chitgarha, and A. E. Willner, “Demonstration of QoS-aware packet protection via cross-layer OSNR signaling,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OTuM2.
  13. R. Ramaswami and K. N. Sivarajan, Optical Networks—A Practical Perspective, 2nd ed. (Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco, CA, 2002).
  14. T. Anderson, J. C. Li, D. Hewitt, and O. Jerphagnon, “Optical performance monitoring for intelligent networks,” in 35th European Conference on Optical Communication, 2009. ECOC '09 (2009), paper 9.3.3, pp. 1–4.
  15. X. Liu, Y.-H. Kao, S. Chandrasekhar, I. Kang, S. Cabot, and L. L. Buhl, “OSNR monitoring method for OOK and DPSK based on optical delay interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(15), 1172–1174 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. P. Lai, F. Fidler, and K. Bergman, “Experimental demonstration of QoS-aware cross-layer packet protection switching,” in 35th European Conference on Optical Communication, 2009. ECOC '09 (2009), paper 2.5.3, pp. 1–2.
  17. C. P. Lai, D. Brunina, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of 8×40-Gb/s wavelength-striped packet switching in a multi-terabit capacity optical network test-bed,” in 2010 23rd Annual Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society (2010), pp. 688–689.
  18. C. P. Lai and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of programmable broadband packet multicasting in an optical switching fabric test-bed,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OTuA5.
  19. C. P. Lai, H. Wang, A. Shacham, and K. Bergman, “Priority encoding scheme for contention resolution in optical packet-switched networks,” in 34th European Conference on Optical Communication, 2008. ECOC 2008 (2008), paper P.5.7, pp. 1–2.

2007

X. Liu, Y.-H. Kao, S. Chandrasekhar, I. Kang, S. Cabot, and L. L. Buhl, “OSNR monitoring method for OOK and DPSK based on optical delay interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(15), 1172–1174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

X. Yi, W. Chen, and W. Shieh, “An OSNR monitor for optical packet switched networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(13), 1448–1450 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

Bach, R.

Blumenthal, D. J.

Buhl, L. L.

X. Liu, Y.-H. Kao, S. Chandrasekhar, I. Kang, S. Cabot, and L. L. Buhl, “OSNR monitoring method for OOK and DPSK based on optical delay interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(15), 1172–1174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cabot, S.

X. Liu, Y.-H. Kao, S. Chandrasekhar, I. Kang, S. Cabot, and L. L. Buhl, “OSNR monitoring method for OOK and DPSK based on optical delay interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(15), 1172–1174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chandrasekhar, S.

X. Liu, Y.-H. Kao, S. Chandrasekhar, I. Kang, S. Cabot, and L. L. Buhl, “OSNR monitoring method for OOK and DPSK based on optical delay interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(15), 1172–1174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

X. Yi, W. Chen, and W. Shieh, “An OSNR monitor for optical packet switched networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(13), 1448–1450 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Einstein, D.

Kang, I.

X. Liu, Y.-H. Kao, S. Chandrasekhar, I. Kang, S. Cabot, and L. L. Buhl, “OSNR monitoring method for OOK and DPSK based on optical delay interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(15), 1172–1174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kao, Y.-H.

X. Liu, Y.-H. Kao, S. Chandrasekhar, I. Kang, S. Cabot, and L. L. Buhl, “OSNR monitoring method for OOK and DPSK based on optical delay interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(15), 1172–1174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kilper, D. C.

Landolsi, T.

Liu, X.

X. Liu, Y.-H. Kao, S. Chandrasekhar, I. Kang, S. Cabot, and L. L. Buhl, “OSNR monitoring method for OOK and DPSK based on optical delay interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(15), 1172–1174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

McGeehan, J. E.

Nezam, S. M. R. M.

Ostar, L.

Preiss, M.

Sahin, A. B.

Shieh, W.

X. Yi, W. Chen, and W. Shieh, “An OSNR monitor for optical packet switched networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(13), 1448–1450 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y.-W.

Willner, A. E.

Yi, X.

X. Yi, W. Chen, and W. Shieh, “An OSNR monitor for optical packet switched networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(13), 1448–1450 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

X. Yi, W. Chen, and W. Shieh, “An OSNR monitor for optical packet switched networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(13), 1448–1450 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, Y.-H. Kao, S. Chandrasekhar, I. Kang, S. Cabot, and L. L. Buhl, “OSNR monitoring method for OOK and DPSK based on optical delay interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(15), 1172–1174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Other

C. P. Lai, F. Fidler, and K. Bergman, “Experimental demonstration of QoS-aware cross-layer packet protection switching,” in 35th European Conference on Optical Communication, 2009. ECOC '09 (2009), paper 2.5.3, pp. 1–2.

C. P. Lai, D. Brunina, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of 8×40-Gb/s wavelength-striped packet switching in a multi-terabit capacity optical network test-bed,” in 2010 23rd Annual Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society (2010), pp. 688–689.

C. P. Lai and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of programmable broadband packet multicasting in an optical switching fabric test-bed,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OTuA5.

C. P. Lai, H. Wang, A. Shacham, and K. Bergman, “Priority encoding scheme for contention resolution in optical packet-switched networks,” in 34th European Conference on Optical Communication, 2008. ECOC 2008 (2008), paper P.5.7, pp. 1–2.

J. Yang, M. R. Chitgarha, L. Zhang, and A. E. Willner, “PMD and OSNR insensitive 40-Gb/s OOK/DPSK chromatic dispersion monitoring using a delay-line interferometer and a <10-GHz photodetector,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper JThE50.

O. Gerstel, I. Leung, G. Nicholl, H. Sohel, W. Wakim, and K. Wollenweber, “Near-hitless protection in IPoDWDM networks,” in National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper NWD4.

F. Fidler, P. J. Winzer, C. P. Lai, M. K. Thottan, and K. Bergman, “Cross-layer simulations of fast packet protection mechanisms,” in 35th European Conference on Optical Communication, 2009. ECOC '09 (2009), paper 2.5.2, pp. 1–2.

C. P. Lai, M. S. Wang, A. S. Garg, K. Bergman, J. Yang, M. R. Chitgarha, and A. E. Willner, “Demonstration of QoS-aware packet protection via cross-layer OSNR signaling,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OTuM2.

R. Ramaswami and K. N. Sivarajan, Optical Networks—A Practical Perspective, 2nd ed. (Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco, CA, 2002).

T. Anderson, J. C. Li, D. Hewitt, and O. Jerphagnon, “Optical performance monitoring for intelligent networks,” in 35th European Conference on Optical Communication, 2009. ECOC '09 (2009), paper 9.3.3, pp. 1–4.

A. E. Willner, Z. Pan, and C. Yu, “Optical performance monitoring,” Optical Fiber Telecommunications VB (Elsevier Publishers, Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 2008), Chap. 7.

NSF Center for Integrated Access Networks (CIAN, 2011), http://cian-erc.org/

I. Baldine, “Unique optical networking facilities and cross-layer networking,” in LEOSST '09. IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meeting,2009 (IEEE/LEOS, 2009), pp. 145–146.

Y. K. Lizé, J. Yang, L. C. Christen, X. Wu, S. Nuccio, T. Wu, A. E. Willner, R. Kashyap, and F. Séguin, Simultaneous and independent monitoring of OSNR, chromatic and polarization mode dispersion for NRZ-OOK, DPSK and duobinary,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper OThN2.

J. J. Martínez, M. I. Roche, A. Villafranca, C. D. Heras, J. M. Subias, J. Pelayo, I. Garcés, P. Blasco, and E. Pellejer, “Novel in-band OSNR monitoring system based on a polarization interferometer,” in 2010 36th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) (IEEE, 2010), paper P3.18, p. 1–3.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Block diagram of the envisioned cross-layer optimized networking protocol stack, with integrated packet-level OPM capabilities and data QoS awareness in the optical layer. Packet-rate OPM devices are embedded in the physical-layer links to monitor the signal quality of the optical channel. A bidirectional cross-layer signaling exchange occurs between the higher application/network layers and the optical physical layer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Architecture of a possible physical-layer implementation of one optical network node incorporating the OPS fabric, OPM modules, and the cross-layer logic.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cross-layer receiver node designed and used in this experimental demonstration; insets show photographs of the major realized hardware components, including (a) the OSNR monitor and (b) the cross-layer SOA-based switch.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Structure of the wavelength-striped optical packet format, showing the temporal shape of the packets (y-axis: wavelength, x-axis: time). This representative timing diagram shows three different packets with varying QoS levels and OSNR levels, with varying number of address bits and payload channels.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental setup, depicting the generation of the high- and low- OSNR optical packets, photographs of the optical switching fabric, and the setup of the packet-analysis system. The setup requires one FPGA device that is used both to implement the logic in the cross-layer node and to act as a high-speed electronic signal generator creating the optical packet sequence. The ‘Cross-Layer Receiving Node’ is depicted by the red box/region and represents the setup as in Fig. 3.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Block schematic showing the transparent lightpaths taken by the wavelength-striped optical packets as they propagate through the switching fabric and cross-layer node. The primary routing path (red) and the alternate routing path (blue) are provided.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Sensitivity curves for the experiment; dashed line/unfilled points refer to the back-to-back measurements and solid line/filled points correspond to the through measurements. Insets show the 10-Gb/s optical eye diagrams.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Truth Table for Cross-Layer Proactive Packet Protection Scheme

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