Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate that a metamaterial nanostructure can have a localized heating response owing to plasmonic resonances in the near-infrared wavelength range (from 1.5 to 2µm). With a broadband nanosecond-pulse light, the temperature of composing gold particles in the nanostructure can be easily increased to over 900K within only several nanoseconds, resulting in re-shaping of the particles. The photothermal effect is elaborated with finite-element based numerical simulations. The absorption resonance can in principle be tailored with a great freedom by choosing appropriate metamaterial parameters. The light-induced heating in an artificial metamaterial can be potentially used for all-optical acute temperature tuning in a micro-environment, which may open new frontiers especially in nanotechnology and biotechnology.

© 2011 OSA

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  35. The detailed implementation of the numerical model will be submitted for publication separately.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

J. Wang, Y. Chen, J. Hao, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Shape-dependent absorption characteristics of three-layered metamaterial absorbers at near-infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 074510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (9)

X. L. Zhu, Y. Zhang, J. Zhang, J. Xu, Y. Ma, Z. Y. Li, and D. P. Yu, “Ultrafine and smooth full metal nanostructures for plasmonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(39), 4345–4349 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, and W. J. Padilla, “Infrared spatial and frequency selective metamaterial with near-unity absorbance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(20), 207403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lu, J. Y. Huang, C. Wang, S. Sun, and J. Lou, “Cold welding of ultrathin gold nanowires,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(3), 218–224 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. S. Chang, J. W. Ha, L. S. Slaughter, and S. Link, “Plasmonic nanorod absorbers as orientation sensors,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(7), 2781–2786 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Xiao, T.-H. Wu, and P. Y. Chiou, “Near field photothermal printing of gold microsctructures and nanostuctures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Baffou, R. Quidant, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Nanoscale control of optical heating in complex plasmonic systems,” ACS Nano 4(2), 709–716 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Baffou, C. Girard, and R. Quidant, “Mapping heat origin in plasmonic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(13), 136805 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

P. Zijlstra, J. W. M. Chon, and M. Gu, “Five-dimensional optical recording mediated by surface plasmons in gold nanorods,” Nature 459(7245), 410–413 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zhao and J. M. Karp, “Tumour targeting: Nanoantennas heat up,” Nat. Mater. 8(6), 453–454 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Richardson, M. T. Carlson, P. J. Tandler, P. Hernandez, and A. O. Govorov, “Experimental and theoretical studies of light-to-heat conversion and collective heating effects in metal nanoparticle solutions,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1139–1146 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Nagpal, N. C. Lindquist, S.-H. Oh, and D. J. Norris, “Ultrasmooth patterned metals for plasmonics and metamaterials,” Science 325(5940), 594–597 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

P. K. Jain, X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Noble metals on the nanoscale: optical and photothermal properties and some applications in imaging, sensing, biology, and medicine,” Acc. Chem. Res. 41(12), 1578–1586 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

A. O. Govorov and H. H. Richardson, “Generating heat with metal nanoparticles,” Nano Today 2(1), 30–38 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

A. Plech, V. Kotaidis, M. Lorenc, and J. Boneberg, “Femtosecond laser near-field ablation from gold nanoparticles,” Nat. Phys. 2(1), 44–47 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Liu, J. Kim, Y. Lu, and L. P. Lee, “Optofluidic control using photothermal nanoparticles,” Nat. Mater. 5(1), 27–32 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, W. Qian, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Cancer cell imaging and photothermal therapy in the near-infrared region by using gold nanorods,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(6), 2115–2120 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wang and Y. R. Shen, “General properties of local plasmons in metal nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(20), 206806 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

V. A. Fedotov, P. L. Mladyonov, S. L. Prosvirnin, and N. I. Zheludev, “Planar electromagnetic metamaterial with a fish scale structure,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(5), 056613 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Habenicht, M. Olapinski, F. Burmeister, P. Leiderer, and J. Boneberg, “Jumping nanodroplets,” Science 309(5743), 2043–2045 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

D. P. O’Neal, L. R. Hirsch, N. J. Halas, J. D. Payne, and J. L. West, “Photo-thermal tumor ablation in mice using near infrared-absorbing nanoparticles,” Cancer Lett. 209(2), 171–176 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. X. Huang and R. B. Kaner, “Flash welding of conducting polymer nanofibres,” Nat. Mater. 3(11), 783–786 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Aguirre, C. E. Moran, J. F. Young, and N. J. Halas, “Laser-induced reshaping of metallodielectric nanoshells under femtosecond and nanosecond plasmon resonant illumination,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(22), 7040–7045 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, “Photothermal imaging of nanometer-sized metal particles among scatterers,” Science 297(5584), 1160–1163 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

S. Link, C. Burda, B. Nikoobakht, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Laser-induced shape changes of colloidal gold nanorods using femtosecond and nanosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104(26), 6152–6163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

J. Bosbach, D. Martin, F. Stietz, T. Wenzel, and F. Träger, “Laser-based method for fabricating monodisperse metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(18), 2605 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Averitt, S. L. Westcott, and N. J. Halas, “Linear optical properties of gold nanoshells,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(10), 1824 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

M. Quinten, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Electromagnetic energy transport via linear chains of silver nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 23(17), 1331–1333 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kurita, A. Takami, and S. Koda, “Size reduction of gold particles in aqueous solution by pulsed laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(7), 789 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

R. Elghanian, J. J. Storhoff, R. C. Mucic, R. L. Letsinger, and C. A. Mirkin, “Selective colorimetric detection of polynucleotides based on the distance-dependent optical properties of gold nanoparticles,” Science 277(5329), 1078–1081 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Aguirre, C. M.

C. M. Aguirre, C. E. Moran, J. F. Young, and N. J. Halas, “Laser-induced reshaping of metallodielectric nanoshells under femtosecond and nanosecond plasmon resonant illumination,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(22), 7040–7045 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Aussenegg, F. R.

Averitt, R. D.

Avlasevich, Y.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baffou, G.

G. Baffou, R. Quidant, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Nanoscale control of optical heating in complex plasmonic systems,” ACS Nano 4(2), 709–716 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Baffou, C. Girard, and R. Quidant, “Mapping heat origin in plasmonic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(13), 136805 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boneberg, J.

A. Plech, V. Kotaidis, M. Lorenc, and J. Boneberg, “Femtosecond laser near-field ablation from gold nanoparticles,” Nat. Phys. 2(1), 44–47 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Habenicht, M. Olapinski, F. Burmeister, P. Leiderer, and J. Boneberg, “Jumping nanodroplets,” Science 309(5743), 2043–2045 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bosbach, J.

J. Bosbach, D. Martin, F. Stietz, T. Wenzel, and F. Träger, “Laser-based method for fabricating monodisperse metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(18), 2605 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boyer, D.

D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, “Photothermal imaging of nanometer-sized metal particles among scatterers,” Science 297(5584), 1160–1163 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burda, C.

S. Link, C. Burda, B. Nikoobakht, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Laser-induced shape changes of colloidal gold nanorods using femtosecond and nanosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104(26), 6152–6163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Burmeister, F.

A. Habenicht, M. Olapinski, F. Burmeister, P. Leiderer, and J. Boneberg, “Jumping nanodroplets,” Science 309(5743), 2043–2045 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carlson, M. T.

H. H. Richardson, M. T. Carlson, P. J. Tandler, P. Hernandez, and A. O. Govorov, “Experimental and theoretical studies of light-to-heat conversion and collective heating effects in metal nanoparticle solutions,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1139–1146 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W. S.

W. S. Chang, J. W. Ha, L. S. Slaughter, and S. Link, “Plasmonic nanorod absorbers as orientation sensors,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(7), 2781–2786 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

J. Wang, Y. Chen, J. Hao, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Shape-dependent absorption characteristics of three-layered metamaterial absorbers at near-infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 074510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chiou, P. Y.

F. Xiao, T.-H. Wu, and P. Y. Chiou, “Near field photothermal printing of gold microsctructures and nanostuctures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chon, J. W. M.

P. Zijlstra, J. W. M. Chon, and M. Gu, “Five-dimensional optical recording mediated by surface plasmons in gold nanorods,” Nature 459(7245), 410–413 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elghanian, R.

R. Elghanian, J. J. Storhoff, R. C. Mucic, R. L. Letsinger, and C. A. Mirkin, “Selective colorimetric detection of polynucleotides based on the distance-dependent optical properties of gold nanoparticles,” Science 277(5329), 1078–1081 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Sayed, I. H.

P. K. Jain, X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Noble metals on the nanoscale: optical and photothermal properties and some applications in imaging, sensing, biology, and medicine,” Acc. Chem. Res. 41(12), 1578–1586 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, W. Qian, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Cancer cell imaging and photothermal therapy in the near-infrared region by using gold nanorods,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(6), 2115–2120 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Sayed, M. A.

P. K. Jain, X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Noble metals on the nanoscale: optical and photothermal properties and some applications in imaging, sensing, biology, and medicine,” Acc. Chem. Res. 41(12), 1578–1586 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, W. Qian, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Cancer cell imaging and photothermal therapy in the near-infrared region by using gold nanorods,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(6), 2115–2120 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Link, C. Burda, B. Nikoobakht, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Laser-induced shape changes of colloidal gold nanorods using femtosecond and nanosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104(26), 6152–6163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fedotov, V. A.

V. A. Fedotov, P. L. Mladyonov, S. L. Prosvirnin, and N. I. Zheludev, “Planar electromagnetic metamaterial with a fish scale structure,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(5), 056613 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

García de Abajo, F. J.

G. Baffou, R. Quidant, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Nanoscale control of optical heating in complex plasmonic systems,” ACS Nano 4(2), 709–716 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giessen, H.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Girard, C.

G. Baffou, C. Girard, and R. Quidant, “Mapping heat origin in plasmonic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(13), 136805 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Govorov, A. O.

H. H. Richardson, M. T. Carlson, P. J. Tandler, P. Hernandez, and A. O. Govorov, “Experimental and theoretical studies of light-to-heat conversion and collective heating effects in metal nanoparticle solutions,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1139–1146 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. O. Govorov and H. H. Richardson, “Generating heat with metal nanoparticles,” Nano Today 2(1), 30–38 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gu, M.

P. Zijlstra, J. W. M. Chon, and M. Gu, “Five-dimensional optical recording mediated by surface plasmons in gold nanorods,” Nature 459(7245), 410–413 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ha, J. W.

W. S. Chang, J. W. Ha, L. S. Slaughter, and S. Link, “Plasmonic nanorod absorbers as orientation sensors,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(7), 2781–2786 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Habenicht, A.

A. Habenicht, M. Olapinski, F. Burmeister, P. Leiderer, and J. Boneberg, “Jumping nanodroplets,” Science 309(5743), 2043–2045 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halas, N. J.

D. P. O’Neal, L. R. Hirsch, N. J. Halas, J. D. Payne, and J. L. West, “Photo-thermal tumor ablation in mice using near infrared-absorbing nanoparticles,” Cancer Lett. 209(2), 171–176 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Aguirre, C. E. Moran, J. F. Young, and N. J. Halas, “Laser-induced reshaping of metallodielectric nanoshells under femtosecond and nanosecond plasmon resonant illumination,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(22), 7040–7045 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Averitt, S. L. Westcott, and N. J. Halas, “Linear optical properties of gold nanoshells,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(10), 1824 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hao, J.

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D. P. O’Neal, L. R. Hirsch, N. J. Halas, J. D. Payne, and J. L. West, “Photo-thermal tumor ablation in mice using near infrared-absorbing nanoparticles,” Cancer Lett. 209(2), 171–176 (2004).
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P. K. Jain, X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Noble metals on the nanoscale: optical and photothermal properties and some applications in imaging, sensing, biology, and medicine,” Acc. Chem. Res. 41(12), 1578–1586 (2008).
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J. X. Huang and R. B. Kaner, “Flash welding of conducting polymer nanofibres,” Nat. Mater. 3(11), 783–786 (2004).
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W. Zhao and J. M. Karp, “Tumour targeting: Nanoantennas heat up,” Nat. Mater. 8(6), 453–454 (2009).
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G. L. Liu, J. Kim, Y. Lu, and L. P. Lee, “Optofluidic control using photothermal nanoparticles,” Nat. Mater. 5(1), 27–32 (2006).
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A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
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A. Plech, V. Kotaidis, M. Lorenc, and J. Boneberg, “Femtosecond laser near-field ablation from gold nanoparticles,” Nat. Phys. 2(1), 44–47 (2006).
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N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
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G. L. Liu, J. Kim, Y. Lu, and L. P. Lee, “Optofluidic control using photothermal nanoparticles,” Nat. Mater. 5(1), 27–32 (2006).
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A. Habenicht, M. Olapinski, F. Burmeister, P. Leiderer, and J. Boneberg, “Jumping nanodroplets,” Science 309(5743), 2043–2045 (2005).
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Letsinger, R. L.

R. Elghanian, J. J. Storhoff, R. C. Mucic, R. L. Letsinger, and C. A. Mirkin, “Selective colorimetric detection of polynucleotides based on the distance-dependent optical properties of gold nanoparticles,” Science 277(5329), 1078–1081 (1997).
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X. L. Zhu, Y. Zhang, J. Zhang, J. Xu, Y. Ma, Z. Y. Li, and D. P. Yu, “Ultrafine and smooth full metal nanostructures for plasmonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(39), 4345–4349 (2010).
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W. S. Chang, J. W. Ha, L. S. Slaughter, and S. Link, “Plasmonic nanorod absorbers as orientation sensors,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(7), 2781–2786 (2010).
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G. L. Liu, J. Kim, Y. Lu, and L. P. Lee, “Optofluidic control using photothermal nanoparticles,” Nat. Mater. 5(1), 27–32 (2006).
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N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. M. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, and W. J. Padilla, “Infrared spatial and frequency selective metamaterial with near-unity absorbance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(20), 207403 (2010).
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A. Plech, V. Kotaidis, M. Lorenc, and J. Boneberg, “Femtosecond laser near-field ablation from gold nanoparticles,” Nat. Phys. 2(1), 44–47 (2006).
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Y. Lu, J. Y. Huang, C. Wang, S. Sun, and J. Lou, “Cold welding of ultrathin gold nanowires,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(3), 218–224 (2010).
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D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, “Photothermal imaging of nanometer-sized metal particles among scatterers,” Science 297(5584), 1160–1163 (2002).
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Y. Lu, J. Y. Huang, C. Wang, S. Sun, and J. Lou, “Cold welding of ultrathin gold nanowires,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(3), 218–224 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. L. Liu, J. Kim, Y. Lu, and L. P. Lee, “Optofluidic control using photothermal nanoparticles,” Nat. Mater. 5(1), 27–32 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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X. L. Zhu, Y. Zhang, J. Zhang, J. Xu, Y. Ma, Z. Y. Li, and D. P. Yu, “Ultrafine and smooth full metal nanostructures for plasmonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(39), 4345–4349 (2010).
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D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, “Photothermal imaging of nanometer-sized metal particles among scatterers,” Science 297(5584), 1160–1163 (2002).
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J. Bosbach, D. Martin, F. Stietz, T. Wenzel, and F. Träger, “Laser-based method for fabricating monodisperse metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(18), 2605 (1999).
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N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
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R. Elghanian, J. J. Storhoff, R. C. Mucic, R. L. Letsinger, and C. A. Mirkin, “Selective colorimetric detection of polynucleotides based on the distance-dependent optical properties of gold nanoparticles,” Science 277(5329), 1078–1081 (1997).
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V. A. Fedotov, P. L. Mladyonov, S. L. Prosvirnin, and N. I. Zheludev, “Planar electromagnetic metamaterial with a fish scale structure,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(5), 056613 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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C. M. Aguirre, C. E. Moran, J. F. Young, and N. J. Halas, “Laser-induced reshaping of metallodielectric nanoshells under femtosecond and nanosecond plasmon resonant illumination,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(22), 7040–7045 (2004).
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R. Elghanian, J. J. Storhoff, R. C. Mucic, R. L. Letsinger, and C. A. Mirkin, “Selective colorimetric detection of polynucleotides based on the distance-dependent optical properties of gold nanoparticles,” Science 277(5329), 1078–1081 (1997).
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A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
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P. Nagpal, N. C. Lindquist, S.-H. Oh, and D. J. Norris, “Ultrasmooth patterned metals for plasmonics and metamaterials,” Science 325(5940), 594–597 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Link, C. Burda, B. Nikoobakht, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Laser-induced shape changes of colloidal gold nanorods using femtosecond and nanosecond laser pulses,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104(26), 6152–6163 (2000).
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P. Nagpal, N. C. Lindquist, S.-H. Oh, and D. J. Norris, “Ultrasmooth patterned metals for plasmonics and metamaterials,” Science 325(5940), 594–597 (2009).
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D. P. O’Neal, L. R. Hirsch, N. J. Halas, J. D. Payne, and J. L. West, “Photo-thermal tumor ablation in mice using near infrared-absorbing nanoparticles,” Cancer Lett. 209(2), 171–176 (2004).
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P. Nagpal, N. C. Lindquist, S.-H. Oh, and D. J. Norris, “Ultrasmooth patterned metals for plasmonics and metamaterials,” Science 325(5940), 594–597 (2009).
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A. Habenicht, M. Olapinski, F. Burmeister, P. Leiderer, and J. Boneberg, “Jumping nanodroplets,” Science 309(5743), 2043–2045 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, “Photothermal imaging of nanometer-sized metal particles among scatterers,” Science 297(5584), 1160–1163 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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X. Liu, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, and W. J. Padilla, “Infrared spatial and frequency selective metamaterial with near-unity absorbance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(20), 207403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. P. O’Neal, L. R. Hirsch, N. J. Halas, J. D. Payne, and J. L. West, “Photo-thermal tumor ablation in mice using near infrared-absorbing nanoparticles,” Cancer Lett. 209(2), 171–176 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. Plech, V. Kotaidis, M. Lorenc, and J. Boneberg, “Femtosecond laser near-field ablation from gold nanoparticles,” Nat. Phys. 2(1), 44–47 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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V. A. Fedotov, P. L. Mladyonov, S. L. Prosvirnin, and N. I. Zheludev, “Planar electromagnetic metamaterial with a fish scale structure,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(5), 056613 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, W. Qian, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Cancer cell imaging and photothermal therapy in the near-infrared region by using gold nanorods,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(6), 2115–2120 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qiu, M.

J. Wang, Y. Chen, J. Hao, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Shape-dependent absorption characteristics of three-layered metamaterial absorbers at near-infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 074510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251104 (2010).
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G. Baffou, R. Quidant, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Nanoscale control of optical heating in complex plasmonic systems,” ACS Nano 4(2), 709–716 (2010).
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H. H. Richardson, M. T. Carlson, P. J. Tandler, P. Hernandez, and A. O. Govorov, “Experimental and theoretical studies of light-to-heat conversion and collective heating effects in metal nanoparticle solutions,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1139–1146 (2009).
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F. Wang and Y. R. Shen, “General properties of local plasmons in metal nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(20), 206806 (2006).
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W. S. Chang, J. W. Ha, L. S. Slaughter, and S. Link, “Plasmonic nanorod absorbers as orientation sensors,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(7), 2781–2786 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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X. Liu, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, and W. J. Padilla, “Infrared spatial and frequency selective metamaterial with near-unity absorbance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(20), 207403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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X. Liu, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, and W. J. Padilla, “Infrared spatial and frequency selective metamaterial with near-unity absorbance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(20), 207403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. Bosbach, D. Martin, F. Stietz, T. Wenzel, and F. Träger, “Laser-based method for fabricating monodisperse metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(18), 2605 (1999).
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R. Elghanian, J. J. Storhoff, R. C. Mucic, R. L. Letsinger, and C. A. Mirkin, “Selective colorimetric detection of polynucleotides based on the distance-dependent optical properties of gold nanoparticles,” Science 277(5329), 1078–1081 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, S.

Y. Lu, J. Y. Huang, C. Wang, S. Sun, and J. Lou, “Cold welding of ultrathin gold nanowires,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(3), 218–224 (2010).
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H. Kurita, A. Takami, and S. Koda, “Size reduction of gold particles in aqueous solution by pulsed laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(7), 789 (1998).
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D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, “Photothermal imaging of nanometer-sized metal particles among scatterers,” Science 297(5584), 1160–1163 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. H. Richardson, M. T. Carlson, P. J. Tandler, P. Hernandez, and A. O. Govorov, “Experimental and theoretical studies of light-to-heat conversion and collective heating effects in metal nanoparticle solutions,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1139–1146 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. Bosbach, D. Martin, F. Stietz, T. Wenzel, and F. Träger, “Laser-based method for fabricating monodisperse metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(18), 2605 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

Y. Lu, J. Y. Huang, C. Wang, S. Sun, and J. Lou, “Cold welding of ultrathin gold nanowires,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(3), 218–224 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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F. Wang and Y. R. Shen, “General properties of local plasmons in metal nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(20), 206806 (2006).
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J. Wang, Y. Chen, J. Hao, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Shape-dependent absorption characteristics of three-layered metamaterial absorbers at near-infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 074510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. Bosbach, D. Martin, F. Stietz, T. Wenzel, and F. Träger, “Laser-based method for fabricating monodisperse metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(18), 2605 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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D. P. O’Neal, L. R. Hirsch, N. J. Halas, J. D. Payne, and J. L. West, “Photo-thermal tumor ablation in mice using near infrared-absorbing nanoparticles,” Cancer Lett. 209(2), 171–176 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Wu, T.-H.

F. Xiao, T.-H. Wu, and P. Y. Chiou, “Near field photothermal printing of gold microsctructures and nanostuctures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, F.

F. Xiao, T.-H. Wu, and P. Y. Chiou, “Near field photothermal printing of gold microsctructures and nanostuctures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031112 (2010).
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X. L. Zhu, Y. Zhang, J. Zhang, J. Xu, Y. Ma, Z. Y. Li, and D. P. Yu, “Ultrafine and smooth full metal nanostructures for plasmonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(39), 4345–4349 (2010).
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J. Wang, Y. Chen, J. Hao, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Shape-dependent absorption characteristics of three-layered metamaterial absorbers at near-infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 074510 (2011).
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C. M. Aguirre, C. E. Moran, J. F. Young, and N. J. Halas, “Laser-induced reshaping of metallodielectric nanoshells under femtosecond and nanosecond plasmon resonant illumination,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(22), 7040–7045 (2004).
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X. L. Zhu, Y. Zhang, J. Zhang, J. Xu, Y. Ma, Z. Y. Li, and D. P. Yu, “Ultrafine and smooth full metal nanostructures for plasmonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(39), 4345–4349 (2010).
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A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
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X. L. Zhu, Y. Zhang, J. Zhang, J. Xu, Y. Ma, Z. Y. Li, and D. P. Yu, “Ultrafine and smooth full metal nanostructures for plasmonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(39), 4345–4349 (2010).
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X. L. Zhu, Y. Zhang, J. Zhang, J. Xu, Y. Ma, Z. Y. Li, and D. P. Yu, “Ultrafine and smooth full metal nanostructures for plasmonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(39), 4345–4349 (2010).
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W. Zhao and J. M. Karp, “Tumour targeting: Nanoantennas heat up,” Nat. Mater. 8(6), 453–454 (2009).
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V. A. Fedotov, P. L. Mladyonov, S. L. Prosvirnin, and N. I. Zheludev, “Planar electromagnetic metamaterial with a fish scale structure,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(5), 056613 (2005).
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J. M. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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X. L. Zhu, Y. Zhang, J. Zhang, J. Xu, Y. Ma, Z. Y. Li, and D. P. Yu, “Ultrafine and smooth full metal nanostructures for plasmonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(39), 4345–4349 (2010).
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Acc. Chem. Res. (1)

P. K. Jain, X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Noble metals on the nanoscale: optical and photothermal properties and some applications in imaging, sensing, biology, and medicine,” Acc. Chem. Res. 41(12), 1578–1586 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

G. Baffou, R. Quidant, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Nanoscale control of optical heating in complex plasmonic systems,” ACS Nano 4(2), 709–716 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (1)

X. L. Zhu, Y. Zhang, J. Zhang, J. Xu, Y. Ma, Z. Y. Li, and D. P. Yu, “Ultrafine and smooth full metal nanostructures for plasmonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(39), 4345–4349 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

J. M. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Xiao, T.-H. Wu, and P. Y. Chiou, “Near field photothermal printing of gold microsctructures and nanostuctures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Other (1)

The detailed implementation of the numerical model will be submitted for publication separately.

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