Abstract

A simple method for conditioning the pump beam in an end-pumped solid-state laser to allow direct excitation of the first order Laguerre-Gaussian doughnut (LG01) mode is reported. This approach has been applied to a hybrid (fiber-laser-pumped) Er:YAG laser yielding 13.1 W of continuous-wave output at 1645 nm in a radially-polarized LG01 doughnut beam with beam propagation factor (M2) < 2.4 for 34 W of incident pump power at 1532 nm. The corresponding slope efficiency with respect to incident pump power was 48%. The prospects of further power scaling and improved laser performance are discussed.

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2010

2009

J. W. Kim, D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Fiber-Laser-Pumped Er:YAG Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 361–371 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

2004

A. Shevchenko, S. C. Buchter, N. V. Tabiryan, and M. Kaivola, “Creation of a hollow laser beam using self-phase modulation in a nematic liquid crystal,” Opt. Commun. 232(1-6), 77–82 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chen, P. T. Tai, and W. F. Hsieh, “Bottle beam from a bare laser for single-beam trapping,” Appl. Opt. 43(32), 6001–6006 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424(6950), 810–816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, and D. G. Grier, “Dynamic holographic optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun. 207(1-6), 169–175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

1999

R. B. Charters, B. Luther-Davies, and F. Ladouceur, “Improved performance of laser channel written waveguides using a TEM01* beam,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(12), 1617–1619 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Song, D. Milam, and W. T. Hill III, “Long, narrow all-light atom guide,” Opt. Lett. 24(24), 1805–1807 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

1997

J. Yin, H. Noh, K. Lee, K. Kim, Y. Wang, and W. Jhe, “Generation of a dark hollow beam by a small hollow fiber,” Opt. Commun. 138(4-6), 287–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

C. Paterson, “Higher order Bessel waves produced by axicon-type computer-based holograms,” Opt. Commun. 124(1-2), 121–130 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun. 96(1-3), 123–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983

1981

M. E. Marhic and E. Garmire, “Low-order TE0q operation of a CO2 laser for transmission through circular metallic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38(10), 743–745 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Ahmed, M. A.

Allen, L.

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun. 96(1-3), 123–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andrews, L. C.

Arlt, J.

Beijersbergen, M. W.

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun. 96(1-3), 123–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buchter, S. C.

A. Shevchenko, S. C. Buchter, N. V. Tabiryan, and M. Kaivola, “Creation of a hollow laser beam using self-phase modulation in a nematic liquid crystal,” Opt. Commun. 232(1-6), 77–82 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Caley, A. J.

Charters, R. B.

R. B. Charters, B. Luther-Davies, and F. Ladouceur, “Improved performance of laser channel written waveguides using a TEM01* beam,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(12), 1617–1619 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. H.

Clarkson, W. A.

Curtis, J. E.

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, and D. G. Grier, “Dynamic holographic optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun. 207(1-6), 169–175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Davidson, N.

Dholakia, K.

J. Arlt and K. Dholakia, “Generation of high-order Bessel beams by use of an axicon,” Opt. Commun. 177(1-6), 297–301 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Eichhorn, M.

M. Eichhorn, “High-power resonantly diode-pumped CW Er3+:YAG laser,” Appl. Phys. B 93(4), 773–778 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Friedman, N.

Garmire, E.

M. E. Marhic and E. Garmire, “Low-order TE0q operation of a CO2 laser for transmission through circular metallic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38(10), 743–745 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Graf, T.

Grier, D. G.

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424(6950), 810–816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, and D. G. Grier, “Dynamic holographic optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun. 207(1-6), 169–175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hassanein, A.

V. Sizyuk, A. Hassanein, and T. Sizyuk, “Hollow laser self-confined plasma for extreme ultraviolet lithography and other applications,” Laser Part. Beams 25(01), 143–154 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hill, W. T.

Hsieh, W. F.

Itoh, M.

Jelger, P.

Jhe, W.

J. Yin, H. Noh, K. Lee, K. Kim, Y. Wang, and W. Jhe, “Generation of a dark hollow beam by a small hollow fiber,” Opt. Commun. 138(4-6), 287–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kaivola, M.

A. Shevchenko, S. C. Buchter, N. V. Tabiryan, and M. Kaivola, “Creation of a hollow laser beam using self-phase modulation in a nematic liquid crystal,” Opt. Commun. 232(1-6), 77–82 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Khaykovich, L.

Kim, J. W.

Kim, K.

J. Yin, H. Noh, K. Lee, K. Kim, Y. Wang, and W. Jhe, “Generation of a dark hollow beam by a small hollow fiber,” Opt. Commun. 138(4-6), 287–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Koss, B. A.

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, and D. G. Grier, “Dynamic holographic optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun. 207(1-6), 169–175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kraus, M.

Ladouceur, F.

R. B. Charters, B. Luther-Davies, and F. Ladouceur, “Improved performance of laser channel written waveguides using a TEM01* beam,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(12), 1617–1619 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Laurell, F.

Lee, K.

J. Yin, H. Noh, K. Lee, K. Kim, Y. Wang, and W. Jhe, “Generation of a dark hollow beam by a small hollow fiber,” Opt. Commun. 138(4-6), 287–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

Luther-Davies, B.

R. B. Charters, B. Luther-Davies, and F. Ladouceur, “Improved performance of laser channel written waveguides using a TEM01* beam,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(12), 1617–1619 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mackenzie, J. I.

Marhic, M. E.

M. E. Marhic and E. Garmire, “Low-order TE0q operation of a CO2 laser for transmission through circular metallic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38(10), 743–745 (1981).
[CrossRef]

McGloin, D.

Michalowski, A.

Milam, D.

Noh, H.

J. Yin, H. Noh, K. Lee, K. Kim, Y. Wang, and W. Jhe, “Generation of a dark hollow beam by a small hollow fiber,” Opt. Commun. 138(4-6), 287–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Okida, M.

Omatsu, T.

Ozeri, R.

Padgett, M. J.

Parisi, D.

Paterson, C.

C. Paterson, “Higher order Bessel waves produced by axicon-type computer-based holograms,” Opt. Commun. 124(1-2), 121–130 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, R. L.

Sahu, J. K.

Shen, D. Y.

J. W. Kim, D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Fiber-Laser-Pumped Er:YAG Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 361–371 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shevchenko, A.

A. Shevchenko, S. C. Buchter, N. V. Tabiryan, and M. Kaivola, “Creation of a hollow laser beam using self-phase modulation in a nematic liquid crystal,” Opt. Commun. 232(1-6), 77–82 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, N. B.

Sizyuk, T.

V. Sizyuk, A. Hassanein, and T. Sizyuk, “Hollow laser self-confined plasma for extreme ultraviolet lithography and other applications,” Laser Part. Beams 25(01), 143–154 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sizyuk, V.

V. Sizyuk, A. Hassanein, and T. Sizyuk, “Hollow laser self-confined plasma for extreme ultraviolet lithography and other applications,” Laser Part. Beams 25(01), 143–154 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y.

Spreeuw, R. J.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tabiryan, N. V.

A. Shevchenko, S. C. Buchter, N. V. Tabiryan, and M. Kaivola, “Creation of a hollow laser beam using self-phase modulation in a nematic liquid crystal,” Opt. Commun. 232(1-6), 77–82 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Taghizadeh, M. R.

Tai, P. T.

Thomson, M. J.

Tonelli, M.

van der Veen, H. E. L. O.

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun. 96(1-3), 123–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Veronesi, S.

Voss, A.

Waddie, A. J.

Wang, Y.

J. Yin, H. Noh, K. Lee, K. Kim, Y. Wang, and W. Jhe, “Generation of a dark hollow beam by a small hollow fiber,” Opt. Commun. 138(4-6), 287–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Weber, R.

Woerdman, J. P.

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun. 96(1-3), 123–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yatagai, T.

Yin, J.

J. Yin, H. Noh, K. Lee, K. Kim, Y. Wang, and W. Jhe, “Generation of a dark hollow beam by a small hollow fiber,” Opt. Commun. 138(4-6), 287–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

M. Eichhorn, “High-power resonantly diode-pumped CW Er3+:YAG laser,” Appl. Phys. B 93(4), 773–778 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. E. Marhic and E. Garmire, “Low-order TE0q operation of a CO2 laser for transmission through circular metallic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38(10), 743–745 (1981).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

J. W. Kim, D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Fiber-Laser-Pumped Er:YAG Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 361–371 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

R. B. Charters, B. Luther-Davies, and F. Ladouceur, “Improved performance of laser channel written waveguides using a TEM01* beam,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(12), 1617–1619 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Laser Part. Beams

V. Sizyuk, A. Hassanein, and T. Sizyuk, “Hollow laser self-confined plasma for extreme ultraviolet lithography and other applications,” Laser Part. Beams 25(01), 143–154 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424(6950), 810–816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, and D. G. Grier, “Dynamic holographic optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun. 207(1-6), 169–175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Arlt and K. Dholakia, “Generation of high-order Bessel beams by use of an axicon,” Opt. Commun. 177(1-6), 297–301 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Yin, H. Noh, K. Lee, K. Kim, Y. Wang, and W. Jhe, “Generation of a dark hollow beam by a small hollow fiber,” Opt. Commun. 138(4-6), 287–292 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Shevchenko, S. C. Buchter, N. V. Tabiryan, and M. Kaivola, “Creation of a hollow laser beam using self-phase modulation in a nematic liquid crystal,” Opt. Commun. 232(1-6), 77–82 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Paterson, “Higher order Bessel waves produced by axicon-type computer-based holograms,” Opt. Commun. 124(1-2), 121–130 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun. 96(1-3), 123–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

W. Koechner, “Solid state laser engineering,” Springer-Verlag, Sixth edition, 442–445 (2006).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the Er:YAG laser resonator. The pictures show the cross-section of the capillary fiber (upper-left) and the near-field beam profile for the pump beam exiting the capillary fiber (upper-right).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Er:YAG laser output power and measured beam propagation factor (M2) as a function of incident pump power and (b) the output beam profiles monitored by a Pyrocam III camera. (c) The calculated and measured transverse intensity distributions for the LG01.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Relay-imaged output beam profiles for different angular positions of the polarizer. The arrow shows the polarizer transmission direction. (b) The normalized azimuthal intensity as a function of polarizer angle.

Equations (2)

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w p ( M 2 λ π n α p )
I 0 , 1 ( r )     = ( 2 P L π w 2 ) ( 2     r 2 w 2 ) exp ( 2     r 2 w 2 ) = ( 2     r 2 w 2 ) I 0 , 0 ( r )

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