Abstract

In this paper, an innovative 3-to-3 bi-directional optical bus architecture based on multimode polymer waveguides with embedded 45° micro-mirrors was successfully demonstrated. With a lithography-free imprinting process by high quality electroplated metallic mold, the device can be precisely replicated with a low fabrication cost. Superior to any point-to-point optical waveguide, the implemented optical bus structure is capable of broadcasting and receiving high speed data at 10Gbit/sec among multiple points as a high performance optical backplane.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. D. Huang, T. Sze, A. Landin, R. Lytel, and H. L. Davidson, “Optical interconnects: out of the box forever?” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 614–623 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully embedded board-level guided wave optoelectronic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 780–793 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. L. Glebov, M. G. Lee, and K. Yokouchi, “Integration technologies for pluggable backplane optical interconnect systems,” Opt. Eng. 46(1), 015403 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Flores, S. Song, J. J. Yang, Z. Q. Liu, and M. R. Wang, “High-speed optical interconnect coupler based on soft lithography ribbons,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(13), 1956–1963 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Gicherl, X. Han, and R. T. Chen, “A method for rebroadcasting signals in an optical backplane bus system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 959–965 (2002).
  6. X. Han, G. Kim, G. J. Lipovski, and R. T. Chen, “An optical centralized shared-bus architecture demonstrator for microprocessor-to-memory interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 512–517 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. X. Han, G. Kim, and R. T. Chen, “Accurate diffraction efficiency control for multiplexed volume holographic gratings,” Opt. Eng. 41(11), 2799–2802 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Bi, X. Han, X. Chen, W. Jiang, J. Choi, and R. T. Chen, “15Gbps bit-interleaved optical backplane bus using volume photo-polymer holograms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(20), 2165–2167 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Tan, P. Rosenberg, J. S. Yeo, M. McLaren, S. Mathai, T. Morris, J. Straznicky, N. P. Jouppi, H. P. Kuo, S. Wang, S. Lerner, P. Kornilovich, N. Meyer, R. Bicknell, C. Otis, and L. Seals, “A high-speed optical multi-drop bus for computer interconnections,” in 16th IEEE Symposium on High Performance Interconnects (2008).
  10. X. Y. Dou, X. Wang, H. Y. Huang, X. H. Lin, D. Ding, D. Z. Pan, and R. T. Chen, “Polymeric waveguides with embedded micro-mirrors formed by Metallic Hard Mold,” Opt. Express 18(1), 378–385 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. Xinyuan, X. Wang, X. H. Lin, D. Ding, D. Z. Pan, and R. T. Chen, “Highly flexible polymeric optical waveguide for out-of-plane optical interconnects,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16227–16233 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. X. Wang, W. Jiang, L. Wang, H. Bi, and R. T. Chen, “Fully embedded board level optical interconnects-from waveguide fabrication to device integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(2), 243–250 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2010

2008

2007

A. L. Glebov, M. G. Lee, and K. Yokouchi, “Integration technologies for pluggable backplane optical interconnect systems,” Opt. Eng. 46(1), 015403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

H. Bi, X. Han, X. Chen, W. Jiang, J. Choi, and R. T. Chen, “15Gbps bit-interleaved optical backplane bus using volume photo-polymer holograms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(20), 2165–2167 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003

X. Han, G. Kim, G. J. Lipovski, and R. T. Chen, “An optical centralized shared-bus architecture demonstrator for microprocessor-to-memory interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 512–517 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, T. Sze, A. Landin, R. Lytel, and H. L. Davidson, “Optical interconnects: out of the box forever?” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 614–623 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

X. Han, G. Kim, and R. T. Chen, “Accurate diffraction efficiency control for multiplexed volume holographic gratings,” Opt. Eng. 41(11), 2799–2802 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Gicherl, X. Han, and R. T. Chen, “A method for rebroadcasting signals in an optical backplane bus system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 959–965 (2002).

2000

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully embedded board-level guided wave optoelectronic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 780–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bi, H.

X. Wang, W. Jiang, L. Wang, H. Bi, and R. T. Chen, “Fully embedded board level optical interconnects-from waveguide fabrication to device integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(2), 243–250 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Bi, X. Han, X. Chen, W. Jiang, J. Choi, and R. T. Chen, “15Gbps bit-interleaved optical backplane bus using volume photo-polymer holograms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(20), 2165–2167 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bihari, B.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully embedded board-level guided wave optoelectronic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 780–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bristow, J.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully embedded board-level guided wave optoelectronic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 780–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R. T.

X. Y. Dou, X. Wang, H. Y. Huang, X. H. Lin, D. Ding, D. Z. Pan, and R. T. Chen, “Polymeric waveguides with embedded micro-mirrors formed by Metallic Hard Mold,” Opt. Express 18(1), 378–385 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Xinyuan, X. Wang, X. H. Lin, D. Ding, D. Z. Pan, and R. T. Chen, “Highly flexible polymeric optical waveguide for out-of-plane optical interconnects,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16227–16233 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, W. Jiang, L. Wang, H. Bi, and R. T. Chen, “Fully embedded board level optical interconnects-from waveguide fabrication to device integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(2), 243–250 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Bi, X. Han, X. Chen, W. Jiang, J. Choi, and R. T. Chen, “15Gbps bit-interleaved optical backplane bus using volume photo-polymer holograms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(20), 2165–2167 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Han, G. Kim, G. J. Lipovski, and R. T. Chen, “An optical centralized shared-bus architecture demonstrator for microprocessor-to-memory interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 512–517 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Han, G. Kim, and R. T. Chen, “Accurate diffraction efficiency control for multiplexed volume holographic gratings,” Opt. Eng. 41(11), 2799–2802 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Gicherl, X. Han, and R. T. Chen, “A method for rebroadcasting signals in an optical backplane bus system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 959–965 (2002).

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully embedded board-level guided wave optoelectronic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 780–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

H. Bi, X. Han, X. Chen, W. Jiang, J. Choi, and R. T. Chen, “15Gbps bit-interleaved optical backplane bus using volume photo-polymer holograms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(20), 2165–2167 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choi, C.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully embedded board-level guided wave optoelectronic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 780–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J.

H. Bi, X. Han, X. Chen, W. Jiang, J. Choi, and R. T. Chen, “15Gbps bit-interleaved optical backplane bus using volume photo-polymer holograms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(20), 2165–2167 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Davidson, H. L.

D. Huang, T. Sze, A. Landin, R. Lytel, and H. L. Davidson, “Optical interconnects: out of the box forever?” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 614–623 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ding, D.

Dou, X. Y.

Flores, A.

Gicherl, K.

Glebov, A. L.

A. L. Glebov, M. G. Lee, and K. Yokouchi, “Integration technologies for pluggable backplane optical interconnect systems,” Opt. Eng. 46(1), 015403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Han, X.

H. Bi, X. Han, X. Chen, W. Jiang, J. Choi, and R. T. Chen, “15Gbps bit-interleaved optical backplane bus using volume photo-polymer holograms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(20), 2165–2167 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Han, G. Kim, G. J. Lipovski, and R. T. Chen, “An optical centralized shared-bus architecture demonstrator for microprocessor-to-memory interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 512–517 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Gicherl, X. Han, and R. T. Chen, “A method for rebroadcasting signals in an optical backplane bus system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 959–965 (2002).

X. Han, G. Kim, and R. T. Chen, “Accurate diffraction efficiency control for multiplexed volume holographic gratings,” Opt. Eng. 41(11), 2799–2802 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hibbs-Brenner, M. K.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully embedded board-level guided wave optoelectronic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 780–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, T. Sze, A. Landin, R. Lytel, and H. L. Davidson, “Optical interconnects: out of the box forever?” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 614–623 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H. Y.

Jiang, W.

X. Wang, W. Jiang, L. Wang, H. Bi, and R. T. Chen, “Fully embedded board level optical interconnects-from waveguide fabrication to device integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(2), 243–250 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Bi, X. Han, X. Chen, W. Jiang, J. Choi, and R. T. Chen, “15Gbps bit-interleaved optical backplane bus using volume photo-polymer holograms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(20), 2165–2167 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, G.

X. Han, G. Kim, G. J. Lipovski, and R. T. Chen, “An optical centralized shared-bus architecture demonstrator for microprocessor-to-memory interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 512–517 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Han, G. Kim, and R. T. Chen, “Accurate diffraction efficiency control for multiplexed volume holographic gratings,” Opt. Eng. 41(11), 2799–2802 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Landin, A.

D. Huang, T. Sze, A. Landin, R. Lytel, and H. L. Davidson, “Optical interconnects: out of the box forever?” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 614–623 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. G.

A. L. Glebov, M. G. Lee, and K. Yokouchi, “Integration technologies for pluggable backplane optical interconnect systems,” Opt. Eng. 46(1), 015403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, L.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully embedded board-level guided wave optoelectronic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 780–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lin, X. H.

Lipovski, G. J.

X. Han, G. Kim, G. J. Lipovski, and R. T. Chen, “An optical centralized shared-bus architecture demonstrator for microprocessor-to-memory interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 512–517 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. J.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully embedded board-level guided wave optoelectronic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 780–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. S.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully embedded board-level guided wave optoelectronic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 780–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z. Q.

Lytel, R.

D. Huang, T. Sze, A. Landin, R. Lytel, and H. L. Davidson, “Optical interconnects: out of the box forever?” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 614–623 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pan, D. Z.

Picor, B.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully embedded board-level guided wave optoelectronic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 780–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Song, S.

Sze, T.

D. Huang, T. Sze, A. Landin, R. Lytel, and H. L. Davidson, “Optical interconnects: out of the box forever?” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 614–623 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tang, S.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully embedded board-level guided wave optoelectronic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 780–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

Wang, M. R.

Wang, X.

Wickman, R.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully embedded board-level guided wave optoelectronic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 780–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wu, L.

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully embedded board-level guided wave optoelectronic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 780–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Xinyuan, D.

Yang, J. J.

Yokouchi, K.

A. L. Glebov, M. G. Lee, and K. Yokouchi, “Integration technologies for pluggable backplane optical interconnect systems,” Opt. Eng. 46(1), 015403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

D. Huang, T. Sze, A. Landin, R. Lytel, and H. L. Davidson, “Optical interconnects: out of the box forever?” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 614–623 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Han, G. Kim, G. J. Lipovski, and R. T. Chen, “An optical centralized shared-bus architecture demonstrator for microprocessor-to-memory interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 512–517 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

H. Bi, X. Han, X. Chen, W. Jiang, J. Choi, and R. T. Chen, “15Gbps bit-interleaved optical backplane bus using volume photo-polymer holograms,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(20), 2165–2167 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Eng.

X. Han, G. Kim, and R. T. Chen, “Accurate diffraction efficiency control for multiplexed volume holographic gratings,” Opt. Eng. 41(11), 2799–2802 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Glebov, M. G. Lee, and K. Yokouchi, “Integration technologies for pluggable backplane optical interconnect systems,” Opt. Eng. 46(1), 015403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Proc. IEEE

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. J. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, J. Bristow, and Y. S. Liu, “Fully embedded board-level guided wave optoelectronic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 780–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Tan, P. Rosenberg, J. S. Yeo, M. McLaren, S. Mathai, T. Morris, J. Straznicky, N. P. Jouppi, H. P. Kuo, S. Wang, S. Lerner, P. Kornilovich, N. Meyer, R. Bicknell, C. Otis, and L. Seals, “A high-speed optical multi-drop bus for computer interconnections,” in 16th IEEE Symposium on High Performance Interconnects (2008).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic view of the 3-to-3 optical bus architecture (b) Intra-plane surface normal interconnection using 45°micro-mirror.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Throughput optical power for waveguides with different radius.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Schematics of the optical bus connection, (b) Coupling ratio as a function of the bus width W.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Power splitting ratio as a function of the width of the two branch waveguides.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic view of the optical bus pre-mold and Ni mold fabrication with 45° tilted surfaces.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

SEM image of (a)SU-8 pre-mold of Y-branch splitter/coupler, (b) metal Ni mold. (c) Statistics of SU-8 pre-mold slant angle and (d) Statistics of metal Ni mold slant angle.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

UV imprint process to fabricate the polymeric optical bus waveguide using the Ni metal hard mold.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

SEM images of the optical bus waveguide after UV imprint. (a) Input node, Y splitter and 45° micro-mirror (b) Junction of the branch with the bus.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Insertion loss measurement and (b) High speed measurement setup for the bus waveguide.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Eye-diagrams of the optical bus waveguide measured at (a) 1Gbps and (b) 10Gbps.

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