Abstract

In this paper, the self-consistent solution of Schrödinger-Poisson equations was realized to estimate the radiative recombination coefficient and the lifetime of a single blue light InGaN/GaN quantum well (QW). The results revealed that the recombination rate was not in proportion to the total injected carriers, and thus the Bnp item was not an accurate method to analyze the recombination process. Carrier screening and band filling effects were also investigated, and an extended Shockley-Read-Hall coefficient A(kt) with a statistical weight factor due to the carrier distributions in real and phase space of the QW was proposed to estimate the total nonradative current loss including carrier nonradiative recombination, leakage and spillover to explain the efficiency droop behaviors. Without consideration of the Auger recombination, the blue shift of the electroluminescence spectrum, light output power and efficiency droop curves as a function of injected current were all investigated and compared with the experimental data of a high brightness blue light InGaN/GaN multiple QWs light emitting diode to confirm the reliability of our theoretical hypothesis.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. S. Nakamura, “Current status of GaN-based solid-state lighting,” MRS Bull. 34(02), 101–107 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Auger recombination rates in nitrides from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191109 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. F. Gardner, G. O. Müller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Götz, and M. R. Krames, “Blue-emitting InGaN–GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243506 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, B. Pasenow, S. W. Koch, M. Sabathil, N. Linder, and S. Lutgen, “On the importance of radiative and Auger losses in GaN-based quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 261103 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, and E. Bellotti, “A numerical study of Auger recombination in bulk InGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 231118 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Density-activated defect recombination as a possible explanation for the efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221106 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Q. Dai, M. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Internal quantum efficiency and nonradiative recombination coefficient of GaInN/GaN multiple quantum wells with different dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(11), 111109 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Akita, T. Kyono, Y. Yoshizumi, H. Kitabayashi, and K. Katayama, “Improvements of external quantum efficiency of InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes at high current density using GaN substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(3), 033104 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. N. I. Bochkareva, V. V. Voronenkov, R. I. Gorbunov, A. S. Zubrilov, Y. S. Lelikov, P. E. Latyshev, Y. T. Rebane, A. I. Tsyuk, and Y. G. Shreter, “Defect-related tunneling mechanism of efficiency droop in III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133502 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Ü. Özgür, H. Liu, X. Li, X. Ni, and H. Morkoç, “GaN-based light emitting diodes: efficiency at high injection levels,” Proc. IEEE 98(7), 1180–1196 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Yang, X. A. Cao, and C. H. Yan, “Rapid efficiency roll-off in high-quality green light-emitting diodes on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041117 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. Monemar and B. E. Sernelius, “Defect related issues in the ‘current roll-off’ in InGaN based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181103 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. I. A. Pope, P. M. Smowton, P. Blood, J. D. Thomson, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Carrier leakage in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes emitting at 480 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2755 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Hori, D. Yasunaga, A. Satake, and K. Fujiwara, “Temperature dependence of electroluminescence intensity of green and blue InGaN single-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(22), 3723 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. S. Kim, J. H. Kim, S. J. Jung, Y. J. Park, and S. N. Cho, “Stable temperature characteristics of InGaN blue light emitting diodes using AlGaN/GaN/InGaN superlattices as electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(9), 091104 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S.-H. Han, D.-Y. Lee, S.-J. Lee, C.-Y. Cho, M.-K. Kwon, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, D.-J. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Effect of electron blocking layer on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231123 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. H. Son and J.-L. Lee, “Strain engineering for the solution of efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5466–5471 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. S. L. Chuang and C. S. Chang, “k•p method for strained wurtzite semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 54(4), 2491–2504 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  21. L. Wang, R. Li, Z. Yang, D. Li, T. Yu, N. Liu, L. Liu, W. Chen, and X. Hu, “High spontaneous emission rate asymmetrically graded 480nm InGaN/GaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(21), 211104 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001)InGaN∕GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 053502 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  23. F. Bernardini and V. Fiorentini, “Nonlinear behavior of spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization in III–V nitride alloys,” Phys. Status Solidi A 190(1), 65–73 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. Hangleiter, F. Hitzel, C. Netzel, D. Fuhrmann, U. Rossow, G. Ade, and P. Hinze, “Suppression of nonradiative recombination by V-shaped pits in GaInN/GaN quantum wells produces a large increase in the light emission efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(12), 127402 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(10), 2217–2225 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (7)

F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, and E. Bellotti, “A numerical study of Auger recombination in bulk InGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 231118 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Density-activated defect recombination as a possible explanation for the efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. I. Bochkareva, V. V. Voronenkov, R. I. Gorbunov, A. S. Zubrilov, Y. S. Lelikov, P. E. Latyshev, Y. T. Rebane, A. I. Tsyuk, and Y. G. Shreter, “Defect-related tunneling mechanism of efficiency droop in III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ü. Özgür, H. Liu, X. Li, X. Ni, and H. Morkoç, “GaN-based light emitting diodes: efficiency at high injection levels,” Proc. IEEE 98(7), 1180–1196 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Kim, J. H. Kim, S. J. Jung, Y. J. Park, and S. N. Cho, “Stable temperature characteristics of InGaN blue light emitting diodes using AlGaN/GaN/InGaN superlattices as electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(9), 091104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Son and J.-L. Lee, “Strain engineering for the solution of efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5466–5471 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(10), 2217–2225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (6)

L. Wang, R. Li, Z. Yang, D. Li, T. Yu, N. Liu, L. Liu, W. Chen, and X. Hu, “High spontaneous emission rate asymmetrically graded 480nm InGaN/GaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(21), 211104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Han, D.-Y. Lee, S.-J. Lee, C.-Y. Cho, M.-K. Kwon, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, D.-J. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Effect of electron blocking layer on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yang, X. A. Cao, and C. H. Yan, “Rapid efficiency roll-off in high-quality green light-emitting diodes on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Dai, M. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Internal quantum efficiency and nonradiative recombination coefficient of GaInN/GaN multiple quantum wells with different dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(11), 111109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, “Current status of GaN-based solid-state lighting,” MRS Bull. 34(02), 101–107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Auger recombination rates in nitrides from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, B. Pasenow, S. W. Koch, M. Sabathil, N. Linder, and S. Lutgen, “On the importance of radiative and Auger losses in GaN-based quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 261103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001)InGaN∕GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 053502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Monemar and B. E. Sernelius, “Defect related issues in the ‘current roll-off’ in InGaN based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Gardner, G. O. Müller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Götz, and M. R. Krames, “Blue-emitting InGaN–GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Akita, T. Kyono, Y. Yoshizumi, H. Kitabayashi, and K. Katayama, “Improvements of external quantum efficiency of InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes at high current density using GaN substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(3), 033104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hangleiter, F. Hitzel, C. Netzel, D. Fuhrmann, U. Rossow, G. Ade, and P. Hinze, “Suppression of nonradiative recombination by V-shaped pits in GaInN/GaN quantum wells produces a large increase in the light emission efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(12), 127402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

I. A. Pope, P. M. Smowton, P. Blood, J. D. Thomson, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Carrier leakage in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes emitting at 480 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2755 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

F. Bernardini and V. Fiorentini, “Nonlinear behavior of spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization in III–V nitride alloys,” Phys. Status Solidi A 190(1), 65–73 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

A. Hori, D. Yasunaga, A. Satake, and K. Fujiwara, “Temperature dependence of electroluminescence intensity of green and blue InGaN single-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(22), 3723 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. L. Chuang and C. S. Chang, “k•p method for strained wurtzite semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 54(4), 2491–2504 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ade, G.

A. Hangleiter, F. Hitzel, C. Netzel, D. Fuhrmann, U. Rossow, G. Ade, and P. Hinze, “Suppression of nonradiative recombination by V-shaped pits in GaInN/GaN quantum wells produces a large increase in the light emission efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(12), 127402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akita, K.

K. Akita, T. Kyono, Y. Yoshizumi, H. Kitabayashi, and K. Katayama, “Improvements of external quantum efficiency of InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes at high current density using GaN substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(3), 033104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Banas, M. A.

Q. Dai, M. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Internal quantum efficiency and nonradiative recombination coefficient of GaInN/GaN multiple quantum wells with different dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(11), 111109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bellotti, E.

F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, and E. Bellotti, “A numerical study of Auger recombination in bulk InGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 231118 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bernardini, F.

F. Bernardini and V. Fiorentini, “Nonlinear behavior of spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization in III–V nitride alloys,” Phys. Status Solidi A 190(1), 65–73 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bertazzi, F.

F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, and E. Bellotti, “A numerical study of Auger recombination in bulk InGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 231118 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Blood, P.

I. A. Pope, P. M. Smowton, P. Blood, J. D. Thomson, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Carrier leakage in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes emitting at 480 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2755 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bochkareva, N. I.

N. I. Bochkareva, V. V. Voronenkov, R. I. Gorbunov, A. S. Zubrilov, Y. S. Lelikov, P. E. Latyshev, Y. T. Rebane, A. I. Tsyuk, and Y. G. Shreter, “Defect-related tunneling mechanism of efficiency droop in III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cao, X. A.

Y. Yang, X. A. Cao, and C. H. Yan, “Rapid efficiency roll-off in high-quality green light-emitting diodes on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. S.

S. L. Chuang and C. S. Chang, “k•p method for strained wurtzite semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 54(4), 2491–2504 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

N. F. Gardner, G. O. Müller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Götz, and M. R. Krames, “Blue-emitting InGaN–GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

L. Wang, R. Li, Z. Yang, D. Li, T. Yu, N. Liu, L. Liu, W. Chen, and X. Hu, “High spontaneous emission rate asymmetrically graded 480nm InGaN/GaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(21), 211104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cho, C.-Y.

S.-H. Han, D.-Y. Lee, S.-J. Lee, C.-Y. Cho, M.-K. Kwon, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, D.-J. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Effect of electron blocking layer on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S. N.

K. S. Kim, J. H. Kim, S. J. Jung, Y. J. Park, and S. N. Cho, “Stable temperature characteristics of InGaN blue light emitting diodes using AlGaN/GaN/InGaN superlattices as electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(9), 091104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, S. L.

S. L. Chuang and C. S. Chang, “k•p method for strained wurtzite semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 54(4), 2491–2504 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, M. H.

Q. Dai, M. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Internal quantum efficiency and nonradiative recombination coefficient of GaInN/GaN multiple quantum wells with different dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(11), 111109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Q.

Q. Dai, M. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Internal quantum efficiency and nonradiative recombination coefficient of GaInN/GaN multiple quantum wells with different dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(11), 111109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

David, A.

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001)InGaN∕GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 053502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Delaney, K. T.

K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Auger recombination rates in nitrides from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fiorentini, V.

F. Bernardini and V. Fiorentini, “Nonlinear behavior of spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization in III–V nitride alloys,” Phys. Status Solidi A 190(1), 65–73 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, A. J.

Q. Dai, M. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Internal quantum efficiency and nonradiative recombination coefficient of GaInN/GaN multiple quantum wells with different dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(11), 111109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fuhrmann, D.

A. Hangleiter, F. Hitzel, C. Netzel, D. Fuhrmann, U. Rossow, G. Ade, and P. Hinze, “Suppression of nonradiative recombination by V-shaped pits in GaInN/GaN quantum wells produces a large increase in the light emission efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(12), 127402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujiwara, K.

A. Hori, D. Yasunaga, A. Satake, and K. Fujiwara, “Temperature dependence of electroluminescence intensity of green and blue InGaN single-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(22), 3723 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, N. F.

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001)InGaN∕GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 053502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Gardner, G. O. Müller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Götz, and M. R. Krames, “Blue-emitting InGaN–GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Goano, M.

F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, and E. Bellotti, “A numerical study of Auger recombination in bulk InGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 231118 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gorbunov, R. I.

N. I. Bochkareva, V. V. Voronenkov, R. I. Gorbunov, A. S. Zubrilov, Y. S. Lelikov, P. E. Latyshev, Y. T. Rebane, A. I. Tsyuk, and Y. G. Shreter, “Defect-related tunneling mechanism of efficiency droop in III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Götz, W.

N. F. Gardner, G. O. Müller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Götz, and M. R. Krames, “Blue-emitting InGaN–GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grundmann, M. J.

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001)InGaN∕GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 053502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hader, J.

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Density-activated defect recombination as a possible explanation for the efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, B. Pasenow, S. W. Koch, M. Sabathil, N. Linder, and S. Lutgen, “On the importance of radiative and Auger losses in GaN-based quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 261103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Han, S.-H.

S.-H. Han, D.-Y. Lee, S.-J. Lee, C.-Y. Cho, M.-K. Kwon, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, D.-J. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Effect of electron blocking layer on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hangleiter, A.

A. Hangleiter, F. Hitzel, C. Netzel, D. Fuhrmann, U. Rossow, G. Ade, and P. Hinze, “Suppression of nonradiative recombination by V-shaped pits in GaInN/GaN quantum wells produces a large increase in the light emission efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(12), 127402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hinze, P.

A. Hangleiter, F. Hitzel, C. Netzel, D. Fuhrmann, U. Rossow, G. Ade, and P. Hinze, “Suppression of nonradiative recombination by V-shaped pits in GaInN/GaN quantum wells produces a large increase in the light emission efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(12), 127402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzel, F.

A. Hangleiter, F. Hitzel, C. Netzel, D. Fuhrmann, U. Rossow, G. Ade, and P. Hinze, “Suppression of nonradiative recombination by V-shaped pits in GaInN/GaN quantum wells produces a large increase in the light emission efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(12), 127402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hori, A.

A. Hori, D. Yasunaga, A. Satake, and K. Fujiwara, “Temperature dependence of electroluminescence intensity of green and blue InGaN single-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(22), 3723 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hu, X.

L. Wang, R. Li, Z. Yang, D. Li, T. Yu, N. Liu, L. Liu, W. Chen, and X. Hu, “High spontaneous emission rate asymmetrically graded 480nm InGaN/GaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(21), 211104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Humphreys, C. J.

I. A. Pope, P. M. Smowton, P. Blood, J. D. Thomson, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Carrier leakage in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes emitting at 480 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2755 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jung, S. J.

K. S. Kim, J. H. Kim, S. J. Jung, Y. J. Park, and S. N. Cho, “Stable temperature characteristics of InGaN blue light emitting diodes using AlGaN/GaN/InGaN superlattices as electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(9), 091104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kaeding, J. F.

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001)InGaN∕GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 053502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kappers, M. J.

I. A. Pope, P. M. Smowton, P. Blood, J. D. Thomson, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Carrier leakage in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes emitting at 480 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2755 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Katayama, K.

K. Akita, T. Kyono, Y. Yoshizumi, H. Kitabayashi, and K. Katayama, “Improvements of external quantum efficiency of InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes at high current density using GaN substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(3), 033104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.-J.

S.-H. Han, D.-Y. Lee, S.-J. Lee, C.-Y. Cho, M.-K. Kwon, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, D.-J. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Effect of electron blocking layer on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. H.

K. S. Kim, J. H. Kim, S. J. Jung, Y. J. Park, and S. N. Cho, “Stable temperature characteristics of InGaN blue light emitting diodes using AlGaN/GaN/InGaN superlattices as electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(9), 091104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

Q. Dai, M. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Internal quantum efficiency and nonradiative recombination coefficient of GaInN/GaN multiple quantum wells with different dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(11), 111109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, K. S.

K. S. Kim, J. H. Kim, S. J. Jung, Y. J. Park, and S. N. Cho, “Stable temperature characteristics of InGaN blue light emitting diodes using AlGaN/GaN/InGaN superlattices as electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(9), 091104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M. H.

Q. Dai, M. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Internal quantum efficiency and nonradiative recombination coefficient of GaInN/GaN multiple quantum wells with different dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(11), 111109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. C.

S.-H. Han, D.-Y. Lee, S.-J. Lee, C.-Y. Cho, M.-K. Kwon, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, D.-J. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Effect of electron blocking layer on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kitabayashi, H.

K. Akita, T. Kyono, Y. Yoshizumi, H. Kitabayashi, and K. Katayama, “Improvements of external quantum efficiency of InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes at high current density using GaN substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(3), 033104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koch, S. W.

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Density-activated defect recombination as a possible explanation for the efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, B. Pasenow, S. W. Koch, M. Sabathil, N. Linder, and S. Lutgen, “On the importance of radiative and Auger losses in GaN-based quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 261103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Koleske, D. D.

Q. Dai, M. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Internal quantum efficiency and nonradiative recombination coefficient of GaInN/GaN multiple quantum wells with different dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(11), 111109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krames, M. R.

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001)InGaN∕GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 053502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Gardner, G. O. Müller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Götz, and M. R. Krames, “Blue-emitting InGaN–GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, M.-K.

S.-H. Han, D.-Y. Lee, S.-J. Lee, C.-Y. Cho, M.-K. Kwon, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, D.-J. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Effect of electron blocking layer on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kyono, T.

K. Akita, T. Kyono, Y. Yoshizumi, H. Kitabayashi, and K. Katayama, “Improvements of external quantum efficiency of InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes at high current density using GaN substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(3), 033104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Latyshev, P. E.

N. I. Bochkareva, V. V. Voronenkov, R. I. Gorbunov, A. S. Zubrilov, Y. S. Lelikov, P. E. Latyshev, Y. T. Rebane, A. I. Tsyuk, and Y. G. Shreter, “Defect-related tunneling mechanism of efficiency droop in III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D.-Y.

S.-H. Han, D.-Y. Lee, S.-J. Lee, C.-Y. Cho, M.-K. Kwon, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, D.-J. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Effect of electron blocking layer on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-L.

Lee, S. P.

S.-H. Han, D.-Y. Lee, S.-J. Lee, C.-Y. Cho, M.-K. Kwon, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, D.-J. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Effect of electron blocking layer on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. R.

Q. Dai, M. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Internal quantum efficiency and nonradiative recombination coefficient of GaInN/GaN multiple quantum wells with different dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(11), 111109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-J.

S.-H. Han, D.-Y. Lee, S.-J. Lee, C.-Y. Cho, M.-K. Kwon, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, D.-J. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Effect of electron blocking layer on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lelikov, Y. S.

N. I. Bochkareva, V. V. Voronenkov, R. I. Gorbunov, A. S. Zubrilov, Y. S. Lelikov, P. E. Latyshev, Y. T. Rebane, A. I. Tsyuk, and Y. G. Shreter, “Defect-related tunneling mechanism of efficiency droop in III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, D.

L. Wang, R. Li, Z. Yang, D. Li, T. Yu, N. Liu, L. Liu, W. Chen, and X. Hu, “High spontaneous emission rate asymmetrically graded 480nm InGaN/GaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(21), 211104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, R.

L. Wang, R. Li, Z. Yang, D. Li, T. Yu, N. Liu, L. Liu, W. Chen, and X. Hu, “High spontaneous emission rate asymmetrically graded 480nm InGaN/GaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(21), 211104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

Ü. Özgür, H. Liu, X. Li, X. Ni, and H. Morkoç, “GaN-based light emitting diodes: efficiency at high injection levels,” Proc. IEEE 98(7), 1180–1196 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Linder, N.

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, B. Pasenow, S. W. Koch, M. Sabathil, N. Linder, and S. Lutgen, “On the importance of radiative and Auger losses in GaN-based quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 261103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

Ü. Özgür, H. Liu, X. Li, X. Ni, and H. Morkoç, “GaN-based light emitting diodes: efficiency at high injection levels,” Proc. IEEE 98(7), 1180–1196 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

L. Wang, R. Li, Z. Yang, D. Li, T. Yu, N. Liu, L. Liu, W. Chen, and X. Hu, “High spontaneous emission rate asymmetrically graded 480nm InGaN/GaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(21), 211104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, N.

L. Wang, R. Li, Z. Yang, D. Li, T. Yu, N. Liu, L. Liu, W. Chen, and X. Hu, “High spontaneous emission rate asymmetrically graded 480nm InGaN/GaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(21), 211104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lutgen, S.

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, B. Pasenow, S. W. Koch, M. Sabathil, N. Linder, and S. Lutgen, “On the importance of radiative and Auger losses in GaN-based quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 261103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mihopoulos, T. G.

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001)InGaN∕GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 053502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moloney, J. V.

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Density-activated defect recombination as a possible explanation for the efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, B. Pasenow, S. W. Koch, M. Sabathil, N. Linder, and S. Lutgen, “On the importance of radiative and Auger losses in GaN-based quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 261103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Monemar, B.

B. Monemar and B. E. Sernelius, “Defect related issues in the ‘current roll-off’ in InGaN based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Morkoç, H.

Ü. Özgür, H. Liu, X. Li, X. Ni, and H. Morkoç, “GaN-based light emitting diodes: efficiency at high injection levels,” Proc. IEEE 98(7), 1180–1196 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, G. O.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Müller, G. O.

N. F. Gardner, G. O. Müller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Götz, and M. R. Krames, “Blue-emitting InGaN–GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Munkholm, A.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

S. Nakamura, “Current status of GaN-based solid-state lighting,” MRS Bull. 34(02), 101–107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Netzel, C.

A. Hangleiter, F. Hitzel, C. Netzel, D. Fuhrmann, U. Rossow, G. Ade, and P. Hinze, “Suppression of nonradiative recombination by V-shaped pits in GaInN/GaN quantum wells produces a large increase in the light emission efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(12), 127402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ni, X.

Ü. Özgür, H. Liu, X. Li, X. Ni, and H. Morkoç, “GaN-based light emitting diodes: efficiency at high injection levels,” Proc. IEEE 98(7), 1180–1196 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Noh, D. Y.

S.-H. Han, D.-Y. Lee, S.-J. Lee, C.-Y. Cho, M.-K. Kwon, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, D.-J. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Effect of electron blocking layer on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Özgür, Ü.

Ü. Özgür, H. Liu, X. Li, X. Ni, and H. Morkoç, “GaN-based light emitting diodes: efficiency at high injection levels,” Proc. IEEE 98(7), 1180–1196 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.-J.

S.-H. Han, D.-Y. Lee, S.-J. Lee, C.-Y. Cho, M.-K. Kwon, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, D.-J. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Effect of electron blocking layer on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231123 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y. J.

K. S. Kim, J. H. Kim, S. J. Jung, Y. J. Park, and S. N. Cho, “Stable temperature characteristics of InGaN blue light emitting diodes using AlGaN/GaN/InGaN superlattices as electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(9), 091104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pasenow, B.

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, B. Pasenow, S. W. Koch, M. Sabathil, N. Linder, and S. Lutgen, “On the importance of radiative and Auger losses in GaN-based quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 261103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Piprek, J.

J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(10), 2217–2225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pope, I. A.

I. A. Pope, P. M. Smowton, P. Blood, J. D. Thomson, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Carrier leakage in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes emitting at 480 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2755 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rebane, Y. T.

N. I. Bochkareva, V. V. Voronenkov, R. I. Gorbunov, A. S. Zubrilov, Y. S. Lelikov, P. E. Latyshev, Y. T. Rebane, A. I. Tsyuk, and Y. G. Shreter, “Defect-related tunneling mechanism of efficiency droop in III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rinke, P.

K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Auger recombination rates in nitrides from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rossow, U.

A. Hangleiter, F. Hitzel, C. Netzel, D. Fuhrmann, U. Rossow, G. Ade, and P. Hinze, “Suppression of nonradiative recombination by V-shaped pits in GaInN/GaN quantum wells produces a large increase in the light emission efficiency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(12), 127402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sabathil, M.

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, B. Pasenow, S. W. Koch, M. Sabathil, N. Linder, and S. Lutgen, “On the importance of radiative and Auger losses in GaN-based quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 261103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Satake, A.

A. Hori, D. Yasunaga, A. Satake, and K. Fujiwara, “Temperature dependence of electroluminescence intensity of green and blue InGaN single-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(22), 3723 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

Q. Dai, M. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Internal quantum efficiency and nonradiative recombination coefficient of GaInN/GaN multiple quantum wells with different dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(11), 111109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schubert, M. F.

Q. Dai, M. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Internal quantum efficiency and nonradiative recombination coefficient of GaInN/GaN multiple quantum wells with different dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(11), 111109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sernelius, B. E.

B. Monemar and B. E. Sernelius, “Defect related issues in the ‘current roll-off’ in InGaN based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. C.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Gardner, G. O. Müller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Götz, and M. R. Krames, “Blue-emitting InGaN–GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shreter, Y. G.

N. I. Bochkareva, V. V. Voronenkov, R. I. Gorbunov, A. S. Zubrilov, Y. S. Lelikov, P. E. Latyshev, Y. T. Rebane, A. I. Tsyuk, and Y. G. Shreter, “Defect-related tunneling mechanism of efficiency droop in III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Smowton, P. M.

I. A. Pope, P. M. Smowton, P. Blood, J. D. Thomson, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Carrier leakage in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes emitting at 480 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2755 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Son, J. H.

Thaler, G.

Q. Dai, M. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Internal quantum efficiency and nonradiative recombination coefficient of GaInN/GaN multiple quantum wells with different dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(11), 111109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, J. D.

I. A. Pope, P. M. Smowton, P. Blood, J. D. Thomson, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Carrier leakage in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes emitting at 480 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2755 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tsyuk, A. I.

N. I. Bochkareva, V. V. Voronenkov, R. I. Gorbunov, A. S. Zubrilov, Y. S. Lelikov, P. E. Latyshev, Y. T. Rebane, A. I. Tsyuk, and Y. G. Shreter, “Defect-related tunneling mechanism of efficiency droop in III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Van de Walle, C. G.

K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Auger recombination rates in nitrides from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Voronenkov, V. V.

N. I. Bochkareva, V. V. Voronenkov, R. I. Gorbunov, A. S. Zubrilov, Y. S. Lelikov, P. E. Latyshev, Y. T. Rebane, A. I. Tsyuk, and Y. G. Shreter, “Defect-related tunneling mechanism of efficiency droop in III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, R. Li, Z. Yang, D. Li, T. Yu, N. Liu, L. Liu, W. Chen, and X. Hu, “High spontaneous emission rate asymmetrically graded 480nm InGaN/GaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(21), 211104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, S.

N. F. Gardner, G. O. Müller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Götz, and M. R. Krames, “Blue-emitting InGaN–GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yan, C. H.

Y. Yang, X. A. Cao, and C. H. Yan, “Rapid efficiency roll-off in high-quality green light-emitting diodes on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

Y. Yang, X. A. Cao, and C. H. Yan, “Rapid efficiency roll-off in high-quality green light-emitting diodes on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z.

L. Wang, R. Li, Z. Yang, D. Li, T. Yu, N. Liu, L. Liu, W. Chen, and X. Hu, “High spontaneous emission rate asymmetrically graded 480nm InGaN/GaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(21), 211104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yasunaga, D.

A. Hori, D. Yasunaga, A. Satake, and K. Fujiwara, “Temperature dependence of electroluminescence intensity of green and blue InGaN single-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(22), 3723 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yoshizumi, Y.

K. Akita, T. Kyono, Y. Yoshizumi, H. Kitabayashi, and K. Katayama, “Improvements of external quantum efficiency of InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes at high current density using GaN substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(3), 033104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, T.

L. Wang, R. Li, Z. Yang, D. Li, T. Yu, N. Liu, L. Liu, W. Chen, and X. Hu, “High spontaneous emission rate asymmetrically graded 480nm InGaN/GaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(21), 211104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zubrilov, A. S.

N. I. Bochkareva, V. V. Voronenkov, R. I. Gorbunov, A. S. Zubrilov, Y. S. Lelikov, P. E. Latyshev, Y. T. Rebane, A. I. Tsyuk, and Y. G. Shreter, “Defect-related tunneling mechanism of efficiency droop in III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (16)

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Auger recombination rates in nitrides from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Gardner, G. O. Müller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Götz, and M. R. Krames, “Blue-emitting InGaN–GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, B. Pasenow, S. W. Koch, M. Sabathil, N. Linder, and S. Lutgen, “On the importance of radiative and Auger losses in GaN-based quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 261103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, and E. Bellotti, “A numerical study of Auger recombination in bulk InGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 231118 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Density-activated defect recombination as a possible explanation for the efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Dai, M. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Internal quantum efficiency and nonradiative recombination coefficient of GaInN/GaN multiple quantum wells with different dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(11), 111109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. I. Bochkareva, V. V. Voronenkov, R. I. Gorbunov, A. S. Zubrilov, Y. S. Lelikov, P. E. Latyshev, Y. T. Rebane, A. I. Tsyuk, and Y. G. Shreter, “Defect-related tunneling mechanism of efficiency droop in III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yang, X. A. Cao, and C. H. Yan, “Rapid efficiency roll-off in high-quality green light-emitting diodes on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Monemar and B. E. Sernelius, “Defect related issues in the ‘current roll-off’ in InGaN based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Pope, P. M. Smowton, P. Blood, J. D. Thomson, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “Carrier leakage in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes emitting at 480 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2755 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Energy band profiles, subbands and wave functions of the single QW. (b) The occupancy percentages of electron and hole carriers in first conduct and valence subbands as a function of injected carrier densities.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Normalized electron distribution in the e1 subband with different injected carrier densities. E(kt = 0) represents the ground energy state of e1 subband. (b) Illustration of potential carrier loss channels, such as radiative recombination, nonradiative recombination, leakage and spillover.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulated variations of (a) the radiative recombination lifetime τr and coefficient B, and (b) total carrier nonradiative loss lifetime τnonr as a function of injected carrier density.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison between theoretical simulated (a) blue shift of EL spectrum, (b) light output power, (c) efficiency droop and experimental data of an actual high brightness blue light InGaN/GaN MQWs LED chip.

Equations (1)

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J n o n r = 2 q e L A ( k t ) k t d k t 2 π f c ( k t )

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