Abstract

Zinc oxide (ZnO), including a variety of metal-doped ZnO, as one kind of most important photoelectric materials, has been widely investigated and received enormous attention for a series of applications. In this work, we report a new finding which we call as lateral photovoltaic effect (LPE) in a nano Al-doped ZnO (ZAO) film based on ZAO/SiO2/Si homo-heterostructure. This large and stable LPE observed in ZAO is an important supplement to the existing ZnO properties. In addition, all data and analyses demonstrate ZAO film can also be a good candidate for new type position-sensitive detector (PSD) devices.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Dietl, H. Ohno, F. Matsukura, J. Cibert, and D. Ferrand, “Zener model description of ferromagnetism in zinc-blende magnetic semiconductors,” Science 287(5455), 1019–1022 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. Cho, J. Ma, Y. Kim, Y. Sun, G. K. L. Wong, and J. B. Ketterson, “Photoluminescence and ultraviolet lasing of polycrystalline ZnO thin films prepared by the oxidation of the metallic Zn,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(18), 2761–2763 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. I.-S. Jeong, J. H. Kim, and S. Im, “Ultraviolet-enhanced photodiode employing n-ZnO/p-Si structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2946–2948 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Muthukumar, C. R. Gorla, N. W. Emanetoglu, S. Liang, and Y. Lu, “Control of morphology and orientation of ZnO thin films grown on SiO2/Si substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 225(2-4), 197–201 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Q. Xu, Q. Y. Pan, Y. A. Shun, and Z. Z. Tian, “Grain size control and gas sensing properties of ZnO gas sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 66(1-3), 277–279 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. G. Van de Walle, “Hydrogen as a cause of doping in zinc oxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(5), 1012–1015 (2000).
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  8. S. Kohiki, M. Nishitani, T. Wada, and T. Hirao, “Enhanced conductivity of zinc oxide thin films by ion implantation of hydrogen atoms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(21), 2876–2878 (1994).
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  9. S.-M. Park, T. Ikegami, and K. Ebihara, “Effects of substrate temperature on the properties of Ga-doped ZnO by pulsed laser deposition,” Thin Solid Films 513(1-2), 90–94 (2006).
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  10. Z. R. Tian, J. A. Voigt, J. Liu, B. McKenzie, M. J. McDermott, M. A. Rodriguez, H. Konishi, and H. Xu, “Complex and oriented ZnO nanostructures,” Nat. Mater. 2(12), 821–826 (2003).
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    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Blumstengel, S. Sadofev, J. Puls, and F. Henneberger, “An inorganic/organic semiconductor “sandwich” structure grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Adv. Mater. 21(47), 4850–4853 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. B. S. Chun, H. C. Wu, M. Abid, I. C. Chu, S. Serrano-Guisan, I. V. Shvets, and D. S. Choi, “The effect of deposition power on the electrical properties of Al-doped zinc oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 082109–082111 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  29. R. Martins and E. Fortunato, “Role of the resistive layer on the performances of 2D a-Si: H thin film position sensitive detectors,” Thin Solid Films 337(1-2), 158–162 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  30. E. Fortunato, G. Lavareda, R. Martins, F. Soares, and L. Fernandes, “Large-area 1D thin-film position sensitive detector with high detection resolution,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 51(2-3), 135–142 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. C. Q. Yu, H. Wang, and Y. X. Xia, “Giant lateral photovoltaic effect observed in TiO2 dusted metal-semiconductor structure of Ti/TiO2/Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 3506–3508 (2009).

2010

B. S. Chun, H. C. Wu, M. Abid, I. C. Chu, S. Serrano-Guisan, I. V. Shvets, and D. S. Choi, “The effect of deposition power on the electrical properties of Al-doped zinc oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 082109–082111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Du and H. Wang, “Infrared laser induced lateral photovoltaic effect observed in Cu(2)O nanoscale film,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9113–9118 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

C. Q. Yu, H. Wang, and Y. X. Xia, “Giant lateral photovoltaic effect observed in TiO2 dusted metal-semiconductor structure of Ti/TiO2/Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 3506–3508 (2009).

C. Q. Yu, H. Wang, and Y. X. Xia, “Giant lateral photovoltaic effect observed in TiO2 dusted metal-semiconductor structure of Ti/TiO2/Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Blumstengel, S. Sadofev, J. Puls, and F. Henneberger, “An inorganic/organic semiconductor “sandwich” structure grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Adv. Mater. 21(47), 4850–4853 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

2007

K. J. Jin, H.-B. Zhao, H.-B. Lu, L. Liao, and G.-Z. Yang, “Dember effect induced photovoltage in perovskite p-n heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Bamiduro, H. Mustafa, R. Mundle, R. B. Konda, and A. K. Pradhan, “Metal-like conductivity in transparent Al:ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 252108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

S. Sadofev, S. Blumstengel, J. Cui, J. Puls, S. Rogaschewski, P. Schäfer, and F. Henneberger, “Visible band-gap ZnCdO heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201907 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S.-M. Park, T. Ikegami, and K. Ebihara, “Effects of substrate temperature on the properties of Ga-doped ZnO by pulsed laser deposition,” Thin Solid Films 513(1-2), 90–94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003

Z. R. Tian, J. A. Voigt, J. Liu, B. McKenzie, M. J. McDermott, M. A. Rodriguez, H. Konishi, and H. Xu, “Complex and oriented ZnO nanostructures,” Nat. Mater. 2(12), 821–826 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I.-S. Jeong, J. H. Kim, and S. Im, “Ultraviolet-enhanced photodiode employing n-ZnO/p-Si structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2946–2948 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Jiang, F. L. Wong, M. K. Fung, and S. T. Lee, “Aluminum-doped zinc oxide films as transparent conductive electrode for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1875–1877 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

S. Muthukumar, C. R. Gorla, N. W. Emanetoglu, S. Liang, and Y. Lu, “Control of morphology and orientation of ZnO thin films grown on SiO2/Si substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 225(2-4), 197–201 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Henry and J. Livingstone, “Electron-beam fabricated titanium and indium tin oxide position-sensitive detectors,” Int. J. Electron. 88(10), 1057–1065 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Henry and J. Livingstone, “A comparative study of position-sensitive detectors based on Schottky barrier crystalline and amorphous silicon structures,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 12(7), 387–393 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

J. Q. Xu, Q. Y. Pan, Y. A. Shun, and Z. Z. Tian, “Grain size control and gas sensing properties of ZnO gas sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 66(1-3), 277–279 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Van de Walle, “Hydrogen as a cause of doping in zinc oxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(5), 1012–1015 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Dietl, H. Ohno, F. Matsukura, J. Cibert, and D. Ferrand, “Zener model description of ferromagnetism in zinc-blende magnetic semiconductors,” Science 287(5455), 1019–1022 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

S. Cho, J. Ma, Y. Kim, Y. Sun, G. K. L. Wong, and J. B. Ketterson, “Photoluminescence and ultraviolet lasing of polycrystalline ZnO thin films prepared by the oxidation of the metallic Zn,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(18), 2761–2763 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Martins and E. Fortunato, “Role of the resistive layer on the performances of 2D a-Si: H thin film position sensitive detectors,” Thin Solid Films 337(1-2), 158–162 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

R. F. Service, “Materials science: will UV lasers beat the blues?” Science 276(5314), 895 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

E. Fortunato, G. Lavareda, R. Martins, F. Soares, and L. Fernandes, “Large-area 1D thin-film position sensitive detector with high detection resolution,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 51(2-3), 135–142 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

S. Kohiki, M. Nishitani, T. Wada, and T. Hirao, “Enhanced conductivity of zinc oxide thin films by ion implantation of hydrogen atoms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(21), 2876–2878 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991

J. Hu and R. G. Gordon, “Textured fluorine-doped ZnO films by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition and their use in amorphous silicon solar cells,” Sol. Cells 30(1-4), 437–450 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989

N. Tabatabaie, M. H. Meynadier, R. E. Nahory, J. P. Harbison, and L. T. Florez, “Large lateral photovoltaic effect in modulation-doped AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(8), 792–794 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986

R. H. Willens, “Photoelectronic and electronic properties of Ti/Si amorphous superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(11), 663–665 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1976

H. Niu, T. Matsuda, H. Sadamatsu, and M. Takai, “Application of lateral photovoltaic effect to the measurement of the physical quantities of P-N junctions-sheet resistivity and junction conductance of N2+ implanted Si,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 12, 4 (1976).

1971

J. I. Pankove, “Photovoltaic effect at a Schottky barrier,” Opt. Processes Semicond. 14, 314–321 (1971).

1930

W. Schottky, “Uber den entstehungsort der photoelektronen in kupfer-kupferoxydull-photozellen,” Phys. Z. 31, 913–925 (1930).

Abid, M.

B. S. Chun, H. C. Wu, M. Abid, I. C. Chu, S. Serrano-Guisan, I. V. Shvets, and D. S. Choi, “The effect of deposition power on the electrical properties of Al-doped zinc oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 082109–082111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bamiduro, O.

O. Bamiduro, H. Mustafa, R. Mundle, R. B. Konda, and A. K. Pradhan, “Metal-like conductivity in transparent Al:ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 252108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Blumstengel, S.

S. Blumstengel, S. Sadofev, J. Puls, and F. Henneberger, “An inorganic/organic semiconductor “sandwich” structure grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Adv. Mater. 21(47), 4850–4853 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sadofev, S. Blumstengel, J. Cui, J. Puls, S. Rogaschewski, P. Schäfer, and F. Henneberger, “Visible band-gap ZnCdO heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201907 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S.

S. Cho, J. Ma, Y. Kim, Y. Sun, G. K. L. Wong, and J. B. Ketterson, “Photoluminescence and ultraviolet lasing of polycrystalline ZnO thin films prepared by the oxidation of the metallic Zn,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(18), 2761–2763 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Choi, D. S.

B. S. Chun, H. C. Wu, M. Abid, I. C. Chu, S. Serrano-Guisan, I. V. Shvets, and D. S. Choi, “The effect of deposition power on the electrical properties of Al-doped zinc oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 082109–082111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chu, I. C.

B. S. Chun, H. C. Wu, M. Abid, I. C. Chu, S. Serrano-Guisan, I. V. Shvets, and D. S. Choi, “The effect of deposition power on the electrical properties of Al-doped zinc oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 082109–082111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chun, B. S.

B. S. Chun, H. C. Wu, M. Abid, I. C. Chu, S. Serrano-Guisan, I. V. Shvets, and D. S. Choi, “The effect of deposition power on the electrical properties of Al-doped zinc oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 082109–082111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cibert, J.

T. Dietl, H. Ohno, F. Matsukura, J. Cibert, and D. Ferrand, “Zener model description of ferromagnetism in zinc-blende magnetic semiconductors,” Science 287(5455), 1019–1022 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cui, J.

S. Sadofev, S. Blumstengel, J. Cui, J. Puls, S. Rogaschewski, P. Schäfer, and F. Henneberger, “Visible band-gap ZnCdO heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201907 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dietl, T.

T. Dietl, H. Ohno, F. Matsukura, J. Cibert, and D. Ferrand, “Zener model description of ferromagnetism in zinc-blende magnetic semiconductors,” Science 287(5455), 1019–1022 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Du, L.

Ebihara, K.

S.-M. Park, T. Ikegami, and K. Ebihara, “Effects of substrate temperature on the properties of Ga-doped ZnO by pulsed laser deposition,” Thin Solid Films 513(1-2), 90–94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Emanetoglu, N. W.

S. Muthukumar, C. R. Gorla, N. W. Emanetoglu, S. Liang, and Y. Lu, “Control of morphology and orientation of ZnO thin films grown on SiO2/Si substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 225(2-4), 197–201 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fernandes, L.

E. Fortunato, G. Lavareda, R. Martins, F. Soares, and L. Fernandes, “Large-area 1D thin-film position sensitive detector with high detection resolution,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 51(2-3), 135–142 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferrand, D.

T. Dietl, H. Ohno, F. Matsukura, J. Cibert, and D. Ferrand, “Zener model description of ferromagnetism in zinc-blende magnetic semiconductors,” Science 287(5455), 1019–1022 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Florez, L. T.

N. Tabatabaie, M. H. Meynadier, R. E. Nahory, J. P. Harbison, and L. T. Florez, “Large lateral photovoltaic effect in modulation-doped AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(8), 792–794 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Fortunato, E.

R. Martins and E. Fortunato, “Role of the resistive layer on the performances of 2D a-Si: H thin film position sensitive detectors,” Thin Solid Films 337(1-2), 158–162 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Fortunato, G. Lavareda, R. Martins, F. Soares, and L. Fernandes, “Large-area 1D thin-film position sensitive detector with high detection resolution,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 51(2-3), 135–142 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fung, M. K.

X. Jiang, F. L. Wong, M. K. Fung, and S. T. Lee, “Aluminum-doped zinc oxide films as transparent conductive electrode for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1875–1877 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, R. G.

J. Hu and R. G. Gordon, “Textured fluorine-doped ZnO films by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition and their use in amorphous silicon solar cells,” Sol. Cells 30(1-4), 437–450 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gorla, C. R.

S. Muthukumar, C. R. Gorla, N. W. Emanetoglu, S. Liang, and Y. Lu, “Control of morphology and orientation of ZnO thin films grown on SiO2/Si substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 225(2-4), 197–201 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gu, Y. Z.

Harbison, J. P.

N. Tabatabaie, M. H. Meynadier, R. E. Nahory, J. P. Harbison, and L. T. Florez, “Large lateral photovoltaic effect in modulation-doped AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(8), 792–794 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Henneberger, F.

S. Blumstengel, S. Sadofev, J. Puls, and F. Henneberger, “An inorganic/organic semiconductor “sandwich” structure grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Adv. Mater. 21(47), 4850–4853 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sadofev, S. Blumstengel, J. Cui, J. Puls, S. Rogaschewski, P. Schäfer, and F. Henneberger, “Visible band-gap ZnCdO heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201907 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Henry, J.

J. Henry and J. Livingstone, “Electron-beam fabricated titanium and indium tin oxide position-sensitive detectors,” Int. J. Electron. 88(10), 1057–1065 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Henry and J. Livingstone, “A comparative study of position-sensitive detectors based on Schottky barrier crystalline and amorphous silicon structures,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 12(7), 387–393 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, T.

S. Kohiki, M. Nishitani, T. Wada, and T. Hirao, “Enhanced conductivity of zinc oxide thin films by ion implantation of hydrogen atoms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(21), 2876–2878 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hu, J.

J. Hu and R. G. Gordon, “Textured fluorine-doped ZnO films by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition and their use in amorphous silicon solar cells,” Sol. Cells 30(1-4), 437–450 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ikegami, T.

S.-M. Park, T. Ikegami, and K. Ebihara, “Effects of substrate temperature on the properties of Ga-doped ZnO by pulsed laser deposition,” Thin Solid Films 513(1-2), 90–94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Im, S.

I.-S. Jeong, J. H. Kim, and S. Im, “Ultraviolet-enhanced photodiode employing n-ZnO/p-Si structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2946–2948 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, I.-S.

I.-S. Jeong, J. H. Kim, and S. Im, “Ultraviolet-enhanced photodiode employing n-ZnO/p-Si structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2946–2948 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X.

X. Jiang, F. L. Wong, M. K. Fung, and S. T. Lee, “Aluminum-doped zinc oxide films as transparent conductive electrode for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1875–1877 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jin, K. J.

K. J. Jin, H.-B. Zhao, H.-B. Lu, L. Liao, and G.-Z. Yang, “Dember effect induced photovoltage in perovskite p-n heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ketterson, J. B.

S. Cho, J. Ma, Y. Kim, Y. Sun, G. K. L. Wong, and J. B. Ketterson, “Photoluminescence and ultraviolet lasing of polycrystalline ZnO thin films prepared by the oxidation of the metallic Zn,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(18), 2761–2763 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. H.

I.-S. Jeong, J. H. Kim, and S. Im, “Ultraviolet-enhanced photodiode employing n-ZnO/p-Si structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2946–2948 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.

S. Cho, J. Ma, Y. Kim, Y. Sun, G. K. L. Wong, and J. B. Ketterson, “Photoluminescence and ultraviolet lasing of polycrystalline ZnO thin films prepared by the oxidation of the metallic Zn,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(18), 2761–2763 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kohiki, S.

S. Kohiki, M. Nishitani, T. Wada, and T. Hirao, “Enhanced conductivity of zinc oxide thin films by ion implantation of hydrogen atoms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(21), 2876–2878 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Konda, R. B.

O. Bamiduro, H. Mustafa, R. Mundle, R. B. Konda, and A. K. Pradhan, “Metal-like conductivity in transparent Al:ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 252108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Konishi, H.

Z. R. Tian, J. A. Voigt, J. Liu, B. McKenzie, M. J. McDermott, M. A. Rodriguez, H. Konishi, and H. Xu, “Complex and oriented ZnO nanostructures,” Nat. Mater. 2(12), 821–826 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lavareda, G.

E. Fortunato, G. Lavareda, R. Martins, F. Soares, and L. Fernandes, “Large-area 1D thin-film position sensitive detector with high detection resolution,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 51(2-3), 135–142 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. T.

X. Jiang, F. L. Wong, M. K. Fung, and S. T. Lee, “Aluminum-doped zinc oxide films as transparent conductive electrode for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1875–1877 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liang, S.

S. Muthukumar, C. R. Gorla, N. W. Emanetoglu, S. Liang, and Y. Lu, “Control of morphology and orientation of ZnO thin films grown on SiO2/Si substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 225(2-4), 197–201 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liao, L.

K. J. Jin, H.-B. Zhao, H.-B. Lu, L. Liao, and G.-Z. Yang, “Dember effect induced photovoltage in perovskite p-n heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

Z. R. Tian, J. A. Voigt, J. Liu, B. McKenzie, M. J. McDermott, M. A. Rodriguez, H. Konishi, and H. Xu, “Complex and oriented ZnO nanostructures,” Nat. Mater. 2(12), 821–826 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Livingstone, J.

J. Henry and J. Livingstone, “Electron-beam fabricated titanium and indium tin oxide position-sensitive detectors,” Int. J. Electron. 88(10), 1057–1065 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Henry and J. Livingstone, “A comparative study of position-sensitive detectors based on Schottky barrier crystalline and amorphous silicon structures,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 12(7), 387–393 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H.-B.

K. J. Jin, H.-B. Zhao, H.-B. Lu, L. Liao, and G.-Z. Yang, “Dember effect induced photovoltage in perovskite p-n heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.

S. Muthukumar, C. R. Gorla, N. W. Emanetoglu, S. Liang, and Y. Lu, “Control of morphology and orientation of ZnO thin films grown on SiO2/Si substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 225(2-4), 197–201 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ma, J.

S. Cho, J. Ma, Y. Kim, Y. Sun, G. K. L. Wong, and J. B. Ketterson, “Photoluminescence and ultraviolet lasing of polycrystalline ZnO thin films prepared by the oxidation of the metallic Zn,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(18), 2761–2763 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Martins, R.

R. Martins and E. Fortunato, “Role of the resistive layer on the performances of 2D a-Si: H thin film position sensitive detectors,” Thin Solid Films 337(1-2), 158–162 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Fortunato, G. Lavareda, R. Martins, F. Soares, and L. Fernandes, “Large-area 1D thin-film position sensitive detector with high detection resolution,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 51(2-3), 135–142 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsuda, T.

H. Niu, T. Matsuda, H. Sadamatsu, and M. Takai, “Application of lateral photovoltaic effect to the measurement of the physical quantities of P-N junctions-sheet resistivity and junction conductance of N2+ implanted Si,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 12, 4 (1976).

Matsukura, F.

T. Dietl, H. Ohno, F. Matsukura, J. Cibert, and D. Ferrand, “Zener model description of ferromagnetism in zinc-blende magnetic semiconductors,” Science 287(5455), 1019–1022 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McDermott, M. J.

Z. R. Tian, J. A. Voigt, J. Liu, B. McKenzie, M. J. McDermott, M. A. Rodriguez, H. Konishi, and H. Xu, “Complex and oriented ZnO nanostructures,” Nat. Mater. 2(12), 821–826 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McKenzie, B.

Z. R. Tian, J. A. Voigt, J. Liu, B. McKenzie, M. J. McDermott, M. A. Rodriguez, H. Konishi, and H. Xu, “Complex and oriented ZnO nanostructures,” Nat. Mater. 2(12), 821–826 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meynadier, M. H.

N. Tabatabaie, M. H. Meynadier, R. E. Nahory, J. P. Harbison, and L. T. Florez, “Large lateral photovoltaic effect in modulation-doped AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(8), 792–794 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mundle, R.

O. Bamiduro, H. Mustafa, R. Mundle, R. B. Konda, and A. K. Pradhan, “Metal-like conductivity in transparent Al:ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 252108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mustafa, H.

O. Bamiduro, H. Mustafa, R. Mundle, R. B. Konda, and A. K. Pradhan, “Metal-like conductivity in transparent Al:ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 252108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Muthukumar, S.

S. Muthukumar, C. R. Gorla, N. W. Emanetoglu, S. Liang, and Y. Lu, “Control of morphology and orientation of ZnO thin films grown on SiO2/Si substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 225(2-4), 197–201 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nahory, R. E.

N. Tabatabaie, M. H. Meynadier, R. E. Nahory, J. P. Harbison, and L. T. Florez, “Large lateral photovoltaic effect in modulation-doped AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(8), 792–794 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nishitani, M.

S. Kohiki, M. Nishitani, T. Wada, and T. Hirao, “Enhanced conductivity of zinc oxide thin films by ion implantation of hydrogen atoms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(21), 2876–2878 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Niu, H.

H. Niu, T. Matsuda, H. Sadamatsu, and M. Takai, “Application of lateral photovoltaic effect to the measurement of the physical quantities of P-N junctions-sheet resistivity and junction conductance of N2+ implanted Si,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 12, 4 (1976).

Ohno, H.

T. Dietl, H. Ohno, F. Matsukura, J. Cibert, and D. Ferrand, “Zener model description of ferromagnetism in zinc-blende magnetic semiconductors,” Science 287(5455), 1019–1022 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, Q. Y.

J. Q. Xu, Q. Y. Pan, Y. A. Shun, and Z. Z. Tian, “Grain size control and gas sensing properties of ZnO gas sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 66(1-3), 277–279 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pankove, J. I.

J. I. Pankove, “Photovoltaic effect at a Schottky barrier,” Opt. Processes Semicond. 14, 314–321 (1971).

Park, S.-M.

S.-M. Park, T. Ikegami, and K. Ebihara, “Effects of substrate temperature on the properties of Ga-doped ZnO by pulsed laser deposition,” Thin Solid Films 513(1-2), 90–94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pradhan, A. K.

O. Bamiduro, H. Mustafa, R. Mundle, R. B. Konda, and A. K. Pradhan, “Metal-like conductivity in transparent Al:ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 252108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Puls, J.

S. Blumstengel, S. Sadofev, J. Puls, and F. Henneberger, “An inorganic/organic semiconductor “sandwich” structure grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Adv. Mater. 21(47), 4850–4853 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sadofev, S. Blumstengel, J. Cui, J. Puls, S. Rogaschewski, P. Schäfer, and F. Henneberger, “Visible band-gap ZnCdO heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201907 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, M. A.

Z. R. Tian, J. A. Voigt, J. Liu, B. McKenzie, M. J. McDermott, M. A. Rodriguez, H. Konishi, and H. Xu, “Complex and oriented ZnO nanostructures,” Nat. Mater. 2(12), 821–826 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rogaschewski, S.

S. Sadofev, S. Blumstengel, J. Cui, J. Puls, S. Rogaschewski, P. Schäfer, and F. Henneberger, “Visible band-gap ZnCdO heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201907 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sadamatsu, H.

H. Niu, T. Matsuda, H. Sadamatsu, and M. Takai, “Application of lateral photovoltaic effect to the measurement of the physical quantities of P-N junctions-sheet resistivity and junction conductance of N2+ implanted Si,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 12, 4 (1976).

Sadofev, S.

S. Blumstengel, S. Sadofev, J. Puls, and F. Henneberger, “An inorganic/organic semiconductor “sandwich” structure grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Adv. Mater. 21(47), 4850–4853 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sadofev, S. Blumstengel, J. Cui, J. Puls, S. Rogaschewski, P. Schäfer, and F. Henneberger, “Visible band-gap ZnCdO heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201907 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schäfer, P.

S. Sadofev, S. Blumstengel, J. Cui, J. Puls, S. Rogaschewski, P. Schäfer, and F. Henneberger, “Visible band-gap ZnCdO heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201907 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schottky, W.

W. Schottky, “Uber den entstehungsort der photoelektronen in kupfer-kupferoxydull-photozellen,” Phys. Z. 31, 913–925 (1930).

Serrano-Guisan, S.

B. S. Chun, H. C. Wu, M. Abid, I. C. Chu, S. Serrano-Guisan, I. V. Shvets, and D. S. Choi, “The effect of deposition power on the electrical properties of Al-doped zinc oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 082109–082111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Service, R. F.

R. F. Service, “Materials science: will UV lasers beat the blues?” Science 276(5314), 895 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shun, Y. A.

J. Q. Xu, Q. Y. Pan, Y. A. Shun, and Z. Z. Tian, “Grain size control and gas sensing properties of ZnO gas sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 66(1-3), 277–279 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shvets, I. V.

B. S. Chun, H. C. Wu, M. Abid, I. C. Chu, S. Serrano-Guisan, I. V. Shvets, and D. S. Choi, “The effect of deposition power on the electrical properties of Al-doped zinc oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 082109–082111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Soares, F.

E. Fortunato, G. Lavareda, R. Martins, F. Soares, and L. Fernandes, “Large-area 1D thin-film position sensitive detector with high detection resolution,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 51(2-3), 135–142 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, Y.

S. Cho, J. Ma, Y. Kim, Y. Sun, G. K. L. Wong, and J. B. Ketterson, “Photoluminescence and ultraviolet lasing of polycrystalline ZnO thin films prepared by the oxidation of the metallic Zn,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(18), 2761–2763 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tabatabaie, N.

N. Tabatabaie, M. H. Meynadier, R. E. Nahory, J. P. Harbison, and L. T. Florez, “Large lateral photovoltaic effect in modulation-doped AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(8), 792–794 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Takai, M.

H. Niu, T. Matsuda, H. Sadamatsu, and M. Takai, “Application of lateral photovoltaic effect to the measurement of the physical quantities of P-N junctions-sheet resistivity and junction conductance of N2+ implanted Si,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 12, 4 (1976).

Tian, Z. R.

Z. R. Tian, J. A. Voigt, J. Liu, B. McKenzie, M. J. McDermott, M. A. Rodriguez, H. Konishi, and H. Xu, “Complex and oriented ZnO nanostructures,” Nat. Mater. 2(12), 821–826 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tian, Z. Z.

J. Q. Xu, Q. Y. Pan, Y. A. Shun, and Z. Z. Tian, “Grain size control and gas sensing properties of ZnO gas sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 66(1-3), 277–279 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Van de Walle, C. G.

C. G. Van de Walle, “Hydrogen as a cause of doping in zinc oxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(5), 1012–1015 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Voigt, J. A.

Z. R. Tian, J. A. Voigt, J. Liu, B. McKenzie, M. J. McDermott, M. A. Rodriguez, H. Konishi, and H. Xu, “Complex and oriented ZnO nanostructures,” Nat. Mater. 2(12), 821–826 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wada, T.

S. Kohiki, M. Nishitani, T. Wada, and T. Hirao, “Enhanced conductivity of zinc oxide thin films by ion implantation of hydrogen atoms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(21), 2876–2878 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

L. Du and H. Wang, “Infrared laser induced lateral photovoltaic effect observed in Cu(2)O nanoscale film,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9113–9118 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Q. Yu, H. Wang, and Y. X. Xia, “Giant lateral photovoltaic effect observed in TiO2 dusted metal-semiconductor structure of Ti/TiO2/Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 3506–3508 (2009).

C. Q. Yu, H. Wang, and Y. X. Xia, “Giant lateral photovoltaic effect observed in TiO2 dusted metal-semiconductor structure of Ti/TiO2/Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Q. Xiao, H. Wang, Z. C. Zhao, Y. Z. Gu, Y. X. Xia, and Z. H. Wang, “The Co-film-thickness dependent lateral photoeffect in Co-SiO2-Si metal-oxide-semiconductor structures,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3798–3806 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Z. H.

Willens, R. H.

R. H. Willens, “Photoelectronic and electronic properties of Ti/Si amorphous superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(11), 663–665 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Wong, F. L.

X. Jiang, F. L. Wong, M. K. Fung, and S. T. Lee, “Aluminum-doped zinc oxide films as transparent conductive electrode for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1875–1877 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wong, G. K. L.

S. Cho, J. Ma, Y. Kim, Y. Sun, G. K. L. Wong, and J. B. Ketterson, “Photoluminescence and ultraviolet lasing of polycrystalline ZnO thin films prepared by the oxidation of the metallic Zn,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(18), 2761–2763 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wu, H. C.

B. S. Chun, H. C. Wu, M. Abid, I. C. Chu, S. Serrano-Guisan, I. V. Shvets, and D. S. Choi, “The effect of deposition power on the electrical properties of Al-doped zinc oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 082109–082111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y. X.

C. Q. Yu, H. Wang, and Y. X. Xia, “Giant lateral photovoltaic effect observed in TiO2 dusted metal-semiconductor structure of Ti/TiO2/Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Q. Yu, H. Wang, and Y. X. Xia, “Giant lateral photovoltaic effect observed in TiO2 dusted metal-semiconductor structure of Ti/TiO2/Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 3506–3508 (2009).

S. Q. Xiao, H. Wang, Z. C. Zhao, Y. Z. Gu, Y. X. Xia, and Z. H. Wang, “The Co-film-thickness dependent lateral photoeffect in Co-SiO2-Si metal-oxide-semiconductor structures,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3798–3806 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, S. Q.

Xu, H.

Z. R. Tian, J. A. Voigt, J. Liu, B. McKenzie, M. J. McDermott, M. A. Rodriguez, H. Konishi, and H. Xu, “Complex and oriented ZnO nanostructures,” Nat. Mater. 2(12), 821–826 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, J. Q.

J. Q. Xu, Q. Y. Pan, Y. A. Shun, and Z. Z. Tian, “Grain size control and gas sensing properties of ZnO gas sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 66(1-3), 277–279 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G.-Z.

K. J. Jin, H.-B. Zhao, H.-B. Lu, L. Liao, and G.-Z. Yang, “Dember effect induced photovoltage in perovskite p-n heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C. Q.

C. Q. Yu, H. Wang, and Y. X. Xia, “Giant lateral photovoltaic effect observed in TiO2 dusted metal-semiconductor structure of Ti/TiO2/Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Q. Yu, H. Wang, and Y. X. Xia, “Giant lateral photovoltaic effect observed in TiO2 dusted metal-semiconductor structure of Ti/TiO2/Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 3506–3508 (2009).

Zhao, H.-B.

K. J. Jin, H.-B. Zhao, H.-B. Lu, L. Liao, and G.-Z. Yang, “Dember effect induced photovoltage in perovskite p-n heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Z. C.

Adv. Mater.

S. Blumstengel, S. Sadofev, J. Puls, and F. Henneberger, “An inorganic/organic semiconductor “sandwich” structure grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Adv. Mater. 21(47), 4850–4853 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

B. S. Chun, H. C. Wu, M. Abid, I. C. Chu, S. Serrano-Guisan, I. V. Shvets, and D. S. Choi, “The effect of deposition power on the electrical properties of Al-doped zinc oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 082109–082111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Bamiduro, H. Mustafa, R. Mundle, R. B. Konda, and A. K. Pradhan, “Metal-like conductivity in transparent Al:ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 252108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Jiang, F. L. Wong, M. K. Fung, and S. T. Lee, “Aluminum-doped zinc oxide films as transparent conductive electrode for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1875–1877 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Sadofev, S. Blumstengel, J. Cui, J. Puls, S. Rogaschewski, P. Schäfer, and F. Henneberger, “Visible band-gap ZnCdO heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201907 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Cho, J. Ma, Y. Kim, Y. Sun, G. K. L. Wong, and J. B. Ketterson, “Photoluminescence and ultraviolet lasing of polycrystalline ZnO thin films prepared by the oxidation of the metallic Zn,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(18), 2761–2763 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I.-S. Jeong, J. H. Kim, and S. Im, “Ultraviolet-enhanced photodiode employing n-ZnO/p-Si structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2946–2948 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Kohiki, M. Nishitani, T. Wada, and T. Hirao, “Enhanced conductivity of zinc oxide thin films by ion implantation of hydrogen atoms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(21), 2876–2878 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Willens, “Photoelectronic and electronic properties of Ti/Si amorphous superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(11), 663–665 (1986).
[CrossRef]

N. Tabatabaie, M. H. Meynadier, R. E. Nahory, J. P. Harbison, and L. T. Florez, “Large lateral photovoltaic effect in modulation-doped AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(8), 792–794 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Jin, H.-B. Zhao, H.-B. Lu, L. Liao, and G.-Z. Yang, “Dember effect induced photovoltage in perovskite p-n heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Q. Yu, H. Wang, and Y. X. Xia, “Giant lateral photovoltaic effect observed in TiO2 dusted metal-semiconductor structure of Ti/TiO2/Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Q. Yu, H. Wang, and Y. X. Xia, “Giant lateral photovoltaic effect observed in TiO2 dusted metal-semiconductor structure of Ti/TiO2/Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 3506–3508 (2009).

Int. J. Electron.

J. Henry and J. Livingstone, “Electron-beam fabricated titanium and indium tin oxide position-sensitive detectors,” Int. J. Electron. 88(10), 1057–1065 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

S. Muthukumar, C. R. Gorla, N. W. Emanetoglu, S. Liang, and Y. Lu, “Control of morphology and orientation of ZnO thin films grown on SiO2/Si substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 225(2-4), 197–201 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron.

J. Henry and J. Livingstone, “A comparative study of position-sensitive detectors based on Schottky barrier crystalline and amorphous silicon structures,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 12(7), 387–393 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

H. Niu, T. Matsuda, H. Sadamatsu, and M. Takai, “Application of lateral photovoltaic effect to the measurement of the physical quantities of P-N junctions-sheet resistivity and junction conductance of N2+ implanted Si,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 12, 4 (1976).

Nat. Mater.

Z. R. Tian, J. A. Voigt, J. Liu, B. McKenzie, M. J. McDermott, M. A. Rodriguez, H. Konishi, and H. Xu, “Complex and oriented ZnO nanostructures,” Nat. Mater. 2(12), 821–826 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Processes Semicond.

J. I. Pankove, “Photovoltaic effect at a Schottky barrier,” Opt. Processes Semicond. 14, 314–321 (1971).

Phys. Rev. Lett.

C. G. Van de Walle, “Hydrogen as a cause of doping in zinc oxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(5), 1012–1015 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Z.

W. Schottky, “Uber den entstehungsort der photoelektronen in kupfer-kupferoxydull-photozellen,” Phys. Z. 31, 913–925 (1930).

Science

R. F. Service, “Materials science: will UV lasers beat the blues?” Science 276(5314), 895 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Dietl, H. Ohno, F. Matsukura, J. Cibert, and D. Ferrand, “Zener model description of ferromagnetism in zinc-blende magnetic semiconductors,” Science 287(5455), 1019–1022 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators A Phys.

E. Fortunato, G. Lavareda, R. Martins, F. Soares, and L. Fernandes, “Large-area 1D thin-film position sensitive detector with high detection resolution,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 51(2-3), 135–142 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators B Chem.

J. Q. Xu, Q. Y. Pan, Y. A. Shun, and Z. Z. Tian, “Grain size control and gas sensing properties of ZnO gas sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 66(1-3), 277–279 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Cells

J. Hu and R. G. Gordon, “Textured fluorine-doped ZnO films by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition and their use in amorphous silicon solar cells,” Sol. Cells 30(1-4), 437–450 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

S.-M. Park, T. Ikegami, and K. Ebihara, “Effects of substrate temperature on the properties of Ga-doped ZnO by pulsed laser deposition,” Thin Solid Films 513(1-2), 90–94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Martins and E. Fortunato, “Role of the resistive layer on the performances of 2D a-Si: H thin film position sensitive detectors,” Thin Solid Films 337(1-2), 158–162 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. T. Wallmark, “A new semiconductor photocell using lateral photoeffect,” Proc. IRE 45, 474–483 (1957).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical transmission spectra of 100 nm thick ZAO film

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

LPV as a function of the laser position (x) observed on ZAO film surface with different thickness for y = 0 line. The bottom inset displays the schematic illustration of LPV measurement.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Comparison of experimental results of sample 3 and 7, 3 and 7 are results of measurement taken within 24 hours out of vacuum environment, 3′ and 7' are results of measurement taken 4 weeks later (b) AFM images (1µm × 1µ m) of sample 3 and 7 in view of flatten and 3d.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Schematic simple equilibrium energy-band diagram of the ZAO/SiO2/Si homo-hererostucture, the native SiO2 layer has a tunneling thickness (1.2 nm) (b) Schematic profile diagram of the excess carrier diffusion on ZAO surface under a spot illumination.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Results of ZAO-SiO2-Si Structures with Different ZAO Film Thickness

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

N ( r ) = N ( 0 ) exp ( r λ Z ) .
λ z = D Z τ Z = k 0 T σ Z τ Z n 0 q 2 .
E F n = E F + k 0 T ln ( Δ n / n ) .
L P V = { [ E F n ( B ) E F n ( A ) ] / q } = ( k 0 T / q ) ln [ Δ n ( B ) / Δ n ( A ) ] .
L P V = ( 2 k 0 T / q λ Z ) x . (4)

Metrics