Abstract

We introduce a way to encrypt-decrypt a color dynamical phenomenon using a pure optical alternative. We split the three basic chromatic channels composing the input, and then each channel is processed through a 4f encoding method and a theta modulation applied to the each encrypted frame in every channel. All frames for a single channel are multiplexed. The same phase mask is used to encode all the information. Unlike the usual procedure we do not multiplex the three chromatic channels into a single encoding media, because we want to decrypt the information in real time. Then, we send to the decoding station the phase mask and the three packages each one containing the multiplexing of a single channel. The end user synchronizes and decodes the information contained in the separate channels. Finally, the decoding information is conveyed together to bring the decoded dynamical color phenomenon in real-time. We present material that supports our concepts.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. F. Mosso, J. F. Barrera, M. Tebaldi, N. Bolognini, and R. Torroba, “All-optical encrypted movie,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5706–5712 (2011).
    [PubMed]
  2. P. Refregier and B. Javidi, “Optical image encryption based on input plane and Fourier plane random encoding,” Opt. Lett. 20(7), 767–769 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Barrera, R. Henao, M. Tebaldi, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Multiple image encryption using an aperture-modulated optical system,” Opt. Commun. 261(1), 29–33 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Fredybarrera, R. Henao, M. Tebaldi, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Multiplexing encryption-decryption via lateral shifting of a random phase mask,” Opt. Commun. 259(2), 532–536 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Barrera, R. Henao, M. Tebaldi, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Multiplexing encrypted data by using polarized light,” Opt. Commun. 260(1), 109–112 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Amaya, M. Tebaldi, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Multichanneled puzzle-like encryption,” Opt. Commun. 281(13), 3434–3439 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Chen and D. Zhao, “Optical color image encryption by wavelength multiplexing and lensless Fresnel transform holograms,” Opt. Express 14(19), 8552–8560 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. L. Chen and D. Zhao, “Color information processing (coding and synthesis) with fractional Fourier transforms and digital holography,” Opt. Express 15(24), 16080–16089 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Joshi, Chandrashakher, and K. Singh, “Color image encryption and decryption using fractional Fourier transform,” Opt. Commun. 279(1), 35–42 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Amaya, M. Tebaldi, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Digital color encryption using a multi-wavelength approach and a joint transform correlator,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(10), 104031 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. Amaya, M. Tebaldi, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Wavelength multiplexing encryption using joint transform correlator architecture,” Appl. Opt. 48(11), 2099–2104 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Tebaldi, S. Horrillo, E. E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, D. Amaya, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Experimental color encryption in a joint transform correlator architecture,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 274, 012054 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Carnicer, M. Montes-Usategui, S. Arcos, and I. Juvells, “Vulnerability to chosen-cyphertext attacks of optical encryption schemes based on double random phase keys,” Opt. Lett. 30(13), 1644–1646 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. X. Peng, P. Zhang, H. Wei, and B. Yu, “Known-plaintext attack on optical encryption based on double random phase keys,” Opt. Lett. 31(8), 1044–1046 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

F. Mosso, J. F. Barrera, M. Tebaldi, N. Bolognini, and R. Torroba, “All-optical encrypted movie,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5706–5712 (2011).
[PubMed]

M. Tebaldi, S. Horrillo, E. E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, D. Amaya, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Experimental color encryption in a joint transform correlator architecture,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 274, 012054 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

D. Amaya, M. Tebaldi, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Digital color encryption using a multi-wavelength approach and a joint transform correlator,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(10), 104031 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Amaya, M. Tebaldi, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Multichanneled puzzle-like encryption,” Opt. Commun. 281(13), 3434–3439 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

L. Chen and D. Zhao, “Color information processing (coding and synthesis) with fractional Fourier transforms and digital holography,” Opt. Express 15(24), 16080–16089 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Joshi, Chandrashakher, and K. Singh, “Color image encryption and decryption using fractional Fourier transform,” Opt. Commun. 279(1), 35–42 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

L. Chen and D. Zhao, “Optical color image encryption by wavelength multiplexing and lensless Fresnel transform holograms,” Opt. Express 14(19), 8552–8560 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Barrera, R. Henao, M. Tebaldi, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Multiple image encryption using an aperture-modulated optical system,” Opt. Commun. 261(1), 29–33 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Fredybarrera, R. Henao, M. Tebaldi, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Multiplexing encryption-decryption via lateral shifting of a random phase mask,” Opt. Commun. 259(2), 532–536 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Barrera, R. Henao, M. Tebaldi, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Multiplexing encrypted data by using polarized light,” Opt. Commun. 260(1), 109–112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Peng, P. Zhang, H. Wei, and B. Yu, “Known-plaintext attack on optical encryption based on double random phase keys,” Opt. Lett. 31(8), 1044–1046 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

1995 (1)

Amaya, D.

M. Tebaldi, S. Horrillo, E. E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, D. Amaya, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Experimental color encryption in a joint transform correlator architecture,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 274, 012054 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Amaya, M. Tebaldi, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Wavelength multiplexing encryption using joint transform correlator architecture,” Appl. Opt. 48(11), 2099–2104 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Amaya, M. Tebaldi, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Digital color encryption using a multi-wavelength approach and a joint transform correlator,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(10), 104031 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Amaya, M. Tebaldi, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Multichanneled puzzle-like encryption,” Opt. Commun. 281(13), 3434–3439 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Arcos, S.

Barrera, J.

J. Barrera, R. Henao, M. Tebaldi, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Multiplexing encrypted data by using polarized light,” Opt. Commun. 260(1), 109–112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Barrera, R. Henao, M. Tebaldi, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Multiple image encryption using an aperture-modulated optical system,” Opt. Commun. 261(1), 29–33 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barrera, J. F.

Bolognini, N.

F. Mosso, J. F. Barrera, M. Tebaldi, N. Bolognini, and R. Torroba, “All-optical encrypted movie,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5706–5712 (2011).
[PubMed]

M. Tebaldi, S. Horrillo, E. E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, D. Amaya, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Experimental color encryption in a joint transform correlator architecture,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 274, 012054 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Amaya, M. Tebaldi, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Wavelength multiplexing encryption using joint transform correlator architecture,” Appl. Opt. 48(11), 2099–2104 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Amaya, M. Tebaldi, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Digital color encryption using a multi-wavelength approach and a joint transform correlator,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(10), 104031 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Amaya, M. Tebaldi, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Multichanneled puzzle-like encryption,” Opt. Commun. 281(13), 3434–3439 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Barrera, R. Henao, M. Tebaldi, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Multiple image encryption using an aperture-modulated optical system,” Opt. Commun. 261(1), 29–33 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Fredybarrera, R. Henao, M. Tebaldi, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Multiplexing encryption-decryption via lateral shifting of a random phase mask,” Opt. Commun. 259(2), 532–536 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Barrera, R. Henao, M. Tebaldi, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Multiplexing encrypted data by using polarized light,” Opt. Commun. 260(1), 109–112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Carnicer, A.

Chandrashakher,

M. Joshi, Chandrashakher, and K. Singh, “Color image encryption and decryption using fractional Fourier transform,” Opt. Commun. 279(1), 35–42 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

Fredybarrera, J.

J. Fredybarrera, R. Henao, M. Tebaldi, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Multiplexing encryption-decryption via lateral shifting of a random phase mask,” Opt. Commun. 259(2), 532–536 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Henao, R.

J. Fredybarrera, R. Henao, M. Tebaldi, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Multiplexing encryption-decryption via lateral shifting of a random phase mask,” Opt. Commun. 259(2), 532–536 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Barrera, R. Henao, M. Tebaldi, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Multiple image encryption using an aperture-modulated optical system,” Opt. Commun. 261(1), 29–33 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Barrera, R. Henao, M. Tebaldi, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Multiplexing encrypted data by using polarized light,” Opt. Commun. 260(1), 109–112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Horrillo, S.

M. Tebaldi, S. Horrillo, E. E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, D. Amaya, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Experimental color encryption in a joint transform correlator architecture,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 274, 012054 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Javidi, B.

Joshi, M.

M. Joshi, Chandrashakher, and K. Singh, “Color image encryption and decryption using fractional Fourier transform,” Opt. Commun. 279(1), 35–42 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Juvells, I.

Millán, M. S.

M. Tebaldi, S. Horrillo, E. E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, D. Amaya, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Experimental color encryption in a joint transform correlator architecture,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 274, 012054 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Montes-Usategui, M.

Mosso, F.

Peng, X.

Pérez-Cabré, E. E.

M. Tebaldi, S. Horrillo, E. E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, D. Amaya, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Experimental color encryption in a joint transform correlator architecture,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 274, 012054 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Refregier, P.

Singh, K.

M. Joshi, Chandrashakher, and K. Singh, “Color image encryption and decryption using fractional Fourier transform,” Opt. Commun. 279(1), 35–42 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tebaldi, M.

M. Tebaldi, S. Horrillo, E. E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, D. Amaya, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Experimental color encryption in a joint transform correlator architecture,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 274, 012054 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Mosso, J. F. Barrera, M. Tebaldi, N. Bolognini, and R. Torroba, “All-optical encrypted movie,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5706–5712 (2011).
[PubMed]

D. Amaya, M. Tebaldi, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Wavelength multiplexing encryption using joint transform correlator architecture,” Appl. Opt. 48(11), 2099–2104 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Amaya, M. Tebaldi, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Digital color encryption using a multi-wavelength approach and a joint transform correlator,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(10), 104031 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Amaya, M. Tebaldi, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Multichanneled puzzle-like encryption,” Opt. Commun. 281(13), 3434–3439 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Barrera, R. Henao, M. Tebaldi, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Multiplexing encrypted data by using polarized light,” Opt. Commun. 260(1), 109–112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Barrera, R. Henao, M. Tebaldi, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Multiple image encryption using an aperture-modulated optical system,” Opt. Commun. 261(1), 29–33 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Fredybarrera, R. Henao, M. Tebaldi, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Multiplexing encryption-decryption via lateral shifting of a random phase mask,” Opt. Commun. 259(2), 532–536 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Torroba, R.

M. Tebaldi, S. Horrillo, E. E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, D. Amaya, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Experimental color encryption in a joint transform correlator architecture,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 274, 012054 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Mosso, J. F. Barrera, M. Tebaldi, N. Bolognini, and R. Torroba, “All-optical encrypted movie,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5706–5712 (2011).
[PubMed]

D. Amaya, M. Tebaldi, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Wavelength multiplexing encryption using joint transform correlator architecture,” Appl. Opt. 48(11), 2099–2104 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Amaya, M. Tebaldi, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Digital color encryption using a multi-wavelength approach and a joint transform correlator,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(10), 104031 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Amaya, M. Tebaldi, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Multichanneled puzzle-like encryption,” Opt. Commun. 281(13), 3434–3439 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Barrera, R. Henao, M. Tebaldi, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Multiplexing encrypted data by using polarized light,” Opt. Commun. 260(1), 109–112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Fredybarrera, R. Henao, M. Tebaldi, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Multiplexing encryption-decryption via lateral shifting of a random phase mask,” Opt. Commun. 259(2), 532–536 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Barrera, R. Henao, M. Tebaldi, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Multiple image encryption using an aperture-modulated optical system,” Opt. Commun. 261(1), 29–33 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wei, H.

Yu, B.

Zhang, P.

Zhao, D.

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

D. Amaya, M. Tebaldi, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Digital color encryption using a multi-wavelength approach and a joint transform correlator,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(10), 104031 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. (1)

M. Tebaldi, S. Horrillo, E. E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, D. Amaya, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Experimental color encryption in a joint transform correlator architecture,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 274, 012054 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (5)

M. Joshi, Chandrashakher, and K. Singh, “Color image encryption and decryption using fractional Fourier transform,” Opt. Commun. 279(1), 35–42 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Barrera, R. Henao, M. Tebaldi, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Multiple image encryption using an aperture-modulated optical system,” Opt. Commun. 261(1), 29–33 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Fredybarrera, R. Henao, M. Tebaldi, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Multiplexing encryption-decryption via lateral shifting of a random phase mask,” Opt. Commun. 259(2), 532–536 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Barrera, R. Henao, M. Tebaldi, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Multiplexing encrypted data by using polarized light,” Opt. Commun. 260(1), 109–112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Amaya, M. Tebaldi, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Multichanneled puzzle-like encryption,” Opt. Commun. 281(13), 3434–3439 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Supplementary Material (10)

» Media 1: AVI (1059 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (1059 KB)     
» Media 3: AVI (1059 KB)     
» Media 4: AVI (1059 KB)     
» Media 5: AVI (1059 KB)     
» Media 6: AVI (1693 KB)     
» Media 7: AVI (4257 KB)     
» Media 8: AVI (1059 KB)     
» Media 9: AVI (1694 KB)     
» Media 10: AVI (4438 KB)     

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Encryption, multiplexing and theta modulation processes (: Fourier Transform operation; θmod: Theta modulation operation; M: multiplexing operation; ⊗ convolution operation, R: random phase mask, FiR, FiG and FiB: i-th red, green and blue frames respectively; R´: random phase encoding mask, EiR, EiG and EiB: i-th encrypted red, green and blue frames, respectively, Gi: i-th amplitude grating; MR, MG and MB: multiplexed frames for the red, green and blue channels, respectively).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Phase Conjugation, filtering and decoding processes (* phase conjugation operation, : Fourier Transform operation; F: filtering operation). The remaining symbols are defined in Fig. 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Right decrypted cylinder movie (Media 1); (b) Wrong decrypted cylinder movie (Media 2) (c) Right decrypted balancing bird movie (Media 3) and (b) Wrong decrypted balancing bird movie (Media 4).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Full decrypted movies for different extensions: (a) and (d) 3 seconds (Media 5 and Media 8, respectively) (b) and (e) 4.8 seconds (Media 6 and Media 9, respectively), (c) and (f) 12.6 seconds (Media 7 and Media 10, respectively).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

a) Normalized NMSE for all frames in the cylinder movie; b) decryption without multiplexing by using the conventional 4f architecture, c) decryption with multiplexing by using the proposed scheme.

Equations (1)

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( M R * ) = ( i=1 n E i R * G i * ) = i=1 n [ ( E i R * ) ( G i * ) ]

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