Abstract

Multiple optical elements utilize crossing of channel optical waveguides. This paper introduces efficient silicon wire waveguide crossing by means of vertical coupling of tapered Si wire with upper polymer wide strip waveguide through a silica buffer. Numerical simulations by 3D FDTD prove that optimal structure of 70 µm length can provide 98% efficiency for through pass and 99.9% efficiency for cross pass, as well as negligible back reflection (−50 dB) and cross talk (−70 dB). Proposed waveguide crossing on thin silicon-on-insulator CMOS compatible structures could find multiple applications in Photonics.

© 2011 OSA

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2010 (3)

2009 (3)

2008 (3)

K. Watanabe, Y. Hashizume, Y. Nasu, Y. Sakamaki, M. Kohtoku, M. Itoh, and Y. Inoue, “Low-loss three-dimensional waveguide crossings using adiabatic interlayer coupling,” Electron. Lett. 44(23), 1356–1357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Van Thourhout, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, W. Bogaerts, J. Brouckaert, P. P. P. Debackere, P. Dumon, S. Scheerlinck, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, and J. Van Campenhout, “Coupling mechanisms for a heterogeneous silicon nanowire platform,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Sun, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, J. Cheng, C. Y. Hong, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Impedance matching vertical optical waveguide couplers for dense high index contrast circuits,” Opt. Express 16(16), 11682–11690 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-16-11682 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, A. Griol, J. Marti, M. A. Piqueras, and J. M. Perdigues, “Low-crosstalk in silicon-on-insulator waveguide crossings with optimized-angle,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1583–1585 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss, low-cross-talk crossings for silicon-on-insulator nanophotonic waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2801–2803 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-19-2801 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

H. Chen and A. Poon, “Low-loss multimode-interference-based crossings for silicon wire waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(21), 2260–2262 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Doylend and A. P. Knights, “Design and simulation of an integrated fiber-to-chip coupler for silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1363–1370 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, and D. Van Thourhout, “Nanophotonic waveguides in silicon-on-insulator fabricated with CMOS technology,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(1), 401–412 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Low loss intersection of Si photonic wire waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(2), 646–647 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

2002 (1)

C.-C. Yang and W.-C. Chen, “The structures and properties of hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) □lms produced by thermal curing,” J. Mater. Chem. 12(4), 1138–1141 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

I. Moerman, P. P. Van Daele, and P. M. Demeester, “A review of fabrication technologies for the monolithic integration of tapers with III-V semiconductor devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(6), 1308–1320 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

Baets, R.

Beals, M.

Beckx, S.

Bienstman, P.

Bock, P. J.

Bogaerts, W.

Brimont, A.

Brouckaert, J.

D. Van Thourhout, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, W. Bogaerts, J. Brouckaert, P. P. P. Debackere, P. Dumon, S. Scheerlinck, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, and J. Van Campenhout, “Coupling mechanisms for a heterogeneous silicon nanowire platform,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cheben, P.

Chen, H.

H. Chen and A. Poon, “Low-loss multimode-interference-based crossings for silicon wire waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(21), 2260–2262 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.-C.

C.-C. Yang and W.-C. Chen, “The structures and properties of hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) □lms produced by thermal curing,” J. Mater. Chem. 12(4), 1138–1141 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, J.

Chiu, C.-H.

C.-H. Chiu and C.-H. Chiu, “Taper-integrated multimode-interference based waveguide crossing design,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(11), 1656–1661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Chiu and C.-H. Chiu, “Taper-integrated multimode-interference based waveguide crossing design,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(11), 1656–1661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chrostowski, L.

Cuesta, F.

Debackere, P. P. P.

D. Van Thourhout, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, W. Bogaerts, J. Brouckaert, P. P. P. Debackere, P. Dumon, S. Scheerlinck, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, and J. Van Campenhout, “Coupling mechanisms for a heterogeneous silicon nanowire platform,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Delâge, A.

Demeester, P. M.

I. Moerman, P. P. Van Daele, and P. M. Demeester, “A review of fabrication technologies for the monolithic integration of tapers with III-V semiconductor devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(6), 1308–1320 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Densmore, A.

Di Falco, A.

Doylend, J. K.

J. K. Doylend and A. P. Knights, “Design and simulation of an integrated fiber-to-chip coupler for silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1363–1370 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dumon, P.

Fukuda, H.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Low loss intersection of Si photonic wire waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(2), 646–647 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Galan, J. V.

P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, A. Griol, J. Marti, M. A. Piqueras, and J. M. Perdigues, “Low-crosstalk in silicon-on-insulator waveguide crossings with optimized-angle,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1583–1585 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Galán, J. V.

Griol, A.

P. Sanchis, P. Villalba, F. Cuesta, A. Håkansson, A. Griol, J. V. Galán, A. Brimont, and J. Martí, “Highly efficient crossing structure for silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 34(18), 2760–2762 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-34-18-2760 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, A. Griol, J. Marti, M. A. Piqueras, and J. M. Perdigues, “Low-crosstalk in silicon-on-insulator waveguide crossings with optimized-angle,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1583–1585 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Håkansson, A.

Hall, T. J.

Hashizume, Y.

K. Watanabe, Y. Hashizume, Y. Nasu, Y. Sakamaki, M. Kohtoku, M. Itoh, and Y. Inoue, “Low-loss three-dimensional waveguide crossings using adiabatic interlayer coupling,” Electron. Lett. 44(23), 1356–1357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C. Y.

Ikuma, Y.

D. Tanaka, Y. Ikuma, and H. Tsuda, “Low loss, small crosstalk offset crossing structure for large-scale planar lightwave circuits,” IEICE Electron. Express 6(7), 407–411 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, Y.

K. Watanabe, Y. Hashizume, Y. Nasu, Y. Sakamaki, M. Kohtoku, M. Itoh, and Y. Inoue, “Low-loss three-dimensional waveguide crossings using adiabatic interlayer coupling,” Electron. Lett. 44(23), 1356–1357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Itabashi, S.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Low loss intersection of Si photonic wire waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(2), 646–647 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, M.

K. Watanabe, Y. Hashizume, Y. Nasu, Y. Sakamaki, M. Kohtoku, M. Itoh, and Y. Inoue, “Low-loss three-dimensional waveguide crossings using adiabatic interlayer coupling,” Electron. Lett. 44(23), 1356–1357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jaeger, N. A. F.

Janz, S.

Kimerling, L.

Knights, A. P.

J. K. Doylend and A. P. Knights, “Design and simulation of an integrated fiber-to-chip coupler for silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1363–1370 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kohtoku, M.

K. Watanabe, Y. Hashizume, Y. Nasu, Y. Sakamaki, M. Kohtoku, M. Itoh, and Y. Inoue, “Low-loss three-dimensional waveguide crossings using adiabatic interlayer coupling,” Electron. Lett. 44(23), 1356–1357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T.

Lapointe, J.

Lipson, M.

Luyssaert, B.

Marti, J.

P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, A. Griol, J. Marti, M. A. Piqueras, and J. M. Perdigues, “Low-crosstalk in silicon-on-insulator waveguide crossings with optimized-angle,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1583–1585 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Martí, J.

McNab, S.

Michel, J.

Moerman, I.

I. Moerman, P. P. Van Daele, and P. M. Demeester, “A review of fabrication technologies for the monolithic integration of tapers with III-V semiconductor devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(6), 1308–1320 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Moll, N.

Morita, H.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Low loss intersection of Si photonic wire waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(2), 646–647 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nasu, Y.

K. Watanabe, Y. Hashizume, Y. Nasu, Y. Sakamaki, M. Kohtoku, M. Itoh, and Y. Inoue, “Low-loss three-dimensional waveguide crossings using adiabatic interlayer coupling,” Electron. Lett. 44(23), 1356–1357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Panepucci, R. R.

Perdigues, J. M.

P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, A. Griol, J. Marti, M. A. Piqueras, and J. M. Perdigues, “Low-crosstalk in silicon-on-insulator waveguide crossings with optimized-angle,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1583–1585 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Piqueras, M. A.

P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, A. Griol, J. Marti, M. A. Piqueras, and J. M. Perdigues, “Low-crosstalk in silicon-on-insulator waveguide crossings with optimized-angle,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1583–1585 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pomerene, A.

Poon, A.

H. Chen and A. Poon, “Low-loss multimode-interference-based crossings for silicon wire waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(21), 2260–2262 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reardon, C.

Roelkens, G.

D. Van Thourhout, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, W. Bogaerts, J. Brouckaert, P. P. P. Debackere, P. Dumon, S. Scheerlinck, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, and J. Van Campenhout, “Coupling mechanisms for a heterogeneous silicon nanowire platform,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sakamaki, Y.

K. Watanabe, Y. Hashizume, Y. Nasu, Y. Sakamaki, M. Kohtoku, M. Itoh, and Y. Inoue, “Low-loss three-dimensional waveguide crossings using adiabatic interlayer coupling,” Electron. Lett. 44(23), 1356–1357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sanchis, P.

P. Sanchis, P. Villalba, F. Cuesta, A. Håkansson, A. Griol, J. V. Galán, A. Brimont, and J. Martí, “Highly efficient crossing structure for silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 34(18), 2760–2762 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-34-18-2760 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, A. Griol, J. Marti, M. A. Piqueras, and J. M. Perdigues, “Low-crosstalk in silicon-on-insulator waveguide crossings with optimized-angle,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1583–1585 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Scheerlinck, S.

D. Van Thourhout, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, W. Bogaerts, J. Brouckaert, P. P. P. Debackere, P. Dumon, S. Scheerlinck, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, and J. Van Campenhout, “Coupling mechanisms for a heterogeneous silicon nanowire platform,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, J. H.

Schrauwen, J.

D. Van Thourhout, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, W. Bogaerts, J. Brouckaert, P. P. P. Debackere, P. Dumon, S. Scheerlinck, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, and J. Van Campenhout, “Coupling mechanisms for a heterogeneous silicon nanowire platform,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shi, W.

Shoji, T.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Low loss intersection of Si photonic wire waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(2), 646–647 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sun, R.

Taillaert, D.

D. Van Thourhout, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, W. Bogaerts, J. Brouckaert, P. P. P. Debackere, P. Dumon, S. Scheerlinck, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, and J. Van Campenhout, “Coupling mechanisms for a heterogeneous silicon nanowire platform,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, and D. Van Thourhout, “Nanophotonic waveguides in silicon-on-insulator fabricated with CMOS technology,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(1), 401–412 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, J.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Low loss intersection of Si photonic wire waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(2), 646–647 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, M.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Low loss intersection of Si photonic wire waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(2), 646–647 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tamechika, E.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Low loss intersection of Si photonic wire waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(2), 646–647 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, D.

D. Tanaka, Y. Ikuma, and H. Tsuda, “Low loss, small crosstalk offset crossing structure for large-scale planar lightwave circuits,” IEICE Electron. Express 6(7), 407–411 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thourhout, D. V.

Torres, M. Á. G.

Tsuchizawa, T.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Low loss intersection of Si photonic wire waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(2), 646–647 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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D. Tanaka, Y. Ikuma, and H. Tsuda, “Low loss, small crosstalk offset crossing structure for large-scale planar lightwave circuits,” IEICE Electron. Express 6(7), 407–411 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vafaei, R.

Van Campenhout, J.

D. Van Thourhout, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, W. Bogaerts, J. Brouckaert, P. P. P. Debackere, P. Dumon, S. Scheerlinck, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, and J. Van Campenhout, “Coupling mechanisms for a heterogeneous silicon nanowire platform,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, and D. Van Thourhout, “Nanophotonic waveguides in silicon-on-insulator fabricated with CMOS technology,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(1), 401–412 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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I. Moerman, P. P. Van Daele, and P. M. Demeester, “A review of fabrication technologies for the monolithic integration of tapers with III-V semiconductor devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(6), 1308–1320 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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D. Van Thourhout, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, W. Bogaerts, J. Brouckaert, P. P. P. Debackere, P. Dumon, S. Scheerlinck, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, and J. Van Campenhout, “Coupling mechanisms for a heterogeneous silicon nanowire platform,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Van Thourhout, D.

D. Van Thourhout, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, W. Bogaerts, J. Brouckaert, P. P. P. Debackere, P. Dumon, S. Scheerlinck, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, and J. Van Campenhout, “Coupling mechanisms for a heterogeneous silicon nanowire platform,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, and D. Van Thourhout, “Nanophotonic waveguides in silicon-on-insulator fabricated with CMOS technology,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(1), 401–412 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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K. Watanabe, Y. Hashizume, Y. Nasu, Y. Sakamaki, M. Kohtoku, M. Itoh, and Y. Inoue, “Low-loss three-dimensional waveguide crossings using adiabatic interlayer coupling,” Electron. Lett. 44(23), 1356–1357 (2008).
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T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Low loss intersection of Si photonic wire waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(2), 646–647 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Welna, K.

Wiaux, V.

Xu, D.-X.

Yamada, K.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Low loss intersection of Si photonic wire waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(2), 646–647 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.-C.

C.-C. Yang and W.-C. Chen, “The structures and properties of hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) □lms produced by thermal curing,” J. Mater. Chem. 12(4), 1138–1141 (2002).
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Electron. Lett. (1)

K. Watanabe, Y. Hashizume, Y. Nasu, Y. Sakamaki, M. Kohtoku, M. Itoh, and Y. Inoue, “Low-loss three-dimensional waveguide crossings using adiabatic interlayer coupling,” Electron. Lett. 44(23), 1356–1357 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

C.-H. Chiu and C.-H. Chiu, “Taper-integrated multimode-interference based waveguide crossing design,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(11), 1656–1661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (3)

I. Moerman, P. P. Van Daele, and P. M. Demeester, “A review of fabrication technologies for the monolithic integration of tapers with III-V semiconductor devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(6), 1308–1320 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, A. Griol, J. Marti, M. A. Piqueras, and J. M. Perdigues, “Low-crosstalk in silicon-on-insulator waveguide crossings with optimized-angle,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1583–1585 (2007).
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H. Chen and A. Poon, “Low-loss multimode-interference-based crossings for silicon wire waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(21), 2260–2262 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Electron. Express (1)

D. Tanaka, Y. Ikuma, and H. Tsuda, “Low loss, small crosstalk offset crossing structure for large-scale planar lightwave circuits,” IEICE Electron. Express 6(7), 407–411 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

C.-C. Yang and W.-C. Chen, “The structures and properties of hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) □lms produced by thermal curing,” J. Mater. Chem. 12(4), 1138–1141 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Low loss intersection of Si photonic wire waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(2), 646–647 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

D. Van Thourhout, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, W. Bogaerts, J. Brouckaert, P. P. P. Debackere, P. Dumon, S. Scheerlinck, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, and J. Van Campenhout, “Coupling mechanisms for a heterogeneous silicon nanowire platform,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

G. T. Reed, Silicon Photonics: The State of the Art (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2008).

http://www.microchem.com/products/su_eight.htm , SU-8 3000 Data Sheet.

www.rsoftdesign.com , Rsoft Photonic CAD Suite, ver. 8.0, single license (2007).

Handbook of Optics, http://refractiveindex.info/?group=CRYSTALS&material=Si .

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Design of cross coupler. a) General view (from the bottom) of the structure based by Si wire tapers vertically coupled with wide polymer waveguide. Buried oxide and Si substrate are not shown; b) Through pass transmitting efficiency T for Si wires of different cross section as a function of refractive index of upper waveguide in optimum structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Counter map of power transmittance through cross coupler of fundamental guided mode of Si wire waveguide. a) X-cut, b) Y-cut (due to symmetry we use half structure, X ≥ 0). 3D FDTD simulation. Lg = 3 μm, W = 1.5 μm, H = 1.7 μm, Wg = 200 nm, L = 30 μm, d = 160 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Power distribution in different cross-section. a) begin of structure (z = 4.5 μm) - the main of power is in the Si wire; b) middle of structure (z = 36.5 μm) - the main of power is in the upper polymer waveguide; c) end of structure (z = 72 μm) - the main of power is returned to the Si wire; 3D FDTD simulation. Lg = 3 μm, W = 1.5 μm, H = 1.7 μm, Wg = 200 nm, L = 30 μm, d = 160 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Power transmittance of fundamental guided mode of Si wire waveguide through cross coupler as a function of parameters of Si wire taper. a) versus taper length; b) versus width of taper tip. 3D FDTD simulation. Lg = 3 μm, W = 1.5 μm, H = 1.7 μm, L = 32 μm, Wg = 200 nm, d = 160 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Characterization of optimum cross coupler. a) Transmitting characteristics as a function of height of oxide buffer between Si wire and upper polymer waveguide; b) Wavelength dependences of transmitting characteristics. 3D FDTD simulation. Lg = 3 μm, W = 1.5 μm, H = 1.7 μm, Wg = 180 nm, L = 30 μm, d = 160 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Power transmittance of fundamental guided mode of Si wire waveguide through cross coupler as a function of parameters of upper polymer waveguide. a) as a function of polymer waveguide height; b) as a function of polymer waveguide width. 3D FDTD simulation. Lg = 3 μm, W = 1.5 μm, H = 1.5 μm, Wg = 200 nm, L = 30 μm, d = 160 nm.

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