Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate a tunable slow-light device consisting of all-pass Si microrings. A compact device of 0.014 mm2 footprint is fabricated by using CMOS-compatible process, and its center wavelength, bandwidth and delay are continuously tuned by integrated heaters. The tuning range is 300 ps at fixed wavelengths with a 1 nm bandwidth. Eye opening of 40 Gbps non-return-to-zero signals is observed at up to a 150 ps delay and a 4 bit buffering capacity is confirmed, which corresponds to a spatial buffering density of 0.29 kbit/mm2.

© 2011 OSA

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References

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  1. R. S. Tucker, P.-C. Ku, and C. Chang-Hasnain, “Slow-light optical buffers - capabilities and fundamental limitations,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(12), 4046–4066 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Baba, “Slow light in photonic crystals,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 465–473 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Baba, T. Kawaaski, H. Sasaki, J. Adachi, and D. Mori, “Large delay-bandwidth product and tuning of slow light pulse in photonic crystal coupled waveguide,” Opt. Express 16(12), 9245–9253 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Adachi, N. Ishikura, H. Sasaki, and T. Baba, “Wide range tuning of slow light pulse in SOI photonic crystal coupled waveguide via folded chirping,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 192–199 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, Z. Pan, A. O. Karalar, S. S. Djordjevic, C. Yang, W. Chen, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Continuously tunable, wavelength-selective buffering in optical packet switching network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(12), 1030–1032 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. M. J. Green, H. F. Hamann, L. Sekaric, M. J. Rooks, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact reconfigurable silicon optical devices using micron-scale localized thermal heating,” Tech. Dig. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., OtuM3 (2007).
  7. J. Cardenas, M. A. Foster, N. Sherwood-Droz, C. B. Poitras, H. L. R. Lira, B. Zhang, A. L. Gaeta, J. B. Khurgin, P. Morton, and M. Lipson, “Wide-bandwidth continuously tunable optical delay line using silicon microring resonators,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26525–26534 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O'Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(2), 181–194 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, J. T. Robinson, K. Preston, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, “Low loss etchless silicon photonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4752–4757 (2009).
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2010 (3)

J. Adachi, N. Ishikura, H. Sasaki, and T. Baba, “Wide range tuning of slow light pulse in SOI photonic crystal coupled waveguide via folded chirping,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 192–199 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O'Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Cardenas, M. A. Foster, N. Sherwood-Droz, C. B. Poitras, H. L. R. Lira, B. Zhang, A. L. Gaeta, J. B. Khurgin, P. Morton, and M. Lipson, “Wide-bandwidth continuously tunable optical delay line using silicon microring resonators,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26525–26534 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (5)

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, S. Uchiyama, and S. Itabashi, “Low-loss Si wire waveguides and their application to thermooptic switches,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(No. 8B), 6658–6662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

Adachi, J.

J. Adachi, N. Ishikura, H. Sasaki, and T. Baba, “Wide range tuning of slow light pulse in SOI photonic crystal coupled waveguide via folded chirping,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 192–199 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Baba, T. Kawaaski, H. Sasaki, J. Adachi, and D. Mori, “Large delay-bandwidth product and tuning of slow light pulse in photonic crystal coupled waveguide,” Opt. Express 16(12), 9245–9253 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baba, T.

J. Adachi, N. Ishikura, H. Sasaki, and T. Baba, “Wide range tuning of slow light pulse in SOI photonic crystal coupled waveguide via folded chirping,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 192–199 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Baba, “Slow light in photonic crystals,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 465–473 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Baba, T. Kawaaski, H. Sasaki, J. Adachi, and D. Mori, “Large delay-bandwidth product and tuning of slow light pulse in photonic crystal coupled waveguide,” Opt. Express 16(12), 9245–9253 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Canciamilla, A.

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O'Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cardenas, J.

Chang-Hasnain, C.

Chen, L.

Chen, W.

J. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, Z. Pan, A. O. Karalar, S. S. Djordjevic, C. Yang, W. Chen, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Continuously tunable, wavelength-selective buffering in optical packet switching network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(12), 1030–1032 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.

J. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, Z. Pan, A. O. Karalar, S. S. Djordjevic, C. Yang, W. Chen, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Continuously tunable, wavelength-selective buffering in optical packet switching network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(12), 1030–1032 (2008).
[CrossRef]

De La Rue, R.

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O'Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Djordjevic, S. S.

J. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, Z. Pan, A. O. Karalar, S. S. Djordjevic, C. Yang, W. Chen, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Continuously tunable, wavelength-selective buffering in optical packet switching network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(12), 1030–1032 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, C.

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O'Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, C. Ferrari, and M. Martinelli, “Continuously tunable 1 byte delay in coupled-resonator optical waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 33(20), 2389–2391 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fontaine, N. K.

J. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, Z. Pan, A. O. Karalar, S. S. Djordjevic, C. Yang, W. Chen, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Continuously tunable, wavelength-selective buffering in optical packet switching network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(12), 1030–1032 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Foster, M. A.

Fukuda, H.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, S. Uchiyama, and S. Itabashi, “Low-loss Si wire waveguides and their application to thermooptic switches,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(No. 8B), 6658–6662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gaeta, A. L.

Hoekstra, H. J. W. M.

Ishikura, N.

J. Adachi, N. Ishikura, H. Sasaki, and T. Baba, “Wide range tuning of slow light pulse in SOI photonic crystal coupled waveguide via folded chirping,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 192–199 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Itabashi, S.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, S. Uchiyama, and S. Itabashi, “Low-loss Si wire waveguides and their application to thermooptic switches,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(No. 8B), 6658–6662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Karalar, A. O.

J. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, Z. Pan, A. O. Karalar, S. S. Djordjevic, C. Yang, W. Chen, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Continuously tunable, wavelength-selective buffering in optical packet switching network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(12), 1030–1032 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kawaaski, T.

Khurgin, J. B.

Krauss, T. F.

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O'Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ku, P.-C.

Li, Q.

Lipson, M.

Lira, H. L. R.

Little, B. E.

J. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, Z. Pan, A. O. Karalar, S. S. Djordjevic, C. Yang, W. Chen, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Continuously tunable, wavelength-selective buffering in optical packet switching network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(12), 1030–1032 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, F.

Martinelli, M.

Melloni, A.

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O'Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, C. Ferrari, and M. Martinelli, “Continuously tunable 1 byte delay in coupled-resonator optical waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 33(20), 2389–2391 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mori, D.

Morichetti, F.

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O'Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, C. Ferrari, and M. Martinelli, “Continuously tunable 1 byte delay in coupled-resonator optical waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 33(20), 2389–2391 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morton, P.

O'Faolain, L.

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O'Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pan, Z.

J. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, Z. Pan, A. O. Karalar, S. S. Djordjevic, C. Yang, W. Chen, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Continuously tunable, wavelength-selective buffering in optical packet switching network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(12), 1030–1032 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Poitras, C. B.

Preston, K.

Qiu, M.

Robinson, J. T.

Samarelli, A.

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O'Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, H.

J. Adachi, N. Ishikura, H. Sasaki, and T. Baba, “Wide range tuning of slow light pulse in SOI photonic crystal coupled waveguide via folded chirping,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 192–199 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Baba, T. Kawaaski, H. Sasaki, J. Adachi, and D. Mori, “Large delay-bandwidth product and tuning of slow light pulse in photonic crystal coupled waveguide,” Opt. Express 16(12), 9245–9253 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sekaric, L.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sherwood-Droz, N.

Sorel, M.

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O'Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Su, Y.

Tsuchizawa, T.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, S. Uchiyama, and S. Itabashi, “Low-loss Si wire waveguides and their application to thermooptic switches,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(No. 8B), 6658–6662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tucker, R. S.

Uchiyama, S.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, S. Uchiyama, and S. Itabashi, “Low-loss Si wire waveguides and their application to thermooptic switches,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(No. 8B), 6658–6662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Uranus, H. P.

Vlasov, Y.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, T.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, S. Uchiyama, and S. Itabashi, “Low-loss Si wire waveguides and their application to thermooptic switches,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(No. 8B), 6658–6662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xia, F.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, K.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, S. Uchiyama, and S. Itabashi, “Low-loss Si wire waveguides and their application to thermooptic switches,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(No. 8B), 6658–6662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.

J. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, Z. Pan, A. O. Karalar, S. S. Djordjevic, C. Yang, W. Chen, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Continuously tunable, wavelength-selective buffering in optical packet switching network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(12), 1030–1032 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

J. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, Z. Pan, A. O. Karalar, S. S. Djordjevic, C. Yang, W. Chen, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Continuously tunable, wavelength-selective buffering in optical packet switching network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(12), 1030–1032 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, S. J. B.

J. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, Z. Pan, A. O. Karalar, S. S. Djordjevic, C. Yang, W. Chen, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Continuously tunable, wavelength-selective buffering in optical packet switching network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(12), 1030–1032 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B.

Zhang, Z.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Adachi, N. Ishikura, H. Sasaki, and T. Baba, “Wide range tuning of slow light pulse in SOI photonic crystal coupled waveguide via folded chirping,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 192–199 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

A. Melloni, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, F. Morichetti, L. O'Faolain, T. F. Krauss, R. De La Rue, A. Samarelli, and M. Sorel, “Tunable delay lines in silicon photonics: coupled resonators and photonic crystals, a comparison,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(2), 181–194 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, Z. Pan, A. O. Karalar, S. S. Djordjevic, C. Yang, W. Chen, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Continuously tunable, wavelength-selective buffering in optical packet switching network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(12), 1030–1032 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, S. Uchiyama, and S. Itabashi, “Low-loss Si wire waveguides and their application to thermooptic switches,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(No. 8B), 6658–6662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (2)

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Baba, “Slow light in photonic crystals,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 465–473 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (2)

W. M. J. Green, H. F. Hamann, L. Sekaric, M. J. Rooks, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact reconfigurable silicon optical devices using micron-scale localized thermal heating,” Tech. Dig. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., OtuM3 (2007).

K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides, 2nd ed. (Academic Press, 2000).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics of all-pass-type microring array (upper figure) and delay spectrum (lower figure). (a) Single ring model. (b) Multi-ring model with uniform index profile and the same resonant wavelength. (c) Multi-ring model with sloped index profile and detuned resonant wavelengths forming an envelope spectrum.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical microscope images of fabricated device.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission and delay spectra. (a) Dependence on gap g without heating. Red, green and blue correspond to g = 0.19, 0.21 and 0.23 μm, respectively. (b) Change of delay spectrum with heating for g = 0.23 μm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Eye diagram (a) and bit pattern (b) of 40 Gbps NRZ 27−1 PRBS signal output from the device. A-D correspond to those in Fig. 3.

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T ( λ ) = 1 ( 1 A ) ( 1 T 0 ) ( 1 A T 0 ) 2 + 4 A T 0 sin 2 ( π n eq / λ )
Δ λ 0 = C 1 λ 0 2 / π n g   for   C 1 T 0 1 / 4 T 0 1 / 4
L 0 = 4.34 ( C 2 / C 1 ) α [ dB ] , Δ t 0 = ( C 2 / C 1 ) n g / c   for   C 2 T 0 1 / 4 + T 0 1 / 4
D B P = 0.318 C 2 , M = 0.459 η C 2
L 0 / M = 9.46 α / η C 1 [ dB/bit ]
p = ( / π ) ( 1 + δ ) , S 0 = ( / π ) 2 ( 1 + δ )
n geff = c Δ t 0 / p = π n g ( C 2 / C 1 ) / ( 1 + δ )
F O M = λ C 2 / ( 1 + δ ) , M / S = 4.53 η F O M / λ
T ( λ ) 1 N ( 1 A ) ( 1 T 0 ) ( 1 A T 0 ) 2 + 4 A T 0 sin 2 ( π n eq / λ )
T ( λ ) 1 i = 1 N ( 1 A ) ( 1 T 0 ) ( 1 A T 0 ) 2 + 4 A T 0 sin 2 ( π n eq ( i ) / λ )

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