Abstract

We report on orange a-plane light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with InGaN single quantum well (SQW) grown on r-plane sapphire substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The peak wavelength and the full-width at half maximum (FWHM) at a drive current of 20mA were 612.2 nm and 72 nm, respectively. The device demonstrated a blue shift in emission wavelength from 614.6 nm at 10 mA to 607.5 nm at 100 mA, representing a net shift of 7.1 nm over a 90 mA range, which is the longest wavelength compared with reported values in nonpolar LEDs. The polarization ratio values obtained from the orange LED varied between 0.36 and 0.44 from 10 to 100mA and a weak dependence of the polarization ratio on the injection current was observed.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(27), 4188–4190 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on free-standing m-plane GaN substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5), L173–L175 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Saito, K. Okuno, S. Boyama, N. Nakada, S. Nitta, Y. Ushida, and N. Shibata, “m-plane GaInN light emitting diodes grown on patterned a-plane sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041001 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Green light emitting diodes on a-plane GaN bulk substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241109 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S.-M. Hwang, Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, I.-S. Cho, J. H. Baek, S. Jung, T. G. Kim, and M. Cho, “Demonstration of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on r-plane sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071101 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Masui, T. J. Baker, R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “First-moment analysis of polarized light emission from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes prepared semipolar planes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(34), L904–L906 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Funato, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, T. Kosugi, M. Takahashi, and T. Mukai, “Blue, green, and amber InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on semipolar {11-22} GaN bulk substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(26), L659–L662 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. B. Chung, Y. Lin, I. Koslow, N. Pfaff, H. Ohta, J. Ha, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Electroluminescence characterization of (20-21) InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with various wavelengths,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(7), 070203 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. N. F. Gardner, J. C. Kim, J. J. Wierer, Y. C. Shen, and M. R. Krames, “Polarization anisotropy in the electroluminescence of m-plane InGaN–GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(11), 111101 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Polarized light emission from nonpolar InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on a bulk m-plane GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(43), L1329–L1332 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10-1-3) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231110 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Masui, T. J. Baker, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Light-polarization characteristics of electroluminescence from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes prepared on (11-22) plane GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113109 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S.-I. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2, No. 7A), L797–L799 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. P. O'Donnell, T. Breitkopf, H. Kalt, W. Van der Stricht, I. Moerman, P. Demeester, and P. G. Middleton, “Optical linewidths of InGaN light emitting diodes and epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(14), 1843–1845 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. Yamada, K. Iso, M. Saito, H. Masui, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Compositional dependence of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 041101 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. Song, J. Suh, E. Kyu Kim, K. Hyeon Baik, and S.-M. Hwang, “Growth of high quality a-plane GaN epi-layer on r-plane sapphire substrates with optimization of multi-buffer layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(21), 3122–3126 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. You, T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, W. Hou, E. A. Preble, D. Hanser, T. Paskova, and C. Wetzel, “Highly polarized green light emitting diode in m-axis GaInN/GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(10), 102103 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  20. K. Iso, H. Yamada, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “High brightness blue InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on nonpolar m-plane bulk GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L960–L962 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  21. T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, M. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/ GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091906 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  22. H.-H. Huang and Y.-R. Wu, “Study of polarization properties of light emitted from a-plane InGaN/GaN quantum well-based light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023106 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  23. N. Fellows, H. Sato, H. Masui, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increased polarization ratio on semipolar (11–22) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with increasing indium composition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(10), 7854–7856 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  24. H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optical polarization characteristics of m-oriented InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with various indium compositions in single-quantum-well structure,” J. Phys. D 41(22), 225104 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  25. Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, K.-M. Song, S. Lee, H. Yoon, J.-H. Park, K. Oh, and S.-M. Hwang, “Milliwatt-class non-polar a-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown directly on r-plane sapphire substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(6), 1407–1410 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  26. C. H. Chiu, S. Y. Kuo, M. H. Lo, C. C. Ke, T. C. Wang, Y. T. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Optical properties of a-plane InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on r-plane sapphire substrates with different indium compositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(6), 063105 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. M. Fischer, Z. Wu, K. Sun, Q. Wei, Y. Huang, R. Senda, D. Iida, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, and F. A. Ponce, “Misfit strain relaxation by stacking fault generation in InGaN quantum wells grown on m-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041002 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (4)

R. B. Chung, Y. Lin, I. Koslow, N. Pfaff, H. Ohta, J. Ha, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Electroluminescence characterization of (20-21) InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with various wavelengths,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(7), 070203 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Song, J. Suh, E. Kyu Kim, K. Hyeon Baik, and S.-M. Hwang, “Growth of high quality a-plane GaN epi-layer on r-plane sapphire substrates with optimization of multi-buffer layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(21), 3122–3126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. You, T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, W. Hou, E. A. Preble, D. Hanser, T. Paskova, and C. Wetzel, “Highly polarized green light emitting diode in m-axis GaInN/GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(10), 102103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, K.-M. Song, S. Lee, H. Yoon, J.-H. Park, K. Oh, and S.-M. Hwang, “Milliwatt-class non-polar a-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown directly on r-plane sapphire substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(6), 1407–1410 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

C. H. Chiu, S. Y. Kuo, M. H. Lo, C. C. Ke, T. C. Wang, Y. T. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Optical properties of a-plane InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on r-plane sapphire substrates with different indium compositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(6), 063105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Fischer, Z. Wu, K. Sun, Q. Wei, Y. Huang, R. Senda, D. Iida, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, and F. A. Ponce, “Misfit strain relaxation by stacking fault generation in InGaN quantum wells grown on m-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H.-H. Huang and Y.-R. Wu, “Study of polarization properties of light emitted from a-plane InGaN/GaN quantum well-based light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Saito, K. Okuno, S. Boyama, N. Nakada, S. Nitta, Y. Ushida, and N. Shibata, “m-plane GaInN light emitting diodes grown on patterned a-plane sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-M. Hwang, Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, I.-S. Cho, J. H. Baek, S. Jung, T. G. Kim, and M. Cho, “Demonstration of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on r-plane sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Green light emitting diodes on a-plane GaN bulk substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Yamada, K. Iso, M. Saito, H. Masui, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Compositional dependence of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 041101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Fellows, H. Sato, H. Masui, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increased polarization ratio on semipolar (11–22) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with increasing indium composition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(10), 7854–7856 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optical polarization characteristics of m-oriented InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with various indium compositions in single-quantum-well structure,” J. Phys. D 41(22), 225104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

K. Iso, H. Yamada, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “High brightness blue InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on nonpolar m-plane bulk GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L960–L962 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, M. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/ GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, T. J. Baker, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Light-polarization characteristics of electroluminescence from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes prepared on (11-22) plane GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, T. J. Baker, R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “First-moment analysis of polarized light emission from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes prepared semipolar planes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(34), L904–L906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Funato, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, T. Kosugi, M. Takahashi, and T. Mukai, “Blue, green, and amber InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on semipolar {11-22} GaN bulk substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(26), L659–L662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on free-standing m-plane GaN substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5), L173–L175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Gardner, J. C. Kim, J. J. Wierer, Y. C. Shen, and M. R. Krames, “Polarization anisotropy in the electroluminescence of m-plane InGaN–GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(11), 111101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Polarized light emission from nonpolar InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on a bulk m-plane GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(43), L1329–L1332 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10-1-3) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. P. O'Donnell, T. Breitkopf, H. Kalt, W. Van der Stricht, I. Moerman, P. Demeester, and P. G. Middleton, “Optical linewidths of InGaN light emitting diodes and epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(14), 1843–1845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(27), 4188–4190 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S.-I. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2, No. 7A), L797–L799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Amano, H.

A. M. Fischer, Z. Wu, K. Sun, Q. Wei, Y. Huang, R. Senda, D. Iida, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, and F. A. Ponce, “Misfit strain relaxation by stacking fault generation in InGaN quantum wells grown on m-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Azuhata, T.

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(27), 4188–4190 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Baek, J. H.

S.-M. Hwang, Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, I.-S. Cho, J. H. Baek, S. Jung, T. G. Kim, and M. Cho, “Demonstration of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on r-plane sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baik, K. H.

Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, K.-M. Song, S. Lee, H. Yoon, J.-H. Park, K. Oh, and S.-M. Hwang, “Milliwatt-class non-polar a-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown directly on r-plane sapphire substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(6), 1407–1410 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S.-M. Hwang, Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, I.-S. Cho, J. H. Baek, S. Jung, T. G. Kim, and M. Cho, “Demonstration of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on r-plane sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baker, T. J.

H. Masui, T. J. Baker, R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “First-moment analysis of polarized light emission from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes prepared semipolar planes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(34), L904–L906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, T. J. Baker, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Light-polarization characteristics of electroluminescence from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes prepared on (11-22) plane GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10-1-3) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bernardini, F.

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Boyama, S.

Y. Saito, K. Okuno, S. Boyama, N. Nakada, S. Nitta, Y. Ushida, and N. Shibata, “m-plane GaInN light emitting diodes grown on patterned a-plane sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brandt, O.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Breitkopf, T.

K. P. O'Donnell, T. Breitkopf, H. Kalt, W. Van der Stricht, I. Moerman, P. Demeester, and P. G. Middleton, “Optical linewidths of InGaN light emitting diodes and epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(14), 1843–1845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chakraborty, A.

T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, M. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/ GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Polarized light emission from nonpolar InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on a bulk m-plane GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(43), L1329–L1332 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on free-standing m-plane GaN substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5), L173–L175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chichibu, S.

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(27), 4188–4190 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chichibu, S. F.

T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, M. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/ GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, C. H.

C. H. Chiu, S. Y. Kuo, M. H. Lo, C. C. Ke, T. C. Wang, Y. T. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Optical properties of a-plane InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on r-plane sapphire substrates with different indium compositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(6), 063105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cho, I.-S.

S.-M. Hwang, Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, I.-S. Cho, J. H. Baek, S. Jung, T. G. Kim, and M. Cho, “Demonstration of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on r-plane sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cho, M.

S.-M. Hwang, Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, I.-S. Cho, J. H. Baek, S. Jung, T. G. Kim, and M. Cho, “Demonstration of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on r-plane sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chung, R. B.

R. B. Chung, Y. Lin, I. Koslow, N. Pfaff, H. Ohta, J. Ha, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Electroluminescence characterization of (20-21) InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with various wavelengths,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(7), 070203 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Demeester, P.

K. P. O'Donnell, T. Breitkopf, H. Kalt, W. Van der Stricht, I. Moerman, P. Demeester, and P. G. Middleton, “Optical linewidths of InGaN light emitting diodes and epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(14), 1843–1845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

R. B. Chung, Y. Lin, I. Koslow, N. Pfaff, H. Ohta, J. Ha, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Electroluminescence characterization of (20-21) InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with various wavelengths,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(7), 070203 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Yamada, K. Iso, M. Saito, H. Masui, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Compositional dependence of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 041101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optical polarization characteristics of m-oriented InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with various indium compositions in single-quantum-well structure,” J. Phys. D 41(22), 225104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Fellows, H. Sato, H. Masui, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increased polarization ratio on semipolar (11–22) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with increasing indium composition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(10), 7854–7856 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Iso, H. Yamada, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “High brightness blue InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on nonpolar m-plane bulk GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L960–L962 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, T. J. Baker, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Light-polarization characteristics of electroluminescence from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes prepared on (11-22) plane GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, T. J. Baker, R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “First-moment analysis of polarized light emission from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes prepared semipolar planes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(34), L904–L906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, M. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/ GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on free-standing m-plane GaN substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5), L173–L175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10-1-3) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Polarized light emission from nonpolar InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on a bulk m-plane GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(43), L1329–L1332 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Detchprohm, T.

S. You, T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, W. Hou, E. A. Preble, D. Hanser, T. Paskova, and C. Wetzel, “Highly polarized green light emitting diode in m-axis GaInN/GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(10), 102103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Green light emitting diodes on a-plane GaN bulk substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Farrell, R. M.

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10-1-3) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fellows, N.

N. Fellows, H. Sato, H. Masui, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increased polarization ratio on semipolar (11–22) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with increasing indium composition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(10), 7854–7856 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Iso, H. Yamada, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “High brightness blue InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on nonpolar m-plane bulk GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L960–L962 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fiorentini, V.

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, A. M.

A. M. Fischer, Z. Wu, K. Sun, Q. Wei, Y. Huang, R. Senda, D. Iida, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, and F. A. Ponce, “Misfit strain relaxation by stacking fault generation in InGaN quantum wells grown on m-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fujito, K.

H. Yamada, K. Iso, M. Saito, H. Masui, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Compositional dependence of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 041101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Iso, H. Yamada, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “High brightness blue InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on nonpolar m-plane bulk GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L960–L962 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Funato, M.

M. Funato, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, T. Kosugi, M. Takahashi, and T. Mukai, “Blue, green, and amber InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on semipolar {11-22} GaN bulk substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(26), L659–L662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, N. F.

N. F. Gardner, J. C. Kim, J. J. Wierer, Y. C. Shen, and M. R. Krames, “Polarization anisotropy in the electroluminescence of m-plane InGaN–GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(11), 111101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grahn, H. T.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ha, J.

R. B. Chung, Y. Lin, I. Koslow, N. Pfaff, H. Ohta, J. Ha, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Electroluminescence characterization of (20-21) InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with various wavelengths,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(7), 070203 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hanser, D.

S. You, T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, W. Hou, E. A. Preble, D. Hanser, T. Paskova, and C. Wetzel, “Highly polarized green light emitting diode in m-axis GaInN/GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(10), 102103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Green light emitting diodes on a-plane GaN bulk substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haskell, B. A.

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on free-standing m-plane GaN substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5), L173–L175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Polarized light emission from nonpolar InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on a bulk m-plane GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(43), L1329–L1332 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10-1-3) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Haskell, M. A.

T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, M. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/ GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hirasawa, H.

K. Iso, H. Yamada, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “High brightness blue InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on nonpolar m-plane bulk GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L960–L962 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hou, W.

S. You, T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, W. Hou, E. A. Preble, D. Hanser, T. Paskova, and C. Wetzel, “Highly polarized green light emitting diode in m-axis GaInN/GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(10), 102103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H.-H.

H.-H. Huang and Y.-R. Wu, “Study of polarization properties of light emitted from a-plane InGaN/GaN quantum well-based light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

A. M. Fischer, Z. Wu, K. Sun, Q. Wei, Y. Huang, R. Senda, D. Iida, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, and F. A. Ponce, “Misfit strain relaxation by stacking fault generation in InGaN quantum wells grown on m-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, S.-M.

Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, K.-M. Song, S. Lee, H. Yoon, J.-H. Park, K. Oh, and S.-M. Hwang, “Milliwatt-class non-polar a-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown directly on r-plane sapphire substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(6), 1407–1410 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Song, J. Suh, E. Kyu Kim, K. Hyeon Baik, and S.-M. Hwang, “Growth of high quality a-plane GaN epi-layer on r-plane sapphire substrates with optimization of multi-buffer layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(21), 3122–3126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S.-M. Hwang, Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, I.-S. Cho, J. H. Baek, S. Jung, T. G. Kim, and M. Cho, “Demonstration of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on r-plane sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hyeon Baik, K.

H. Song, J. Suh, E. Kyu Kim, K. Hyeon Baik, and S.-M. Hwang, “Growth of high quality a-plane GaN epi-layer on r-plane sapphire substrates with optimization of multi-buffer layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(21), 3122–3126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Iida, D.

A. M. Fischer, Z. Wu, K. Sun, Q. Wei, Y. Huang, R. Senda, D. Iida, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, and F. A. Ponce, “Misfit strain relaxation by stacking fault generation in InGaN quantum wells grown on m-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Iso, K.

H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optical polarization characteristics of m-oriented InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with various indium compositions in single-quantum-well structure,” J. Phys. D 41(22), 225104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Yamada, K. Iso, M. Saito, H. Masui, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Compositional dependence of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 041101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Iso, H. Yamada, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “High brightness blue InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on nonpolar m-plane bulk GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L960–L962 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Iwasa, N.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S.-I. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2, No. 7A), L797–L799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Iwaya, M.

A. M. Fischer, Z. Wu, K. Sun, Q. Wei, Y. Huang, R. Senda, D. Iida, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, and F. A. Ponce, “Misfit strain relaxation by stacking fault generation in InGaN quantum wells grown on m-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Iza, M.

H. Masui, T. J. Baker, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Light-polarization characteristics of electroluminescence from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes prepared on (11-22) plane GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, T. J. Baker, R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “First-moment analysis of polarized light emission from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes prepared semipolar planes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(34), L904–L906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jung, S.

S.-M. Hwang, Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, I.-S. Cho, J. H. Baek, S. Jung, T. G. Kim, and M. Cho, “Demonstration of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on r-plane sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kalt, H.

K. P. O'Donnell, T. Breitkopf, H. Kalt, W. Van der Stricht, I. Moerman, P. Demeester, and P. G. Middleton, “Optical linewidths of InGaN light emitting diodes and epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(14), 1843–1845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, Y.

M. Funato, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, T. Kosugi, M. Takahashi, and T. Mukai, “Blue, green, and amber InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on semipolar {11-22} GaN bulk substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(26), L659–L662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ke, C. C.

C. H. Chiu, S. Y. Kuo, M. H. Lo, C. C. Ke, T. C. Wang, Y. T. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Optical properties of a-plane InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on r-plane sapphire substrates with different indium compositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(6), 063105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Keller, S.

T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, M. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/ GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on free-standing m-plane GaN substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5), L173–L175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. C.

N. F. Gardner, J. C. Kim, J. J. Wierer, Y. C. Shen, and M. R. Krames, “Polarization anisotropy in the electroluminescence of m-plane InGaN–GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(11), 111101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T. G.

S.-M. Hwang, Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, I.-S. Cho, J. H. Baek, S. Jung, T. G. Kim, and M. Cho, “Demonstration of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on r-plane sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Koslow, I.

R. B. Chung, Y. Lin, I. Koslow, N. Pfaff, H. Ohta, J. Ha, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Electroluminescence characterization of (20-21) InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with various wavelengths,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(7), 070203 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kosugi, T.

M. Funato, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, T. Kosugi, M. Takahashi, and T. Mukai, “Blue, green, and amber InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on semipolar {11-22} GaN bulk substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(26), L659–L662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koyama, T.

T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, M. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/ GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krames, M. R.

N. F. Gardner, J. C. Kim, J. J. Wierer, Y. C. Shen, and M. R. Krames, “Polarization anisotropy in the electroluminescence of m-plane InGaN–GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(11), 111101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

C. H. Chiu, S. Y. Kuo, M. H. Lo, C. C. Ke, T. C. Wang, Y. T. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Optical properties of a-plane InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on r-plane sapphire substrates with different indium compositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(6), 063105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, S. Y.

C. H. Chiu, S. Y. Kuo, M. H. Lo, C. C. Ke, T. C. Wang, Y. T. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Optical properties of a-plane InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on r-plane sapphire substrates with different indium compositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(6), 063105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kyu Kim, E.

H. Song, J. Suh, E. Kyu Kim, K. Hyeon Baik, and S.-M. Hwang, “Growth of high quality a-plane GaN epi-layer on r-plane sapphire substrates with optimization of multi-buffer layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(21), 3122–3126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, K.-M. Song, S. Lee, H. Yoon, J.-H. Park, K. Oh, and S.-M. Hwang, “Milliwatt-class non-polar a-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown directly on r-plane sapphire substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(6), 1407–1410 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. T.

C. H. Chiu, S. Y. Kuo, M. H. Lo, C. C. Ke, T. C. Wang, Y. T. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Optical properties of a-plane InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on r-plane sapphire substrates with different indium compositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(6), 063105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Green light emitting diodes on a-plane GaN bulk substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.

R. B. Chung, Y. Lin, I. Koslow, N. Pfaff, H. Ohta, J. Ha, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Electroluminescence characterization of (20-21) InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with various wavelengths,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(7), 070203 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Green light emitting diodes on a-plane GaN bulk substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lo, M. H.

C. H. Chiu, S. Y. Kuo, M. H. Lo, C. C. Ke, T. C. Wang, Y. T. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Optical properties of a-plane InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on r-plane sapphire substrates with different indium compositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(6), 063105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T. C.

C. H. Chiu, S. Y. Kuo, M. H. Lo, C. C. Ke, T. C. Wang, Y. T. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Optical properties of a-plane InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on r-plane sapphire substrates with different indium compositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(6), 063105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Masui, H.

N. Fellows, H. Sato, H. Masui, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increased polarization ratio on semipolar (11–22) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with increasing indium composition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(10), 7854–7856 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optical polarization characteristics of m-oriented InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with various indium compositions in single-quantum-well structure,” J. Phys. D 41(22), 225104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Yamada, K. Iso, M. Saito, H. Masui, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Compositional dependence of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 041101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, T. J. Baker, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Light-polarization characteristics of electroluminescence from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes prepared on (11-22) plane GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, T. J. Baker, R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “First-moment analysis of polarized light emission from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes prepared semipolar planes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(34), L904–L906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, M. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/ GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Polarized light emission from nonpolar InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on a bulk m-plane GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(43), L1329–L1332 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10-1-3) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Menniger, J.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Middleton, P. G.

K. P. O'Donnell, T. Breitkopf, H. Kalt, W. Van der Stricht, I. Moerman, P. Demeester, and P. G. Middleton, “Optical linewidths of InGaN light emitting diodes and epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(14), 1843–1845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, U. K.

T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, M. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/ GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Polarized light emission from nonpolar InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on a bulk m-plane GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(43), L1329–L1332 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on free-standing m-plane GaN substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5), L173–L175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moerman, I.

K. P. O'Donnell, T. Breitkopf, H. Kalt, W. Van der Stricht, I. Moerman, P. Demeester, and P. G. Middleton, “Optical linewidths of InGaN light emitting diodes and epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(14), 1843–1845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, T.

M. Funato, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, T. Kosugi, M. Takahashi, and T. Mukai, “Blue, green, and amber InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on semipolar {11-22} GaN bulk substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(26), L659–L662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nagahama, S.-I.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S.-I. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2, No. 7A), L797–L799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nakada, N.

Y. Saito, K. Okuno, S. Boyama, N. Nakada, S. Nitta, Y. Ushida, and N. Shibata, “m-plane GaInN light emitting diodes grown on patterned a-plane sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

R. B. Chung, Y. Lin, I. Koslow, N. Pfaff, H. Ohta, J. Ha, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Electroluminescence characterization of (20-21) InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with various wavelengths,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(7), 070203 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Yamada, K. Iso, M. Saito, H. Masui, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Compositional dependence of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 041101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Fellows, H. Sato, H. Masui, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increased polarization ratio on semipolar (11–22) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with increasing indium composition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(10), 7854–7856 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optical polarization characteristics of m-oriented InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with various indium compositions in single-quantum-well structure,” J. Phys. D 41(22), 225104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Iso, H. Yamada, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “High brightness blue InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on nonpolar m-plane bulk GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L960–L962 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, T. J. Baker, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Light-polarization characteristics of electroluminescence from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes prepared on (11-22) plane GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, T. J. Baker, R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “First-moment analysis of polarized light emission from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes prepared semipolar planes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(34), L904–L906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, M. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/ GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on free-standing m-plane GaN substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5), L173–L175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10-1-3) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Polarized light emission from nonpolar InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on a bulk m-plane GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(43), L1329–L1332 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(27), 4188–4190 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S.-I. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2, No. 7A), L797–L799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Narukawa, Y.

M. Funato, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, T. Kosugi, M. Takahashi, and T. Mukai, “Blue, green, and amber InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on semipolar {11-22} GaN bulk substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(26), L659–L662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nitta, S.

Y. Saito, K. Okuno, S. Boyama, N. Nakada, S. Nitta, Y. Ushida, and N. Shibata, “m-plane GaInN light emitting diodes grown on patterned a-plane sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O'Donnell, K. P.

K. P. O'Donnell, T. Breitkopf, H. Kalt, W. Van der Stricht, I. Moerman, P. Demeester, and P. G. Middleton, “Optical linewidths of InGaN light emitting diodes and epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(14), 1843–1845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Oh, K.

Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, K.-M. Song, S. Lee, H. Yoon, J.-H. Park, K. Oh, and S.-M. Hwang, “Milliwatt-class non-polar a-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown directly on r-plane sapphire substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(6), 1407–1410 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ohta, H.

R. B. Chung, Y. Lin, I. Koslow, N. Pfaff, H. Ohta, J. Ha, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Electroluminescence characterization of (20-21) InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with various wavelengths,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(7), 070203 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Okuno, K.

Y. Saito, K. Okuno, S. Boyama, N. Nakada, S. Nitta, Y. Ushida, and N. Shibata, “m-plane GaInN light emitting diodes grown on patterned a-plane sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Onuma, T.

T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, M. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/ GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.-H.

Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, K.-M. Song, S. Lee, H. Yoon, J.-H. Park, K. Oh, and S.-M. Hwang, “Milliwatt-class non-polar a-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown directly on r-plane sapphire substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(6), 1407–1410 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Paskova, T.

S. You, T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, W. Hou, E. A. Preble, D. Hanser, T. Paskova, and C. Wetzel, “Highly polarized green light emitting diode in m-axis GaInN/GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(10), 102103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Green light emitting diodes on a-plane GaN bulk substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pattison, P. M.

H. Masui, T. J. Baker, R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “First-moment analysis of polarized light emission from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes prepared semipolar planes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(34), L904–L906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10-1-3) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pfa?, N.

R. B. Chung, Y. Lin, I. Koslow, N. Pfaff, H. Ohta, J. Ha, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Electroluminescence characterization of (20-21) InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with various wavelengths,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(7), 070203 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ploog, K. H.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ponce, F. A.

A. M. Fischer, Z. Wu, K. Sun, Q. Wei, Y. Huang, R. Senda, D. Iida, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, and F. A. Ponce, “Misfit strain relaxation by stacking fault generation in InGaN quantum wells grown on m-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Preble, E. A.

S. You, T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, W. Hou, E. A. Preble, D. Hanser, T. Paskova, and C. Wetzel, “Highly polarized green light emitting diode in m-axis GaInN/GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(10), 102103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Green light emitting diodes on a-plane GaN bulk substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ramsteiner, M.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reiche, M.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saito, M.

H. Yamada, K. Iso, M. Saito, H. Masui, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Compositional dependence of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 041101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Iso, H. Yamada, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “High brightness blue InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on nonpolar m-plane bulk GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L960–L962 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Saito, Y.

Y. Saito, K. Okuno, S. Boyama, N. Nakada, S. Nitta, Y. Ushida, and N. Shibata, “m-plane GaInN light emitting diodes grown on patterned a-plane sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sato, H.

N. Fellows, H. Sato, H. Masui, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increased polarization ratio on semipolar (11–22) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with increasing indium composition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(10), 7854–7856 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Senda, R.

A. M. Fischer, Z. Wu, K. Sun, Q. Wei, Y. Huang, R. Senda, D. Iida, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, and F. A. Ponce, “Misfit strain relaxation by stacking fault generation in InGaN quantum wells grown on m-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Senoh, M.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S.-I. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2, No. 7A), L797–L799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Seo, Y. G.

Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, K.-M. Song, S. Lee, H. Yoon, J.-H. Park, K. Oh, and S.-M. Hwang, “Milliwatt-class non-polar a-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown directly on r-plane sapphire substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(6), 1407–1410 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S.-M. Hwang, Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, I.-S. Cho, J. H. Baek, S. Jung, T. G. Kim, and M. Cho, “Demonstration of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on r-plane sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, R.

H. Masui, T. J. Baker, R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “First-moment analysis of polarized light emission from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes prepared semipolar planes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(34), L904–L906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10-1-3) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. C.

N. F. Gardner, J. C. Kim, J. J. Wierer, Y. C. Shen, and M. R. Krames, “Polarization anisotropy in the electroluminescence of m-plane InGaN–GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(11), 111101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, N.

Y. Saito, K. Okuno, S. Boyama, N. Nakada, S. Nitta, Y. Ushida, and N. Shibata, “m-plane GaInN light emitting diodes grown on patterned a-plane sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Song, H.

H. Song, J. Suh, E. Kyu Kim, K. Hyeon Baik, and S.-M. Hwang, “Growth of high quality a-plane GaN epi-layer on r-plane sapphire substrates with optimization of multi-buffer layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(21), 3122–3126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Song, K.-M.

Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, K.-M. Song, S. Lee, H. Yoon, J.-H. Park, K. Oh, and S.-M. Hwang, “Milliwatt-class non-polar a-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown directly on r-plane sapphire substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(6), 1407–1410 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sota, T.

T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, M. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/ GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(27), 4188–4190 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J. S.

K. Iso, H. Yamada, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “High brightness blue InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on nonpolar m-plane bulk GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L960–L962 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, M. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/ GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Polarized light emission from nonpolar InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on a bulk m-plane GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(43), L1329–L1332 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10-1-3) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on free-standing m-plane GaN substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5), L173–L175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Suh, J.

H. Song, J. Suh, E. Kyu Kim, K. Hyeon Baik, and S.-M. Hwang, “Growth of high quality a-plane GaN epi-layer on r-plane sapphire substrates with optimization of multi-buffer layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(21), 3122–3126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sun, K.

A. M. Fischer, Z. Wu, K. Sun, Q. Wei, Y. Huang, R. Senda, D. Iida, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, and F. A. Ponce, “Misfit strain relaxation by stacking fault generation in InGaN quantum wells grown on m-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, M.

M. Funato, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, T. Kosugi, M. Takahashi, and T. Mukai, “Blue, green, and amber InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on semipolar {11-22} GaN bulk substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(26), L659–L662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Trampert, A.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ueda, M.

M. Funato, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, T. Kosugi, M. Takahashi, and T. Mukai, “Blue, green, and amber InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on semipolar {11-22} GaN bulk substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(26), L659–L662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ushida, Y.

Y. Saito, K. Okuno, S. Boyama, N. Nakada, S. Nitta, Y. Ushida, and N. Shibata, “m-plane GaInN light emitting diodes grown on patterned a-plane sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Van der Stricht, W.

K. P. O'Donnell, T. Breitkopf, H. Kalt, W. Van der Stricht, I. Moerman, P. Demeester, and P. G. Middleton, “Optical linewidths of InGaN light emitting diodes and epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(14), 1843–1845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vanderbilt, D.

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Waltereit, P.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, S. C.

C. H. Chiu, S. Y. Kuo, M. H. Lo, C. C. Ke, T. C. Wang, Y. T. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Optical properties of a-plane InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on r-plane sapphire substrates with different indium compositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(6), 063105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T. C.

C. H. Chiu, S. Y. Kuo, M. H. Lo, C. C. Ke, T. C. Wang, Y. T. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Optical properties of a-plane InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on r-plane sapphire substrates with different indium compositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(6), 063105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wei, Q.

A. M. Fischer, Z. Wu, K. Sun, Q. Wei, Y. Huang, R. Senda, D. Iida, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, and F. A. Ponce, “Misfit strain relaxation by stacking fault generation in InGaN quantum wells grown on m-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wetzel, C.

S. You, T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, W. Hou, E. A. Preble, D. Hanser, T. Paskova, and C. Wetzel, “Highly polarized green light emitting diode in m-axis GaInN/GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(10), 102103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Green light emitting diodes on a-plane GaN bulk substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wierer, J. J.

N. F. Gardner, J. C. Kim, J. J. Wierer, Y. C. Shen, and M. R. Krames, “Polarization anisotropy in the electroluminescence of m-plane InGaN–GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(11), 111101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, F.

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10-1-3) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.-R.

H.-H. Huang and Y.-R. Wu, “Study of polarization properties of light emitted from a-plane InGaN/GaN quantum well-based light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z.

A. M. Fischer, Z. Wu, K. Sun, Q. Wei, Y. Huang, R. Senda, D. Iida, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, and F. A. Ponce, “Misfit strain relaxation by stacking fault generation in InGaN quantum wells grown on m-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y.

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Green light emitting diodes on a-plane GaN bulk substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, H.

H. Yamada, K. Iso, M. Saito, H. Masui, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Compositional dependence of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 041101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optical polarization characteristics of m-oriented InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with various indium compositions in single-quantum-well structure,” J. Phys. D 41(22), 225104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Iso, H. Yamada, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “High brightness blue InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on nonpolar m-plane bulk GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L960–L962 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, H.

Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, K.-M. Song, S. Lee, H. Yoon, J.-H. Park, K. Oh, and S.-M. Hwang, “Milliwatt-class non-polar a-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown directly on r-plane sapphire substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(6), 1407–1410 (2010).
[CrossRef]

You, S.

S. You, T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, W. Hou, E. A. Preble, D. Hanser, T. Paskova, and C. Wetzel, “Highly polarized green light emitting diode in m-axis GaInN/GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(10), 102103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, H.

H. Masui, T. J. Baker, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Light-polarization characteristics of electroluminescence from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes prepared on (11-22) plane GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, T. J. Baker, R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “First-moment analysis of polarized light emission from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes prepared semipolar planes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(34), L904–L906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, M.

S. You, T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, W. Hou, E. A. Preble, D. Hanser, T. Paskova, and C. Wetzel, “Highly polarized green light emitting diode in m-axis GaInN/GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(10), 102103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Green light emitting diodes on a-plane GaN bulk substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express (4)

Y. Saito, K. Okuno, S. Boyama, N. Nakada, S. Nitta, Y. Ushida, and N. Shibata, “m-plane GaInN light emitting diodes grown on patterned a-plane sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Yamada, K. Iso, M. Saito, H. Masui, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Compositional dependence of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 041101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. You, T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, W. Hou, E. A. Preble, D. Hanser, T. Paskova, and C. Wetzel, “Highly polarized green light emitting diode in m-axis GaInN/GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(10), 102103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Fischer, Z. Wu, K. Sun, Q. Wei, Y. Huang, R. Senda, D. Iida, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, and F. A. Ponce, “Misfit strain relaxation by stacking fault generation in InGaN quantum wells grown on m-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, M. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/ GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. P. O'Donnell, T. Breitkopf, H. Kalt, W. Van der Stricht, I. Moerman, P. Demeester, and P. G. Middleton, “Optical linewidths of InGaN light emitting diodes and epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(14), 1843–1845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Gardner, J. C. Kim, J. J. Wierer, Y. C. Shen, and M. R. Krames, “Polarization anisotropy in the electroluminescence of m-plane InGaN–GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(11), 111101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10-1-3) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Green light emitting diodes on a-plane GaN bulk substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S.-M. Hwang, Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, I.-S. Cho, J. H. Baek, S. Jung, T. G. Kim, and M. Cho, “Demonstration of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on r-plane sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(27), 4188–4190 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, K.-M. Song, S. Lee, H. Yoon, J.-H. Park, K. Oh, and S.-M. Hwang, “Milliwatt-class non-polar a-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown directly on r-plane sapphire substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(6), 1407–1410 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

C. H. Chiu, S. Y. Kuo, M. H. Lo, C. C. Ke, T. C. Wang, Y. T. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Optical properties of a-plane InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on r-plane sapphire substrates with different indium compositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(6), 063105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H.-H. Huang and Y.-R. Wu, “Study of polarization properties of light emitted from a-plane InGaN/GaN quantum well-based light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, T. J. Baker, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Light-polarization characteristics of electroluminescence from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes prepared on (11-22) plane GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

H. Song, J. Suh, E. Kyu Kim, K. Hyeon Baik, and S.-M. Hwang, “Growth of high quality a-plane GaN epi-layer on r-plane sapphire substrates with optimization of multi-buffer layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(21), 3122–3126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optical polarization characteristics of m-oriented InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with various indium compositions in single-quantum-well structure,” J. Phys. D 41(22), 225104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (8)

N. Fellows, H. Sato, H. Masui, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increased polarization ratio on semipolar (11–22) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with increasing indium composition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(10), 7854–7856 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Iso, H. Yamada, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “High brightness blue InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on nonpolar m-plane bulk GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L960–L962 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S.-I. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2, No. 7A), L797–L799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Polarized light emission from nonpolar InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on a bulk m-plane GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(43), L1329–L1332 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on free-standing m-plane GaN substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5), L173–L175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, T. J. Baker, R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “First-moment analysis of polarized light emission from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes prepared semipolar planes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(34), L904–L906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Funato, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, T. Kosugi, M. Takahashi, and T. Mukai, “Blue, green, and amber InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on semipolar {11-22} GaN bulk substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(26), L659–L662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Chung, Y. Lin, I. Koslow, N. Pfaff, H. Ohta, J. Ha, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Electroluminescence characterization of (20-21) InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with various wavelengths,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(7), 070203 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic view of orange a-plane InGaN/GaN SQW LED structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) EL spectra of orange a-plane InGaN/GaN SQW LED. (b) I-V characteristic of orange LED.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) EL spectrum of orange a-plane LED at 20mA. (b) The peak wavelength and the FWHM of the orange LED as a function of the injection current.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Polarization resolved EL spectra of orange a-plane LED. (b) Optical polarization ratio of the orange LED as a function of the injection current.

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