Abstract

The scattering characteristics of the malaria byproduct hemozoin, including its scattering distribution and depolarization, are modeled using Discrete Dipole Approximation (DDA) and compared to those of healthy red blood cells. Scattering (or dark-field) spectroscopy and imaging are used to identify hemozoin in fresh rodent blood samples. A new detection method is proposed and demonstrated using dark-field in conjunction with cross-polarization imaging and spectroscopy. SNRs greater than 50:1 are achieved for hemozoin in fresh blood without the addition of stains or reagents. The potential of such a detection system is discussed.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. C. Wongsrichanalai, M. J. Barcus, S. Muth, A. Sutamihardja, and W. H. Wernsdorfer, “A review of malaria diagnostic tools: microscopy and rapid diagnostic test (RDT),” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 77(6Suppl), 119–127 (2007).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [PubMed]
  6. B. R. Wood, A. Hermelink, P. Lasch, K. R. Bambery, G. T. Webster, M. A. Khiavi, B. M. Cooke, S. Deed, D. Naumann, and D. McNaughton, “Resonance Raman microscopy in combination with partial dark-field microscopy lights up a new path in malaria diagnostics,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(6), 1119–1125 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Lawrence and J. A. Olson, “Birefringent hemozoin identifies malaria,” Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 86(3), 360–363 (1986).
    [PubMed]
  8. C. Romagosa, C. Menendez, M. R. Ismail, L. Quintó, B. Ferrer, P. L. Alonso, and J. Ordi, “Polarisation microscopy increases the sensitivity of hemozoin and Plasmodium detection in the histological assessment of placental malaria,” Acta Trop. 90(3), 277–284 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. S. Noland, N. Briones, and D. J. Sullivan., “The shape and size of hemozoin crystals distinguishes diverse Plasmodium species,” Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 130(2), 91–99 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. D. Green, L. Xiao, and A. A. Lal, “Formation of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids from hemozoin-catalyzed oxidation of arachidonic acid,” Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 83(2), 183–188 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. B. T. Draine and P. J. Flatau, “Discrete-dipole approximation for scattering calculations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11(4), 1491–1499 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

B. R. Wood, A. Hermelink, P. Lasch, K. R. Bambery, G. T. Webster, M. A. Khiavi, B. M. Cooke, S. Deed, D. Naumann, and D. McNaughton, “Resonance Raman microscopy in combination with partial dark-field microscopy lights up a new path in malaria diagnostics,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(6), 1119–1125 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

C. Wongsrichanalai, M. J. Barcus, S. Muth, A. Sutamihardja, and W. H. Wernsdorfer, “A review of malaria diagnostic tools: microscopy and rapid diagnostic test (RDT),” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 77(6Suppl), 119–127 (2007).

2005 (1)

F. P. Josephine and V. Nissapatorn, “Malaria: the value of the automated depolarization analysis,” Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 36(Suppl 4), 68–72 (2005).

2004 (1)

C. Romagosa, C. Menendez, M. R. Ismail, L. Quintó, B. Ferrer, P. L. Alonso, and J. Ordi, “Polarisation microscopy increases the sensitivity of hemozoin and Plasmodium detection in the histological assessment of placental malaria,” Acta Trop. 90(3), 277–284 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

G. S. Noland, N. Briones, and D. J. Sullivan., “The shape and size of hemozoin crystals distinguishes diverse Plasmodium species,” Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 130(2), 91–99 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

B. V. Mendelow, C. Lyons, P. Nhlangothi, M. Tana, M. Munster, E. Wypkema, L. Liebowitz, L. Marshall, S. Scott, and T. L. Coetzer, “Automated malaria detection by depolarization of laser light,” Br. J. Haematol. 104(3), 499–503 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

M. D. Green, L. Xiao, and A. A. Lal, “Formation of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids from hemozoin-catalyzed oxidation of arachidonic acid,” Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 83(2), 183–188 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

1988 (1)

D. Payne, “Use and limitations of light microscopy for diagnosing malaria at the primary health care level,” Bull. World Health Organ. 66(5), 621–626 (1988).
[PubMed]

1986 (1)

C. Lawrence and J. A. Olson, “Birefringent hemozoin identifies malaria,” Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 86(3), 360–363 (1986).
[PubMed]

1983 (1)

G. A. Jamjoom, “Dark-field microscopy for detection of malaria in unstained blood films,” J. Clin. Microbiol. 17(5), 717–721 (1983).
[PubMed]

1932 (1)

A. Wolter, “Uber die Schnelldiagnose der Malaria mit Hilfe des Dunkelfeldes,” Dermat. Zeitschrift 63(1-2), 69–72 (1932).
[CrossRef]

Alonso, P. L.

C. Romagosa, C. Menendez, M. R. Ismail, L. Quintó, B. Ferrer, P. L. Alonso, and J. Ordi, “Polarisation microscopy increases the sensitivity of hemozoin and Plasmodium detection in the histological assessment of placental malaria,” Acta Trop. 90(3), 277–284 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bambery, K. R.

B. R. Wood, A. Hermelink, P. Lasch, K. R. Bambery, G. T. Webster, M. A. Khiavi, B. M. Cooke, S. Deed, D. Naumann, and D. McNaughton, “Resonance Raman microscopy in combination with partial dark-field microscopy lights up a new path in malaria diagnostics,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(6), 1119–1125 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barcus, M. J.

C. Wongsrichanalai, M. J. Barcus, S. Muth, A. Sutamihardja, and W. H. Wernsdorfer, “A review of malaria diagnostic tools: microscopy and rapid diagnostic test (RDT),” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 77(6Suppl), 119–127 (2007).

Briones, N.

G. S. Noland, N. Briones, and D. J. Sullivan., “The shape and size of hemozoin crystals distinguishes diverse Plasmodium species,” Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 130(2), 91–99 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, W.

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coetzer, T. L.

B. V. Mendelow, C. Lyons, P. Nhlangothi, M. Tana, M. Munster, E. Wypkema, L. Liebowitz, L. Marshall, S. Scott, and T. L. Coetzer, “Automated malaria detection by depolarization of laser light,” Br. J. Haematol. 104(3), 499–503 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cooke, B. M.

B. R. Wood, A. Hermelink, P. Lasch, K. R. Bambery, G. T. Webster, M. A. Khiavi, B. M. Cooke, S. Deed, D. Naumann, and D. McNaughton, “Resonance Raman microscopy in combination with partial dark-field microscopy lights up a new path in malaria diagnostics,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(6), 1119–1125 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Deed, S.

B. R. Wood, A. Hermelink, P. Lasch, K. R. Bambery, G. T. Webster, M. A. Khiavi, B. M. Cooke, S. Deed, D. Naumann, and D. McNaughton, “Resonance Raman microscopy in combination with partial dark-field microscopy lights up a new path in malaria diagnostics,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(6), 1119–1125 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Diez-Silva, M.

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Draine, B. T.

Feld, M. S.

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferrer, B.

C. Romagosa, C. Menendez, M. R. Ismail, L. Quintó, B. Ferrer, P. L. Alonso, and J. Ordi, “Polarisation microscopy increases the sensitivity of hemozoin and Plasmodium detection in the histological assessment of placental malaria,” Acta Trop. 90(3), 277–284 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flatau, P. J.

Garcia-Rubio, L. H.

Green, M. D.

M. D. Green, L. Xiao, and A. A. Lal, “Formation of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids from hemozoin-catalyzed oxidation of arachidonic acid,” Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 83(2), 183–188 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hermelink, A.

B. R. Wood, A. Hermelink, P. Lasch, K. R. Bambery, G. T. Webster, M. A. Khiavi, B. M. Cooke, S. Deed, D. Naumann, and D. McNaughton, “Resonance Raman microscopy in combination with partial dark-field microscopy lights up a new path in malaria diagnostics,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(6), 1119–1125 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ismail, M. R.

C. Romagosa, C. Menendez, M. R. Ismail, L. Quintó, B. Ferrer, P. L. Alonso, and J. Ordi, “Polarisation microscopy increases the sensitivity of hemozoin and Plasmodium detection in the histological assessment of placental malaria,” Acta Trop. 90(3), 277–284 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jamjoom, G. A.

G. A. Jamjoom, “Dark-field microscopy for detection of malaria in unstained blood films,” J. Clin. Microbiol. 17(5), 717–721 (1983).
[PubMed]

Josephine, F. P.

F. P. Josephine and V. Nissapatorn, “Malaria: the value of the automated depolarization analysis,” Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 36(Suppl 4), 68–72 (2005).

Khiavi, M. A.

B. R. Wood, A. Hermelink, P. Lasch, K. R. Bambery, G. T. Webster, M. A. Khiavi, B. M. Cooke, S. Deed, D. Naumann, and D. McNaughton, “Resonance Raman microscopy in combination with partial dark-field microscopy lights up a new path in malaria diagnostics,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(6), 1119–1125 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lal, A. A.

M. D. Green, L. Xiao, and A. A. Lal, “Formation of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids from hemozoin-catalyzed oxidation of arachidonic acid,” Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 83(2), 183–188 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasch, P.

B. R. Wood, A. Hermelink, P. Lasch, K. R. Bambery, G. T. Webster, M. A. Khiavi, B. M. Cooke, S. Deed, D. Naumann, and D. McNaughton, “Resonance Raman microscopy in combination with partial dark-field microscopy lights up a new path in malaria diagnostics,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(6), 1119–1125 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lawrence, C.

C. Lawrence and J. A. Olson, “Birefringent hemozoin identifies malaria,” Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 86(3), 360–363 (1986).
[PubMed]

Liebowitz, L.

B. V. Mendelow, C. Lyons, P. Nhlangothi, M. Tana, M. Munster, E. Wypkema, L. Liebowitz, L. Marshall, S. Scott, and T. L. Coetzer, “Automated malaria detection by depolarization of laser light,” Br. J. Haematol. 104(3), 499–503 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lykotrafitis, G.

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lyons, C.

B. V. Mendelow, C. Lyons, P. Nhlangothi, M. Tana, M. Munster, E. Wypkema, L. Liebowitz, L. Marshall, S. Scott, and T. L. Coetzer, “Automated malaria detection by depolarization of laser light,” Br. J. Haematol. 104(3), 499–503 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marshall, L.

B. V. Mendelow, C. Lyons, P. Nhlangothi, M. Tana, M. Munster, E. Wypkema, L. Liebowitz, L. Marshall, S. Scott, and T. L. Coetzer, “Automated malaria detection by depolarization of laser light,” Br. J. Haematol. 104(3), 499–503 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McNaughton, D.

B. R. Wood, A. Hermelink, P. Lasch, K. R. Bambery, G. T. Webster, M. A. Khiavi, B. M. Cooke, S. Deed, D. Naumann, and D. McNaughton, “Resonance Raman microscopy in combination with partial dark-field microscopy lights up a new path in malaria diagnostics,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(6), 1119–1125 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mendelow, B. V.

B. V. Mendelow, C. Lyons, P. Nhlangothi, M. Tana, M. Munster, E. Wypkema, L. Liebowitz, L. Marshall, S. Scott, and T. L. Coetzer, “Automated malaria detection by depolarization of laser light,” Br. J. Haematol. 104(3), 499–503 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Menendez, C.

C. Romagosa, C. Menendez, M. R. Ismail, L. Quintó, B. Ferrer, P. L. Alonso, and J. Ordi, “Polarisation microscopy increases the sensitivity of hemozoin and Plasmodium detection in the histological assessment of placental malaria,” Acta Trop. 90(3), 277–284 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Munster, M.

B. V. Mendelow, C. Lyons, P. Nhlangothi, M. Tana, M. Munster, E. Wypkema, L. Liebowitz, L. Marshall, S. Scott, and T. L. Coetzer, “Automated malaria detection by depolarization of laser light,” Br. J. Haematol. 104(3), 499–503 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muth, S.

C. Wongsrichanalai, M. J. Barcus, S. Muth, A. Sutamihardja, and W. H. Wernsdorfer, “A review of malaria diagnostic tools: microscopy and rapid diagnostic test (RDT),” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 77(6Suppl), 119–127 (2007).

Naumann, D.

B. R. Wood, A. Hermelink, P. Lasch, K. R. Bambery, G. T. Webster, M. A. Khiavi, B. M. Cooke, S. Deed, D. Naumann, and D. McNaughton, “Resonance Raman microscopy in combination with partial dark-field microscopy lights up a new path in malaria diagnostics,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(6), 1119–1125 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nhlangothi, P.

B. V. Mendelow, C. Lyons, P. Nhlangothi, M. Tana, M. Munster, E. Wypkema, L. Liebowitz, L. Marshall, S. Scott, and T. L. Coetzer, “Automated malaria detection by depolarization of laser light,” Br. J. Haematol. 104(3), 499–503 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nissapatorn, V.

F. P. Josephine and V. Nissapatorn, “Malaria: the value of the automated depolarization analysis,” Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 36(Suppl 4), 68–72 (2005).

Noland, G. S.

G. S. Noland, N. Briones, and D. J. Sullivan., “The shape and size of hemozoin crystals distinguishes diverse Plasmodium species,” Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 130(2), 91–99 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olson, J. A.

C. Lawrence and J. A. Olson, “Birefringent hemozoin identifies malaria,” Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 86(3), 360–363 (1986).
[PubMed]

Ordi, J.

C. Romagosa, C. Menendez, M. R. Ismail, L. Quintó, B. Ferrer, P. L. Alonso, and J. Ordi, “Polarisation microscopy increases the sensitivity of hemozoin and Plasmodium detection in the histological assessment of placental malaria,” Acta Trop. 90(3), 277–284 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, Y.

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patel, J.

Payne, D.

D. Payne, “Use and limitations of light microscopy for diagnosing malaria at the primary health care level,” Bull. World Health Organ. 66(5), 621–626 (1988).
[PubMed]

Popescu, G.

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quintó, L.

C. Romagosa, C. Menendez, M. R. Ismail, L. Quintó, B. Ferrer, P. L. Alonso, and J. Ordi, “Polarisation microscopy increases the sensitivity of hemozoin and Plasmodium detection in the histological assessment of placental malaria,” Acta Trop. 90(3), 277–284 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Romagosa, C.

C. Romagosa, C. Menendez, M. R. Ismail, L. Quintó, B. Ferrer, P. L. Alonso, and J. Ordi, “Polarisation microscopy increases the sensitivity of hemozoin and Plasmodium detection in the histological assessment of placental malaria,” Acta Trop. 90(3), 277–284 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scott, S.

B. V. Mendelow, C. Lyons, P. Nhlangothi, M. Tana, M. Munster, E. Wypkema, L. Liebowitz, L. Marshall, S. Scott, and T. L. Coetzer, “Automated malaria detection by depolarization of laser light,” Br. J. Haematol. 104(3), 499–503 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Serebrennikova, Y. M.

Sullivan, D. J.

G. S. Noland, N. Briones, and D. J. Sullivan., “The shape and size of hemozoin crystals distinguishes diverse Plasmodium species,” Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 130(2), 91–99 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suresh, S.

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sutamihardja, A.

C. Wongsrichanalai, M. J. Barcus, S. Muth, A. Sutamihardja, and W. H. Wernsdorfer, “A review of malaria diagnostic tools: microscopy and rapid diagnostic test (RDT),” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 77(6Suppl), 119–127 (2007).

Tana, M.

B. V. Mendelow, C. Lyons, P. Nhlangothi, M. Tana, M. Munster, E. Wypkema, L. Liebowitz, L. Marshall, S. Scott, and T. L. Coetzer, “Automated malaria detection by depolarization of laser light,” Br. J. Haematol. 104(3), 499–503 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webster, G. T.

B. R. Wood, A. Hermelink, P. Lasch, K. R. Bambery, G. T. Webster, M. A. Khiavi, B. M. Cooke, S. Deed, D. Naumann, and D. McNaughton, “Resonance Raman microscopy in combination with partial dark-field microscopy lights up a new path in malaria diagnostics,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(6), 1119–1125 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wernsdorfer, W. H.

C. Wongsrichanalai, M. J. Barcus, S. Muth, A. Sutamihardja, and W. H. Wernsdorfer, “A review of malaria diagnostic tools: microscopy and rapid diagnostic test (RDT),” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 77(6Suppl), 119–127 (2007).

Wolter, A.

A. Wolter, “Uber die Schnelldiagnose der Malaria mit Hilfe des Dunkelfeldes,” Dermat. Zeitschrift 63(1-2), 69–72 (1932).
[CrossRef]

Wongsrichanalai, C.

C. Wongsrichanalai, M. J. Barcus, S. Muth, A. Sutamihardja, and W. H. Wernsdorfer, “A review of malaria diagnostic tools: microscopy and rapid diagnostic test (RDT),” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 77(6Suppl), 119–127 (2007).

Wood, B. R.

B. R. Wood, A. Hermelink, P. Lasch, K. R. Bambery, G. T. Webster, M. A. Khiavi, B. M. Cooke, S. Deed, D. Naumann, and D. McNaughton, “Resonance Raman microscopy in combination with partial dark-field microscopy lights up a new path in malaria diagnostics,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(6), 1119–1125 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wypkema, E.

B. V. Mendelow, C. Lyons, P. Nhlangothi, M. Tana, M. Munster, E. Wypkema, L. Liebowitz, L. Marshall, S. Scott, and T. L. Coetzer, “Automated malaria detection by depolarization of laser light,” Br. J. Haematol. 104(3), 499–503 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, L.

M. D. Green, L. Xiao, and A. A. Lal, “Formation of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids from hemozoin-catalyzed oxidation of arachidonic acid,” Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 83(2), 183–188 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acta Trop. (1)

C. Romagosa, C. Menendez, M. R. Ismail, L. Quintó, B. Ferrer, P. L. Alonso, and J. Ordi, “Polarisation microscopy increases the sensitivity of hemozoin and Plasmodium detection in the histological assessment of placental malaria,” Acta Trop. 90(3), 277–284 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Clin. Pathol. (1)

C. Lawrence and J. A. Olson, “Birefringent hemozoin identifies malaria,” Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 86(3), 360–363 (1986).
[PubMed]

Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1)

C. Wongsrichanalai, M. J. Barcus, S. Muth, A. Sutamihardja, and W. H. Wernsdorfer, “A review of malaria diagnostic tools: microscopy and rapid diagnostic test (RDT),” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 77(6Suppl), 119–127 (2007).

Analyst (Lond.) (1)

B. R. Wood, A. Hermelink, P. Lasch, K. R. Bambery, G. T. Webster, M. A. Khiavi, B. M. Cooke, S. Deed, D. Naumann, and D. McNaughton, “Resonance Raman microscopy in combination with partial dark-field microscopy lights up a new path in malaria diagnostics,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(6), 1119–1125 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Br. J. Haematol. (1)

B. V. Mendelow, C. Lyons, P. Nhlangothi, M. Tana, M. Munster, E. Wypkema, L. Liebowitz, L. Marshall, S. Scott, and T. L. Coetzer, “Automated malaria detection by depolarization of laser light,” Br. J. Haematol. 104(3), 499–503 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bull. World Health Organ. (1)

D. Payne, “Use and limitations of light microscopy for diagnosing malaria at the primary health care level,” Bull. World Health Organ. 66(5), 621–626 (1988).
[PubMed]

Dermat. Zeitschrift (1)

A. Wolter, “Uber die Schnelldiagnose der Malaria mit Hilfe des Dunkelfeldes,” Dermat. Zeitschrift 63(1-2), 69–72 (1932).
[CrossRef]

J. Clin. Microbiol. (1)

G. A. Jamjoom, “Dark-field microscopy for detection of malaria in unstained blood films,” J. Clin. Microbiol. 17(5), 717–721 (1983).
[PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. (2)

G. S. Noland, N. Briones, and D. J. Sullivan., “The shape and size of hemozoin crystals distinguishes diverse Plasmodium species,” Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 130(2), 91–99 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Green, L. Xiao, and A. A. Lal, “Formation of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids from hemozoin-catalyzed oxidation of arachidonic acid,” Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 83(2), 183–188 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health (1)

F. P. Josephine and V. Nissapatorn, “Malaria: the value of the automated depolarization analysis,” Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 36(Suppl 4), 68–72 (2005).

Other (1)

World Health Organization, “Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test Performance,” (Geneva, 2009).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Illustration of the selective capture of hemozoin scattering. (b) schematic of bench-top dark-field microscope used for variable aperture testing. VDFS = variable dark-field stop, PBS = polarizing beam splitter, BFP = objective back focal plane.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The dependence of healthy versus infected RBC contrast in DFxP mode on the characteristic apertures of DF illumination. In (a) αG is held constant at 6° while αC and αI are varied. In the inset αC is held at 15.1° and αI is held at 42° while αG is varied. (b) shows the definitions of the characteristic apertures.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a-d) Microscope images of control (a, b) and infected (c, d) rodent blood. (a, c) show reflection-mode DF and (b, d) show reflection-mode DFxP. All images acquired with a 50x N.A. = 0.55 objective. (e) Shows the measured and calculated DF and DFxP spectra of extracted hemozoin and healthy RBCs, both suspended in water. (f-i) show the calculated scattering (f, g) and depolarized scattering (h, i) distributions of healthy RBCs (f, h) and hemozoin (g, i), both suspended in water. Scattering distributions show scattered power. Incident k-vectors are in the + z direction while incident E-vectors are in the + x direction or out of the page. All scattering distributions are normalized.

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