Abstract

A microlens-based optical detector was developed to perform small animal optical imaging. In this paper we present an iterative reconstruction algorithm yielding improved image quality and spatial resolution as compared to conventional inverse mapping. The reconstruction method utilizes the compressive sensing concept to cope with the undersampling nature of the problem. Each iteration in the algorithm contains two separate steps to ensure both the convergence of the least-square solution and the minimization of the l 1-norm of the sparsifying transform. The results estimated from measurements, employing a Derenzo-like pattern and a Siemens star phantom, illustrate significant improvements in contrast and spatial resolution in comparison to results calculated by inverse mapping.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. N. Henriquez, P. van Overveld, I. Que, J. Buijs, R. Bachelier, E. Kaijzel, C. Löwik, P. Clezardin, and G. van der Pluijm, “Advances in optical imaging and novel model systems for cancer metastasis research,” Clin. Exp. Metastasis 24, 699–705 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  28. M. Martínez-Corral, B. Javidi, R. Martínez-Cuenca, and G. Saavedra, “Multifacet structure of observed reconstructed integral images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 597–603 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

M. Cho, M. Daneshpanah, I. Moon, and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional optical sensing and visualization using integral imaging,” Proc. IEEE 99, 556–575 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

D. Unholtz, W. Semmler, O. Dössel, and J. Peter, “Image formation with a microlens-based optical detector: a three-dimensional mapping approach,” Appl. Opt. 48, D273–D279 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Martinez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, and B. Javidi, “Progress in 3-D multiperspective display by integral imaging,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1067–1077 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Park, K. Hong, and B. Lee, “Recent progress in three-dimensional information processing based on integral imaging,” Appl. Opt. 48, 77–94 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

2007 (3)

D. Shin and H. Yoo, “Image quality enhancement in 3D computational integral imaging by use of interpolation methods,” Opt. Express 15, 12039–12049 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Peter, D. Unholtz, R. Schulz, J. Doll, and W. Semmler, “Development and initial results of a tomographic dual-modality positron/optical small animal imager,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54, 1553–1560 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Henriquez, P. van Overveld, I. Que, J. Buijs, R. Bachelier, E. Kaijzel, C. Löwik, P. Clezardin, and G. van der Pluijm, “Advances in optical imaging and novel model systems for cancer metastasis research,” Clin. Exp. Metastasis 24, 699–705 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (6)

A. Stern and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional image sensing, visualization, and processing using integral imaging,” Proc. IEEE 94, 591 –607 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Hwang, J. Park, S. Kim, D. Shin, and E. Kim, “Magnification of 3D reconstructed images in integral imaging using an intermediate-view reconstruction technique,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4631–4637 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Candès, J. Romberg, and T. Tao, “Robust uncertainty principles: Exact signal reconstruction from highly incomplete frequency information,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 52, 489–509 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Donoho, “Compressed sensing,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 52, 1289–1306 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Qi and R. Leahy, “Iterative reconstruction techniques in emission computed tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, R541–R578 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Sidky, C. Kao, and X. Pan, “Accurate image reconstruction from few-views and limited-angle data in divergent-beam CT,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 14, 119–139 (2006).

2005 (3)

M. Martínez-Corral, B. Javidi, R. Martínez-Cuenca, and G. Saavedra, “Multifacet structure of observed reconstructed integral images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 597–603 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Shin, E. Kim, and B. Lee, “Computational reconstruction of three-dimensional objects in integral imaging using lenslet array,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 8016–8018 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Kelloff, K. Krohn, S. Larson, R. Weissleder, D. Mankoff, J. Hoffman, J. Link, K. Guyton, W. Eckelman, H. Scher, J. O’Shaughnessy, B. D. Cheson, C. C. Sigman, J. L. Tatum, G. Q. Mills, D. C. Sullivan, and J. Woodcock, “The progress and promise of molecular imaging probes in oncologic drug development,” Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 7967–7985 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

2003 (2)

2002 (2)

D. Rowland, J. Lewis, and M. Welch, “Molecular imaging: the application of small animal positron emission tomography,” J. Cell. Biochem. 87, 110–115 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Jang and B. Javidi, “Improved viewing resolution of three-dimensional integral imaging by use of nonstationary micro-optics,” Opt. Lett. 27, 324–326 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1998 (1)

1994 (1)

N. Davies, M. McCormick, and M. Brewin, “Design and analysis of an image transfer system using microlens arrays (Journal Paper),” Opt. Eng. 33, 3624–3633 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Arai, J.

Arimoto, H.

Bachelier, R.

N. Henriquez, P. van Overveld, I. Que, J. Buijs, R. Bachelier, E. Kaijzel, C. Löwik, P. Clezardin, and G. van der Pluijm, “Advances in optical imaging and novel model systems for cancer metastasis research,” Clin. Exp. Metastasis 24, 699–705 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brewin, M.

N. Davies, M. McCormick, and M. Brewin, “Design and analysis of an image transfer system using microlens arrays (Journal Paper),” Opt. Eng. 33, 3624–3633 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Buijs, J.

N. Henriquez, P. van Overveld, I. Que, J. Buijs, R. Bachelier, E. Kaijzel, C. Löwik, P. Clezardin, and G. van der Pluijm, “Advances in optical imaging and novel model systems for cancer metastasis research,” Clin. Exp. Metastasis 24, 699–705 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Candès, E.

E. Candès, J. Romberg, and T. Tao, “Robust uncertainty principles: Exact signal reconstruction from highly incomplete frequency information,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 52, 489–509 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

G. Chen, J. Tang, and S. Leng, “Prior image constrained compressed sensing (PICCS): a method to accurately reconstruct dynamic CT images from highly undersampled projection data sets,” Med. Phys. 35, 660–663 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheson, B. D.

G. Kelloff, K. Krohn, S. Larson, R. Weissleder, D. Mankoff, J. Hoffman, J. Link, K. Guyton, W. Eckelman, H. Scher, J. O’Shaughnessy, B. D. Cheson, C. C. Sigman, J. L. Tatum, G. Q. Mills, D. C. Sullivan, and J. Woodcock, “The progress and promise of molecular imaging probes in oncologic drug development,” Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 7967–7985 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, M.

M. Cho, M. Daneshpanah, I. Moon, and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional optical sensing and visualization using integral imaging,” Proc. IEEE 99, 556–575 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Clezardin, P.

N. Henriquez, P. van Overveld, I. Que, J. Buijs, R. Bachelier, E. Kaijzel, C. Löwik, P. Clezardin, and G. van der Pluijm, “Advances in optical imaging and novel model systems for cancer metastasis research,” Clin. Exp. Metastasis 24, 699–705 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daneshpanah, M.

M. Cho, M. Daneshpanah, I. Moon, and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional optical sensing and visualization using integral imaging,” Proc. IEEE 99, 556–575 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Saavedra, R. Martinez-Cuenca, M. Martinez-Corral, H. Navarro, M. Daneshpanah, and B. Javidi, “Digital slicing of 3D scenes by Fourier filtering of integral images,” Opt. Express 16, 17154–17160 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davies, N.

N. Davies, M. McCormick, and M. Brewin, “Design and analysis of an image transfer system using microlens arrays (Journal Paper),” Opt. Eng. 33, 3624–3633 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Doll, J.

J. Peter, D. Unholtz, R. Schulz, J. Doll, and W. Semmler, “Development and initial results of a tomographic dual-modality positron/optical small animal imager,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54, 1553–1560 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Donoho, D.

D. Donoho, “Compressed sensing,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 52, 1289–1306 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dössel, O.

Eckelman, W.

G. Kelloff, K. Krohn, S. Larson, R. Weissleder, D. Mankoff, J. Hoffman, J. Link, K. Guyton, W. Eckelman, H. Scher, J. O’Shaughnessy, B. D. Cheson, C. C. Sigman, J. L. Tatum, G. Q. Mills, D. C. Sullivan, and J. Woodcock, “The progress and promise of molecular imaging probes in oncologic drug development,” Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 7967–7985 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guyton, K.

G. Kelloff, K. Krohn, S. Larson, R. Weissleder, D. Mankoff, J. Hoffman, J. Link, K. Guyton, W. Eckelman, H. Scher, J. O’Shaughnessy, B. D. Cheson, C. C. Sigman, J. L. Tatum, G. Q. Mills, D. C. Sullivan, and J. Woodcock, “The progress and promise of molecular imaging probes in oncologic drug development,” Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 7967–7985 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henriquez, N.

N. Henriquez, P. van Overveld, I. Que, J. Buijs, R. Bachelier, E. Kaijzel, C. Löwik, P. Clezardin, and G. van der Pluijm, “Advances in optical imaging and novel model systems for cancer metastasis research,” Clin. Exp. Metastasis 24, 699–705 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffman, J.

G. Kelloff, K. Krohn, S. Larson, R. Weissleder, D. Mankoff, J. Hoffman, J. Link, K. Guyton, W. Eckelman, H. Scher, J. O’Shaughnessy, B. D. Cheson, C. C. Sigman, J. L. Tatum, G. Q. Mills, D. C. Sullivan, and J. Woodcock, “The progress and promise of molecular imaging probes in oncologic drug development,” Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 7967–7985 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, K.

J. Park, K. Hong, and B. Lee, “Recent progress in three-dimensional information processing based on integral imaging,” Appl. Opt. 48, 77–94 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hong, S.

Hoshino, H.

Hwang, D.

Jang, J.

Javidi, B.

M. Cho, M. Daneshpanah, I. Moon, and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional optical sensing and visualization using integral imaging,” Proc. IEEE 99, 556–575 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Martinez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, and B. Javidi, “Progress in 3-D multiperspective display by integral imaging,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1067–1077 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Saavedra, R. Martinez-Cuenca, M. Martinez-Corral, H. Navarro, M. Daneshpanah, and B. Javidi, “Digital slicing of 3D scenes by Fourier filtering of integral images,” Opt. Express 16, 17154–17160 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Stern and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional image sensing, visualization, and processing using integral imaging,” Proc. IEEE 94, 591 –607 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Martínez-Corral, B. Javidi, R. Martínez-Cuenca, and G. Saavedra, “Multifacet structure of observed reconstructed integral images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 597–603 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Hong and B. Javidi, “Improved resolution 3D object reconstruction using computational integral imaging with time multiplexing,” Opt. Express 12, 4579–4588 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hong, J. Jang, and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional volumetric object reconstruction using computational integral imaging,” Opt. Express 12, 483–491 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Min, B. Javidi, and B. Lee, “Enhanced three-dimensional integral imaging system by use of double display devices,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4186–4195 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Jang and B. Javidi, “Improved viewing resolution of three-dimensional integral imaging by use of nonstationary micro-optics,” Opt. Lett. 27, 324–326 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Arimoto and B. Javidi, “Integral three-dimensional imaging with digital reconstruction,” Opt. Lett. 26, 157–159 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kaijzel, E.

N. Henriquez, P. van Overveld, I. Que, J. Buijs, R. Bachelier, E. Kaijzel, C. Löwik, P. Clezardin, and G. van der Pluijm, “Advances in optical imaging and novel model systems for cancer metastasis research,” Clin. Exp. Metastasis 24, 699–705 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kao, C.

E. Sidky, C. Kao, and X. Pan, “Accurate image reconstruction from few-views and limited-angle data in divergent-beam CT,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 14, 119–139 (2006).

Katz, M.

M. Katz, Introduction to Geometrical Optics (World Scientific Pub. Co. Inc., 2002).

Kelloff, G.

G. Kelloff, K. Krohn, S. Larson, R. Weissleder, D. Mankoff, J. Hoffman, J. Link, K. Guyton, W. Eckelman, H. Scher, J. O’Shaughnessy, B. D. Cheson, C. C. Sigman, J. L. Tatum, G. Q. Mills, D. C. Sullivan, and J. Woodcock, “The progress and promise of molecular imaging probes in oncologic drug development,” Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 7967–7985 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, E.

Kim, S.

Krohn, K.

G. Kelloff, K. Krohn, S. Larson, R. Weissleder, D. Mankoff, J. Hoffman, J. Link, K. Guyton, W. Eckelman, H. Scher, J. O’Shaughnessy, B. D. Cheson, C. C. Sigman, J. L. Tatum, G. Q. Mills, D. C. Sullivan, and J. Woodcock, “The progress and promise of molecular imaging probes in oncologic drug development,” Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 7967–7985 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larson, S.

G. Kelloff, K. Krohn, S. Larson, R. Weissleder, D. Mankoff, J. Hoffman, J. Link, K. Guyton, W. Eckelman, H. Scher, J. O’Shaughnessy, B. D. Cheson, C. C. Sigman, J. L. Tatum, G. Q. Mills, D. C. Sullivan, and J. Woodcock, “The progress and promise of molecular imaging probes in oncologic drug development,” Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 7967–7985 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leahy, R.

J. Qi and R. Leahy, “Iterative reconstruction techniques in emission computed tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, R541–R578 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, B.

J. Park, K. Hong, and B. Lee, “Recent progress in three-dimensional information processing based on integral imaging,” Appl. Opt. 48, 77–94 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Shin, E. Kim, and B. Lee, “Computational reconstruction of three-dimensional objects in integral imaging using lenslet array,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 8016–8018 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Min, B. Javidi, and B. Lee, “Enhanced three-dimensional integral imaging system by use of double display devices,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4186–4195 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K.

Leng, S.

G. Chen, J. Tang, and S. Leng, “Prior image constrained compressed sensing (PICCS): a method to accurately reconstruct dynamic CT images from highly undersampled projection data sets,” Med. Phys. 35, 660–663 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewis, J.

D. Rowland, J. Lewis, and M. Welch, “Molecular imaging: the application of small animal positron emission tomography,” J. Cell. Biochem. 87, 110–115 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Link, J.

G. Kelloff, K. Krohn, S. Larson, R. Weissleder, D. Mankoff, J. Hoffman, J. Link, K. Guyton, W. Eckelman, H. Scher, J. O’Shaughnessy, B. D. Cheson, C. C. Sigman, J. L. Tatum, G. Q. Mills, D. C. Sullivan, and J. Woodcock, “The progress and promise of molecular imaging probes in oncologic drug development,” Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 7967–7985 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Löwik, C.

N. Henriquez, P. van Overveld, I. Que, J. Buijs, R. Bachelier, E. Kaijzel, C. Löwik, P. Clezardin, and G. van der Pluijm, “Advances in optical imaging and novel model systems for cancer metastasis research,” Clin. Exp. Metastasis 24, 699–705 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mankoff, D.

G. Kelloff, K. Krohn, S. Larson, R. Weissleder, D. Mankoff, J. Hoffman, J. Link, K. Guyton, W. Eckelman, H. Scher, J. O’Shaughnessy, B. D. Cheson, C. C. Sigman, J. L. Tatum, G. Q. Mills, D. C. Sullivan, and J. Woodcock, “The progress and promise of molecular imaging probes in oncologic drug development,” Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 7967–7985 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martinez-Corral, M.

R. Martinez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, and B. Javidi, “Progress in 3-D multiperspective display by integral imaging,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1067–1077 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Saavedra, R. Martinez-Cuenca, M. Martinez-Corral, H. Navarro, M. Daneshpanah, and B. Javidi, “Digital slicing of 3D scenes by Fourier filtering of integral images,” Opt. Express 16, 17154–17160 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martínez-Corral, M.

Martinez-Cuenca, R.

R. Martinez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, and B. Javidi, “Progress in 3-D multiperspective display by integral imaging,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1067–1077 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Saavedra, R. Martinez-Cuenca, M. Martinez-Corral, H. Navarro, M. Daneshpanah, and B. Javidi, “Digital slicing of 3D scenes by Fourier filtering of integral images,” Opt. Express 16, 17154–17160 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martínez-Cuenca, R.

McCormick, M.

N. Davies, M. McCormick, and M. Brewin, “Design and analysis of an image transfer system using microlens arrays (Journal Paper),” Opt. Eng. 33, 3624–3633 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mills, G. Q.

G. Kelloff, K. Krohn, S. Larson, R. Weissleder, D. Mankoff, J. Hoffman, J. Link, K. Guyton, W. Eckelman, H. Scher, J. O’Shaughnessy, B. D. Cheson, C. C. Sigman, J. L. Tatum, G. Q. Mills, D. C. Sullivan, and J. Woodcock, “The progress and promise of molecular imaging probes in oncologic drug development,” Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 7967–7985 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Min, S.

Moon, I.

M. Cho, M. Daneshpanah, I. Moon, and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional optical sensing and visualization using integral imaging,” Proc. IEEE 99, 556–575 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Navarro, H.

Ntziachristos, V.

R. Weissleder and V. Ntziachristos, “Shedding light onto live molecular targets,” Nat. Med. 9, 123–128 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Shaughnessy, J.

G. Kelloff, K. Krohn, S. Larson, R. Weissleder, D. Mankoff, J. Hoffman, J. Link, K. Guyton, W. Eckelman, H. Scher, J. O’Shaughnessy, B. D. Cheson, C. C. Sigman, J. L. Tatum, G. Q. Mills, D. C. Sullivan, and J. Woodcock, “The progress and promise of molecular imaging probes in oncologic drug development,” Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 7967–7985 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okano, F.

Pan, X.

E. Sidky, C. Kao, and X. Pan, “Accurate image reconstruction from few-views and limited-angle data in divergent-beam CT,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 14, 119–139 (2006).

Park, J.

Peter, J.

D. Unholtz, W. Semmler, O. Dössel, and J. Peter, “Image formation with a microlens-based optical detector: a three-dimensional mapping approach,” Appl. Opt. 48, D273–D279 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Peter, D. Unholtz, R. Schulz, J. Doll, and W. Semmler, “Development and initial results of a tomographic dual-modality positron/optical small animal imager,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54, 1553–1560 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Qi, J.

J. Qi and R. Leahy, “Iterative reconstruction techniques in emission computed tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, R541–R578 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Que, I.

N. Henriquez, P. van Overveld, I. Que, J. Buijs, R. Bachelier, E. Kaijzel, C. Löwik, P. Clezardin, and G. van der Pluijm, “Advances in optical imaging and novel model systems for cancer metastasis research,” Clin. Exp. Metastasis 24, 699–705 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Romberg, J.

E. Candès, J. Romberg, and T. Tao, “Robust uncertainty principles: Exact signal reconstruction from highly incomplete frequency information,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 52, 489–509 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rowland, D.

D. Rowland, J. Lewis, and M. Welch, “Molecular imaging: the application of small animal positron emission tomography,” J. Cell. Biochem. 87, 110–115 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Saavedra, G.

Scher, H.

G. Kelloff, K. Krohn, S. Larson, R. Weissleder, D. Mankoff, J. Hoffman, J. Link, K. Guyton, W. Eckelman, H. Scher, J. O’Shaughnessy, B. D. Cheson, C. C. Sigman, J. L. Tatum, G. Q. Mills, D. C. Sullivan, and J. Woodcock, “The progress and promise of molecular imaging probes in oncologic drug development,” Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 7967–7985 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schulz, R.

J. Peter, D. Unholtz, R. Schulz, J. Doll, and W. Semmler, “Development and initial results of a tomographic dual-modality positron/optical small animal imager,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54, 1553–1560 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Semmler, W.

D. Unholtz, W. Semmler, O. Dössel, and J. Peter, “Image formation with a microlens-based optical detector: a three-dimensional mapping approach,” Appl. Opt. 48, D273–D279 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Peter, D. Unholtz, R. Schulz, J. Doll, and W. Semmler, “Development and initial results of a tomographic dual-modality positron/optical small animal imager,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54, 1553–1560 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shin, D.

Sidky, E.

E. Sidky, C. Kao, and X. Pan, “Accurate image reconstruction from few-views and limited-angle data in divergent-beam CT,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 14, 119–139 (2006).

Sigman, C. C.

G. Kelloff, K. Krohn, S. Larson, R. Weissleder, D. Mankoff, J. Hoffman, J. Link, K. Guyton, W. Eckelman, H. Scher, J. O’Shaughnessy, B. D. Cheson, C. C. Sigman, J. L. Tatum, G. Q. Mills, D. C. Sullivan, and J. Woodcock, “The progress and promise of molecular imaging probes in oncologic drug development,” Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 7967–7985 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stern, A.

A. Stern and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional image sensing, visualization, and processing using integral imaging,” Proc. IEEE 94, 591 –607 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, D. C.

G. Kelloff, K. Krohn, S. Larson, R. Weissleder, D. Mankoff, J. Hoffman, J. Link, K. Guyton, W. Eckelman, H. Scher, J. O’Shaughnessy, B. D. Cheson, C. C. Sigman, J. L. Tatum, G. Q. Mills, D. C. Sullivan, and J. Woodcock, “The progress and promise of molecular imaging probes in oncologic drug development,” Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 7967–7985 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, J.

G. Chen, J. Tang, and S. Leng, “Prior image constrained compressed sensing (PICCS): a method to accurately reconstruct dynamic CT images from highly undersampled projection data sets,” Med. Phys. 35, 660–663 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tao, T.

E. Candès, J. Romberg, and T. Tao, “Robust uncertainty principles: Exact signal reconstruction from highly incomplete frequency information,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 52, 489–509 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tatum, J. L.

G. Kelloff, K. Krohn, S. Larson, R. Weissleder, D. Mankoff, J. Hoffman, J. Link, K. Guyton, W. Eckelman, H. Scher, J. O’Shaughnessy, B. D. Cheson, C. C. Sigman, J. L. Tatum, G. Q. Mills, D. C. Sullivan, and J. Woodcock, “The progress and promise of molecular imaging probes in oncologic drug development,” Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 7967–7985 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Unholtz, D.

D. Unholtz, W. Semmler, O. Dössel, and J. Peter, “Image formation with a microlens-based optical detector: a three-dimensional mapping approach,” Appl. Opt. 48, D273–D279 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Peter, D. Unholtz, R. Schulz, J. Doll, and W. Semmler, “Development and initial results of a tomographic dual-modality positron/optical small animal imager,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54, 1553–1560 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van der Pluijm, G.

N. Henriquez, P. van Overveld, I. Que, J. Buijs, R. Bachelier, E. Kaijzel, C. Löwik, P. Clezardin, and G. van der Pluijm, “Advances in optical imaging and novel model systems for cancer metastasis research,” Clin. Exp. Metastasis 24, 699–705 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Overveld, P.

N. Henriquez, P. van Overveld, I. Que, J. Buijs, R. Bachelier, E. Kaijzel, C. Löwik, P. Clezardin, and G. van der Pluijm, “Advances in optical imaging and novel model systems for cancer metastasis research,” Clin. Exp. Metastasis 24, 699–705 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weissleder, R.

G. Kelloff, K. Krohn, S. Larson, R. Weissleder, D. Mankoff, J. Hoffman, J. Link, K. Guyton, W. Eckelman, H. Scher, J. O’Shaughnessy, B. D. Cheson, C. C. Sigman, J. L. Tatum, G. Q. Mills, D. C. Sullivan, and J. Woodcock, “The progress and promise of molecular imaging probes in oncologic drug development,” Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 7967–7985 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Weissleder and V. Ntziachristos, “Shedding light onto live molecular targets,” Nat. Med. 9, 123–128 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Welch, M.

D. Rowland, J. Lewis, and M. Welch, “Molecular imaging: the application of small animal positron emission tomography,” J. Cell. Biochem. 87, 110–115 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Woodcock, J.

G. Kelloff, K. Krohn, S. Larson, R. Weissleder, D. Mankoff, J. Hoffman, J. Link, K. Guyton, W. Eckelman, H. Scher, J. O’Shaughnessy, B. D. Cheson, C. C. Sigman, J. L. Tatum, G. Q. Mills, D. C. Sullivan, and J. Woodcock, “The progress and promise of molecular imaging probes in oncologic drug development,” Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 7967–7985 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoo, H.

Yuyama, I.

Appl. Opt. (6)

Clin. Cancer Res. (1)

G. Kelloff, K. Krohn, S. Larson, R. Weissleder, D. Mankoff, J. Hoffman, J. Link, K. Guyton, W. Eckelman, H. Scher, J. O’Shaughnessy, B. D. Cheson, C. C. Sigman, J. L. Tatum, G. Q. Mills, D. C. Sullivan, and J. Woodcock, “The progress and promise of molecular imaging probes in oncologic drug development,” Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 7967–7985 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Exp. Metastasis (1)

N. Henriquez, P. van Overveld, I. Que, J. Buijs, R. Bachelier, E. Kaijzel, C. Löwik, P. Clezardin, and G. van der Pluijm, “Advances in optical imaging and novel model systems for cancer metastasis research,” Clin. Exp. Metastasis 24, 699–705 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (2)

E. Candès, J. Romberg, and T. Tao, “Robust uncertainty principles: Exact signal reconstruction from highly incomplete frequency information,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 52, 489–509 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Donoho, “Compressed sensing,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 52, 1289–1306 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (1)

J. Peter, D. Unholtz, R. Schulz, J. Doll, and W. Semmler, “Development and initial results of a tomographic dual-modality positron/optical small animal imager,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54, 1553–1560 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Cell. Biochem. (1)

D. Rowland, J. Lewis, and M. Welch, “Molecular imaging: the application of small animal positron emission tomography,” J. Cell. Biochem. 87, 110–115 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. (1)

E. Sidky, C. Kao, and X. Pan, “Accurate image reconstruction from few-views and limited-angle data in divergent-beam CT,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 14, 119–139 (2006).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Shin, E. Kim, and B. Lee, “Computational reconstruction of three-dimensional objects in integral imaging using lenslet array,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 8016–8018 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Med. Phys. (1)

G. Chen, J. Tang, and S. Leng, “Prior image constrained compressed sensing (PICCS): a method to accurately reconstruct dynamic CT images from highly undersampled projection data sets,” Med. Phys. 35, 660–663 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Med. (1)

R. Weissleder and V. Ntziachristos, “Shedding light onto live molecular targets,” Nat. Med. 9, 123–128 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng. (1)

N. Davies, M. McCormick, and M. Brewin, “Design and analysis of an image transfer system using microlens arrays (Journal Paper),” Opt. Eng. 33, 3624–3633 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

J. Qi and R. Leahy, “Iterative reconstruction techniques in emission computed tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51, R541–R578 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE (3)

R. Martinez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, and B. Javidi, “Progress in 3-D multiperspective display by integral imaging,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1067–1077 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Cho, M. Daneshpanah, I. Moon, and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional optical sensing and visualization using integral imaging,” Proc. IEEE 99, 556–575 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Stern and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional image sensing, visualization, and processing using integral imaging,” Proc. IEEE 94, 591 –607 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

M. Katz, Introduction to Geometrical Optics (World Scientific Pub. Co. Inc., 2002).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross-sectional view of the microlens-based optical detector containing a microlens array (MLA), a septum mask and a photon sensor (CMOS).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Illustration of OIIR. The detected raw sensor data can be optically reconstructed by attaching another lenslet array over the display of the elemental images. In the most simple implementation the LCD screen represents the elemental images detected by the photon sensor.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Two different computational reconstruction methods for a microlens-based optical detector. (a) Reconstruction by selection of pixels periodically at the same local position under every microlens unit, which present a view of the object at a particular view angle. (b) The reconstructed image is calculated by linear addition of each inversely mapped elemental image at the reconstructed image plane. The lines drawn in each color represent the inverse mapping and magnification of each elemental image detected from an individual microlens unit.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Exaggerated illustration of the image acquisition processes of a simplified 1-dimensional microlens-based detector from a relatively large light source (upper red source) and a sharp point light source (lower blue source). The elemental images acquired in both cases can not distinguish this two different light sources.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Patterns used for experimental setups. (a) A pattern of circles with Derenzo-like geometry. (b) A Siemens star phantom.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Results of the experimental study with Derenzo-like geometry with adequate illumination. (a) the raw sensor data, (b) reconstruction result with inverse mapping, (c) reconstruction result with iterative reconstruction, and (d) profiles of (b) and (c) along the given positions.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Reconstruction of the Derenzo-like pattern by iterative reconstruction method with parameter α set to 0 (SIRT reconstruction).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Results of the experimental study with Derenzo-like geometry with low illumination. (a) the raw sensor data, (b) reconstruction result with inverse mapping, (c) reconstruction result with iterative reconstruction, and (d) profiles of (b) and (c) along the given positions.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Reconstruction results of a Siemens star measurement with inverse mapping and iterative reconstruction algorithms. (a – c) Calculation with inverse mapping algorithm for the measurements at distances 25 mm (a), 30 mm (b) and 35 mm (c), respectively; (d – e) Estimation with iterative reconstruction algorithm for the the measurements at distances 25 mm (d), 30 mm (e) and 35 mm (f), respectively.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Spatial resolutions of reconstructed images from the Siemens star measurement with inverse mapping and iterative reconstruction algorithms

Equations (6)

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H = f 2 N c ,
N = f d = 2.2 0.4 = 5.5 ,
min x Σ | Φ X | , s.t. AX = Y ,
Σ | Φ X | = Σ i , j | X ( i 2 , j ) + X ( i 1 , j ) + X ( i + 1 , j ) + X ( 1 + 2 , j ) 4 X ( i , j ) | + Σ i , j | X ( i , j 2 ) + X ( i , j 1 ) + X ( i , j + 1 ) + X ( i , j + 2 ) 4 X ( i , j ) | ,
X ^ ( k + 1 ) = X ( k ) + 1 | | A | | 2 A T ( Y AX ( k ) ) ,
X ( k + 1 ) ( i , j ) = X ^ ( k + 1 ) ( i , j ) α Σ | Φ X | X ( i , j ) , for all i , j .

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