Abstract

A novel negative index metamaterial design methodology for the visible spectrum with low losses was presented in this paper. A robust differential evolution (DE) was employed to optimize the metamaterial design to achieve a desired set of values for the index of refraction. By using numerical simulation of a wedge-shaped model and S-parameter retrieval method, we found that the DE-designed optimal solution can exhibit a low loss LH frequency band with simultaneously negative values of effective permittivity and permeability at the violet-light wavelength of 408 nm, and the figure of merit is 15.2, that means it may have practical applications because of its low loss and high transmission. Therefore, the design methodology presented in this paper is a very convenient and efficient way to pursue a novel metamaterial with desired electromagnetic characteristics in the visible spectrum.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 224–227 (2007).
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  4. I. I. Smolyaninov, V. N. Smolyaninova, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Anisotropic metamaterials emulated by tapered waveguides: application to optical cloaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(21), 213901 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. Xiao, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Yellow-light negative-index metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 34(22), 3478–3480 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Microwave transmission through a two-dimensional, isotropic, left-handed metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(4), 489–491 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. H. Liu, C. R. Luo, and X. P. Zhao, “H-shaped structure of left-handed metamaterials with simultaneous negative permittivity and permeability,” Acta Phys. Sinica 56, 5883 (2007).
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    [CrossRef]
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  22. G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 31(12), 1800–1802 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. K. S. Yee, “Numerical solution of intitial boundary value problems involving Maxwell's equations in isotropic media,” IEEE Trans. AP 14, 302–307 (1966).
  24. R. J. Luebbers, F. Hunsberger, K. S. Kunz, R. B. Standler, and M. Schneider, “A frequency-dependent finite-difference time-domain formulation for dispersive materials,” IEEE Trans. EMC 32, 222–227 (1990).
  25. D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 71(3), 036617 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65(19), 195104 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  27. X. D. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(1), 016608 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. P. Markos and C. M. Soukoulis, “Transmission properties and effective electromagnetic parameters of double negative metamaterials,” Opt. Express 11(7), 649–661 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. T. Koschny, P. Markos, D. R. Smith, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 68(6), 065602 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

Y. Zhao, F. Chen, H. Chen, N. Li, Q. Shen, and L. Zhang, “The microstructure design optimization of negative index metamaterials using genetic algorithm,” Prog. Electromag. Res. Lett. 22, 95–108 (2011).

2010 (1)

K. Siakavara, “Novel fractal antenna arrays for satellite networks: circular ring sierpinski carpet arrays optimized by genetic algorithms,” Prog. Electromag. Res. 103, 115–138 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

M. A. Panduro, C. A. Brizuela, L. I. Balderas, and D. A. Acosta, “A comparison of genetic algorithms, particle swarm optimization and the differential evolution method for the design of scannable circular antenna arrays,” Prog. Electromag. Res. B 13, 171–186 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Smolyaninov, V. N. Smolyaninova, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Anisotropic metamaterials emulated by tapered waveguides: application to optical cloaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(21), 213901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Helgert, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, E. Pshenay-Severin, E. B. Kley, A. Chipouline, A. Tunnermann, F. Lederer, and T. Pertsch, “Polarization-independent negative-index metamaterial in the near infrared,” Opt. Lett. 34(5), 704–706 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Xiao, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Yellow-light negative-index metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 34(22), 3478–3480 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

U. K. Chettiar, S. Xiao, A. V. Kildishev, W. S. Cai, H. K. Yuan, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical metamagnetism and negative-index metamaterials,” MRS Bull. 33(10), 921–926 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Liu, C. R. Luo, and X. P. Zhao, “H-shaped structure of left-handed metamaterials with simultaneous negative permittivity and permeability,” Acta Phys. Sinica 56, 5883 (2007).

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarekes, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Left-handed metamaterials: The fishnet structure and its variations,” Phys. Rev. B 75(23), 235114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 31(12), 1800–1802 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3356–3358 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 71(3), 036617 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Chen, L. X. Ran, J. T. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Negative refraction of a combined double S-shaped metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151909 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

H. S. Chen, L. X. Ran, J. T. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. Au Kong, “Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(5), 057605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. D. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(1), 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

T. Koschny, P. Markos, D. R. Smith, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 68(6), 065602 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Markos and C. M. Soukoulis, “Transmission properties and effective electromagnetic parameters of double negative metamaterials,” Opt. Express 11(7), 649–661 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Simovski and L. X. He, “Frequency range and explicit expressions for negative permittivity and permeability for an isotropic medium formed by a lattice of perfectly conducting omega particles,” Phys. Lett. A 311(2-3), 254–263 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65(19), 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Microwave transmission through a two-dimensional, isotropic, left-handed metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(4), 489–491 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

R. Storn and K. Price, “Differential evolution—a simple and efficient heuristic for global optimization over continuous spaces,” J. Glob. Optim. 11(4), 341–359 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

R. J. Luebbers, F. Hunsberger, K. S. Kunz, R. B. Standler, and M. Schneider, “A frequency-dependent finite-difference time-domain formulation for dispersive materials,” IEEE Trans. EMC 32, 222–227 (1990).

1966 (1)

K. S. Yee, “Numerical solution of intitial boundary value problems involving Maxwell's equations in isotropic media,” IEEE Trans. AP 14, 302–307 (1966).

Acosta, D. A.

M. A. Panduro, C. A. Brizuela, L. I. Balderas, and D. A. Acosta, “A comparison of genetic algorithms, particle swarm optimization and the differential evolution method for the design of scannable circular antenna arrays,” Prog. Electromag. Res. B 13, 171–186 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Au Kong, J.

H. S. Chen, L. X. Ran, J. T. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. Au Kong, “Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(5), 057605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balderas, L. I.

M. A. Panduro, C. A. Brizuela, L. I. Balderas, and D. A. Acosta, “A comparison of genetic algorithms, particle swarm optimization and the differential evolution method for the design of scannable circular antenna arrays,” Prog. Electromag. Res. B 13, 171–186 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brizuela, C. A.

M. A. Panduro, C. A. Brizuela, L. I. Balderas, and D. A. Acosta, “A comparison of genetic algorithms, particle swarm optimization and the differential evolution method for the design of scannable circular antenna arrays,” Prog. Electromag. Res. B 13, 171–186 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cai, W.

Cai, W. S.

U. K. Chettiar, S. Xiao, A. V. Kildishev, W. S. Cai, H. K. Yuan, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical metamagnetism and negative-index metamaterials,” MRS Bull. 33(10), 921–926 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

Y. Zhao, F. Chen, H. Chen, N. Li, Q. Shen, and L. Zhang, “The microstructure design optimization of negative index metamaterials using genetic algorithm,” Prog. Electromag. Res. Lett. 22, 95–108 (2011).

Chen, H.

Y. Zhao, F. Chen, H. Chen, N. Li, Q. Shen, and L. Zhang, “The microstructure design optimization of negative index metamaterials using genetic algorithm,” Prog. Electromag. Res. Lett. 22, 95–108 (2011).

Chen, H. S.

H. S. Chen, L. X. Ran, J. T. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Negative refraction of a combined double S-shaped metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151909 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Chen, L. X. Ran, J. T. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. Au Kong, “Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(5), 057605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, K.

H. S. Chen, L. X. Ran, J. T. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Negative refraction of a combined double S-shaped metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151909 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Chen, L. X. Ran, J. T. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. Au Kong, “Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(5), 057605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, X. D.

X. D. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(1), 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chettiar, U. K.

S. Xiao, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Yellow-light negative-index metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 34(22), 3478–3480 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. K. Chettiar, S. Xiao, A. V. Kildishev, W. S. Cai, H. K. Yuan, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical metamagnetism and negative-index metamaterials,” MRS Bull. 33(10), 921–926 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3356–3358 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chipouline, A.

Cummer, S. A.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dolling, G.

Drachev, V. P.

Economou, E. N.

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarekes, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Left-handed metamaterials: The fishnet structure and its variations,” Phys. Rev. B 75(23), 235114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Enkrich, C.

Grzegorczyk, T. M.

H. S. Chen, L. X. Ran, J. T. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Negative refraction of a combined double S-shaped metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151909 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(1), 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Chen, L. X. Ran, J. T. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. Au Kong, “Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(5), 057605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, L. X.

C. R. Simovski and L. X. He, “Frequency range and explicit expressions for negative permittivity and permeability for an isotropic medium formed by a lattice of perfectly conducting omega particles,” Phys. Lett. A 311(2-3), 254–263 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Helgert, C.

Huangfu, J. T.

H. S. Chen, L. X. Ran, J. T. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Negative refraction of a combined double S-shaped metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151909 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Chen, L. X. Ran, J. T. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. Au Kong, “Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(5), 057605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hunsberger, F.

R. J. Luebbers, F. Hunsberger, K. S. Kunz, R. B. Standler, and M. Schneider, “A frequency-dependent finite-difference time-domain formulation for dispersive materials,” IEEE Trans. EMC 32, 222–227 (1990).

Justice, B. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kafesaki, M.

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarekes, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Left-handed metamaterials: The fishnet structure and its variations,” Phys. Rev. B 75(23), 235114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Katsarekes, N.

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarekes, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Left-handed metamaterials: The fishnet structure and its variations,” Phys. Rev. B 75(23), 235114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kildishev, A. V.

S. Xiao, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Yellow-light negative-index metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 34(22), 3478–3480 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. I. Smolyaninov, V. N. Smolyaninova, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Anisotropic metamaterials emulated by tapered waveguides: application to optical cloaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(21), 213901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. K. Chettiar, S. Xiao, A. V. Kildishev, W. S. Cai, H. K. Yuan, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical metamagnetism and negative-index metamaterials,” MRS Bull. 33(10), 921–926 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3356–3358 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kley, E. B.

Kong, J. A.

H. S. Chen, L. X. Ran, J. T. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Negative refraction of a combined double S-shaped metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151909 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(1), 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koschny, T.

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarekes, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Left-handed metamaterials: The fishnet structure and its variations,” Phys. Rev. B 75(23), 235114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 71(3), 036617 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Koschny, P. Markos, D. R. Smith, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 68(6), 065602 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kunz, K. S.

R. J. Luebbers, F. Hunsberger, K. S. Kunz, R. B. Standler, and M. Schneider, “A frequency-dependent finite-difference time-domain formulation for dispersive materials,” IEEE Trans. EMC 32, 222–227 (1990).

Lederer, F.

Li, N.

Y. Zhao, F. Chen, H. Chen, N. Li, Q. Shen, and L. Zhang, “The microstructure design optimization of negative index metamaterials using genetic algorithm,” Prog. Electromag. Res. Lett. 22, 95–108 (2011).

Linden, S.

Liu, Y. H.

Y. H. Liu, C. R. Luo, and X. P. Zhao, “H-shaped structure of left-handed metamaterials with simultaneous negative permittivity and permeability,” Acta Phys. Sinica 56, 5883 (2007).

Luebbers, R. J.

R. J. Luebbers, F. Hunsberger, K. S. Kunz, R. B. Standler, and M. Schneider, “A frequency-dependent finite-difference time-domain formulation for dispersive materials,” IEEE Trans. EMC 32, 222–227 (1990).

Luo, C. R.

Y. H. Liu, C. R. Luo, and X. P. Zhao, “H-shaped structure of left-handed metamaterials with simultaneous negative permittivity and permeability,” Acta Phys. Sinica 56, 5883 (2007).

Markos, P.

P. Markos and C. M. Soukoulis, “Transmission properties and effective electromagnetic parameters of double negative metamaterials,” Opt. Express 11(7), 649–661 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Koschny, P. Markos, D. R. Smith, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 68(6), 065602 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65(19), 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Menzel, C.

Mock, J. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nemat-Nasser, S. C.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Microwave transmission through a two-dimensional, isotropic, left-handed metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(4), 489–491 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pacheco, J.

X. D. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(1), 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Padilla, W. J.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panduro, M. A.

M. A. Panduro, C. A. Brizuela, L. I. Balderas, and D. A. Acosta, “A comparison of genetic algorithms, particle swarm optimization and the differential evolution method for the design of scannable circular antenna arrays,” Prog. Electromag. Res. B 13, 171–186 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pertsch, T.

Price, K.

R. Storn and K. Price, “Differential evolution—a simple and efficient heuristic for global optimization over continuous spaces,” J. Glob. Optim. 11(4), 341–359 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pshenay-Severin, E.

Ran, L. X.

H. S. Chen, L. X. Ran, J. T. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Negative refraction of a combined double S-shaped metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151909 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Chen, L. X. Ran, J. T. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. Au Kong, “Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(5), 057605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rockstuhl, C.

Sarychev, A. K.

Schneider, M.

R. J. Luebbers, F. Hunsberger, K. S. Kunz, R. B. Standler, and M. Schneider, “A frequency-dependent finite-difference time-domain formulation for dispersive materials,” IEEE Trans. EMC 32, 222–227 (1990).

Schultz, S.

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65(19), 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Microwave transmission through a two-dimensional, isotropic, left-handed metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(4), 489–491 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schurig, D.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shalaev, V. M.

S. Xiao, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Yellow-light negative-index metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 34(22), 3478–3480 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. I. Smolyaninov, V. N. Smolyaninova, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Anisotropic metamaterials emulated by tapered waveguides: application to optical cloaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(21), 213901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. K. Chettiar, S. Xiao, A. V. Kildishev, W. S. Cai, H. K. Yuan, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical metamagnetism and negative-index metamaterials,” MRS Bull. 33(10), 921–926 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3356–3358 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Microwave transmission through a two-dimensional, isotropic, left-handed metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(4), 489–491 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, Q.

Y. Zhao, F. Chen, H. Chen, N. Li, Q. Shen, and L. Zhang, “The microstructure design optimization of negative index metamaterials using genetic algorithm,” Prog. Electromag. Res. Lett. 22, 95–108 (2011).

Siakavara, K.

K. Siakavara, “Novel fractal antenna arrays for satellite networks: circular ring sierpinski carpet arrays optimized by genetic algorithms,” Prog. Electromag. Res. 103, 115–138 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Simovski, C. R.

C. R. Simovski and L. X. He, “Frequency range and explicit expressions for negative permittivity and permeability for an isotropic medium formed by a lattice of perfectly conducting omega particles,” Phys. Lett. A 311(2-3), 254–263 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 71(3), 036617 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Koschny, P. Markos, D. R. Smith, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 68(6), 065602 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65(19), 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Microwave transmission through a two-dimensional, isotropic, left-handed metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(4), 489–491 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smolyaninov, I. I.

I. I. Smolyaninov, V. N. Smolyaninova, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Anisotropic metamaterials emulated by tapered waveguides: application to optical cloaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(21), 213901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smolyaninova, V. N.

I. I. Smolyaninov, V. N. Smolyaninova, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Anisotropic metamaterials emulated by tapered waveguides: application to optical cloaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(21), 213901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarekes, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Left-handed metamaterials: The fishnet structure and its variations,” Phys. Rev. B 75(23), 235114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 31(12), 1800–1802 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 71(3), 036617 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Koschny, P. Markos, D. R. Smith, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 68(6), 065602 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Markos and C. M. Soukoulis, “Transmission properties and effective electromagnetic parameters of double negative metamaterials,” Opt. Express 11(7), 649–661 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65(19), 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Standler, R. B.

R. J. Luebbers, F. Hunsberger, K. S. Kunz, R. B. Standler, and M. Schneider, “A frequency-dependent finite-difference time-domain formulation for dispersive materials,” IEEE Trans. EMC 32, 222–227 (1990).

Starr, A. F.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Storn, R.

R. Storn and K. Price, “Differential evolution—a simple and efficient heuristic for global optimization over continuous spaces,” J. Glob. Optim. 11(4), 341–359 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tsiapa, I.

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarekes, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Left-handed metamaterials: The fishnet structure and its variations,” Phys. Rev. B 75(23), 235114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tunnermann, A.

Vier, D. C.

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 71(3), 036617 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wegener, M.

Wu, B. I.

X. D. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(1), 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, S.

S. Xiao, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Yellow-light negative-index metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 34(22), 3478–3480 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. K. Chettiar, S. Xiao, A. V. Kildishev, W. S. Cai, H. K. Yuan, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical metamagnetism and negative-index metamaterials,” MRS Bull. 33(10), 921–926 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yee, K. S.

K. S. Yee, “Numerical solution of intitial boundary value problems involving Maxwell's equations in isotropic media,” IEEE Trans. AP 14, 302–307 (1966).

Yuan, H. K.

U. K. Chettiar, S. Xiao, A. V. Kildishev, W. S. Cai, H. K. Yuan, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical metamagnetism and negative-index metamaterials,” MRS Bull. 33(10), 921–926 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, H.-K.

Zhang, L.

Y. Zhao, F. Chen, H. Chen, N. Li, Q. Shen, and L. Zhang, “The microstructure design optimization of negative index metamaterials using genetic algorithm,” Prog. Electromag. Res. Lett. 22, 95–108 (2011).

Zhang, X.

H. S. Chen, L. X. Ran, J. T. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Negative refraction of a combined double S-shaped metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151909 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Chen, L. X. Ran, J. T. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. Au Kong, “Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(5), 057605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, X. P.

Y. H. Liu, C. R. Luo, and X. P. Zhao, “H-shaped structure of left-handed metamaterials with simultaneous negative permittivity and permeability,” Acta Phys. Sinica 56, 5883 (2007).

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, F. Chen, H. Chen, N. Li, Q. Shen, and L. Zhang, “The microstructure design optimization of negative index metamaterials using genetic algorithm,” Prog. Electromag. Res. Lett. 22, 95–108 (2011).

Acta Phys. Sinica (1)

Y. H. Liu, C. R. Luo, and X. P. Zhao, “H-shaped structure of left-handed metamaterials with simultaneous negative permittivity and permeability,” Acta Phys. Sinica 56, 5883 (2007).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

H. S. Chen, L. X. Ran, J. T. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Negative refraction of a combined double S-shaped metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151909 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Microwave transmission through a two-dimensional, isotropic, left-handed metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(4), 489–491 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. AP (1)

K. S. Yee, “Numerical solution of intitial boundary value problems involving Maxwell's equations in isotropic media,” IEEE Trans. AP 14, 302–307 (1966).

IEEE Trans. EMC (1)

R. J. Luebbers, F. Hunsberger, K. S. Kunz, R. B. Standler, and M. Schneider, “A frequency-dependent finite-difference time-domain formulation for dispersive materials,” IEEE Trans. EMC 32, 222–227 (1990).

J. Glob. Optim. (1)

R. Storn and K. Price, “Differential evolution—a simple and efficient heuristic for global optimization over continuous spaces,” J. Glob. Optim. 11(4), 341–359 (1997).
[CrossRef]

MRS Bull. (1)

U. K. Chettiar, S. Xiao, A. V. Kildishev, W. S. Cai, H. K. Yuan, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical metamagnetism and negative-index metamaterials,” MRS Bull. 33(10), 921–926 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

C. R. Simovski and L. X. He, “Frequency range and explicit expressions for negative permittivity and permeability for an isotropic medium formed by a lattice of perfectly conducting omega particles,” Phys. Lett. A 311(2-3), 254–263 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, N. Katsarekes, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Left-handed metamaterials: The fishnet structure and its variations,” Phys. Rev. B 75(23), 235114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65(19), 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (4)

X. D. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(1), 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Koschny, P. Markos, D. R. Smith, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 68(6), 065602 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 71(3), 036617 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Chen, L. X. Ran, J. T. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. Au Kong, “Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70(5), 057605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. I. Smolyaninov, V. N. Smolyaninova, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Anisotropic metamaterials emulated by tapered waveguides: application to optical cloaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(21), 213901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prog. Electromag. Res. (1)

K. Siakavara, “Novel fractal antenna arrays for satellite networks: circular ring sierpinski carpet arrays optimized by genetic algorithms,” Prog. Electromag. Res. 103, 115–138 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Electromag. Res. B (1)

M. A. Panduro, C. A. Brizuela, L. I. Balderas, and D. A. Acosta, “A comparison of genetic algorithms, particle swarm optimization and the differential evolution method for the design of scannable circular antenna arrays,” Prog. Electromag. Res. B 13, 171–186 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Electromag. Res. Lett. (1)

Y. Zhao, F. Chen, H. Chen, N. Li, Q. Shen, and L. Zhang, “The microstructure design optimization of negative index metamaterials using genetic algorithm,” Prog. Electromag. Res. Lett. 22, 95–108 (2011).

Science (2)

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

Y. X. Zhao, S. W. Xiong, and N. Xu, “The geometry optimization of argon atom clusters using differential evolution algorithm,” in Proceedings of ICCS 2007, Y. Shi et al. ed. (Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2007), pp. 1155–1158.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The five geometrical parameters for fishnet structure design and optimization.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The boundary conditions of fishnet structure.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The block diagram of the DE design for fishnet structure optimization.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The convergence curves of DE for fishnet structure optimization.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Magnitude and (b) phase of the simulated S parameters for the DE-designed optimal solution. Retrieved index (c), impedance (d), permittivity (e) and permeability (f) are also shown.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The wedge-shaped model for negative refraction simulation.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The magnitude distribution of electric field for the wedge-shaped model with the negative refraction at the violet-light wavelength of 408 nm. The reference line (black dashed line) is drawn normal to the bevel edge of the model.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters for the DE Optimization

Tables Icon

Table 2 The Optimal Solutions of Fishnet Structure Design at Different Generations

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

M i n i m i z e : ​   F = MIN λ min λ λ max | n n target | 2
Subject t o : 200 n m a 300 n m
0 r x 1
0 r y 1
0 n m s MgF 2 100 n m
0 n m t Silver 100 n m
Z = ± ( 1 + S 11 ) 2 S 21 2 ( 1 S 11 ) 2 S 21 2 , Z ' 0
e i n k 0 d = S 21 1 S 11 Z 1 Z + 1
n = 1 k 0 d { [ [ ln ( e i n k 0 d ) ] ' ' + 2 m π ] i [ ln ( e i n k 0 d ) ] ' }
ε = n / Z , μ = n Z
n ' 2 n ' ' 2 = ε ' μ ' ε ' ' μ ' '
2 n ' n ' ' = ε ' μ ' ' + ε ' ' μ '

Metrics