Abstract

We report the fabrication of high-Q polymeric microdisks on silicon via direct laser writing utilizing two-photon absorption induced polymerization. The quality factors of the passive cavities are above 106 in the 1300 nm wavelength region. The flexible three-dimensional (3D) lithography method allows for the fabrication of different cavity thicknesses on the same substrate, useful for rapid prototyping of active and passive optical microcavities. Microdisk lasers are realized by doping the resist with dye, resulting in laser emission at visible wavelengths.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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2010 (4)

G. von Freymann, A. Ledermann, M. Thiel, I. Staude, S. Essig, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional nanostructures for photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(7), 1038–1052 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z.-P. Liu, Y. Li, Y.-F. Xiao, B.-B. Li, X.-F. Jiang, Y. Qin, X.-B. Feng, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Direct laser writing of whispering gallery microcavities by two-photon polymerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Grossmann, M. Hauser, T. Beck, C. Gohn-Kreuz, M. Karl, H. Kalt, C. Vannahme, and T. Mappes, “High-Q conical polymeric microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 013303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, “Low-threshold conical microcavity dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

C.-H. Dong, L. He, Y.-F. Xiao, V. R. Gaddam, S. K. Ozdemir, Z.-F. Han, G.-C. Guo, and L. Yang, “Fabrication of high-Q polydimethylsiloxane optical microspheres for thermal sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

A. M. Armani, A. Srinivasan, and K. J. Vahala, “Soft lithographic fabrication of high Q polymer microcavity arrays,” Nano Lett. 7(6), 1823–1826 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

M. Lebental, J. S. Lauret, R. Hierle, and J. Zyss, “Highly directional stadium-shaped polymer microlasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(3), 031108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Cho and N. Jokerst, “A polymer microdisk photonic sensor integrated onto silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(20), 2096–2098 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. Guo, “Polymer microring resonators for biochemical sensing applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 134–142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (3)

P. Rabiei and W. Steier, “Tunable polymer double micro-ring filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(9), 1255–1257 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Serbin, A. Egbert, A. Ostendorf, B. N. Chichkov, R. Houbertz, G. Domann, J. Schulz, C. Cronauer, L. Fröhlich, and M. Popall, “Femtosecond laser-induced two-photon polymerization of inorganic-organic hybrid materials for applications in photonics,” Opt. Lett. 28(5), 301–303 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-B. Sun, K. Takada, M.-S. Kim, K.-S. Lee, and S. Kawata, “Scaling laws of voxels in two-photon photopolymerization nanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1104–1106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

Albota, M. A.

Armani, A. M.

A. M. Armani, A. Srinivasan, and K. J. Vahala, “Soft lithographic fabrication of high Q polymer microcavity arrays,” Nano Lett. 7(6), 1823–1826 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Armani, D. K.

Beck, T.

T. Grossmann, M. Hauser, T. Beck, C. Gohn-Kreuz, M. Karl, H. Kalt, C. Vannahme, and T. Mappes, “High-Q conical polymeric microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 013303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, “Low-threshold conical microcavity dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Busch, K.

G. von Freymann, A. Ledermann, M. Thiel, I. Staude, S. Essig, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional nanostructures for photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(7), 1038–1052 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chao, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. Guo, “Polymer microring resonators for biochemical sensing applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 134–142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chichkov, B. N.

Cho, S.-Y.

S.-Y. Cho and N. Jokerst, “A polymer microdisk photonic sensor integrated onto silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(20), 2096–2098 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Christiansen, M. B.

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, “Low-threshold conical microcavity dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cronauer, C.

Dalton, L. R.

Dodabalapur, A.

Domann, G.

Dong, C.-H.

C.-H. Dong, L. He, Y.-F. Xiao, V. R. Gaddam, S. K. Ozdemir, Z.-F. Han, G.-C. Guo, and L. Yang, “Fabrication of high-Q polydimethylsiloxane optical microspheres for thermal sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Egbert, A.

Eschenbaum, C.

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, “Low-threshold conical microcavity dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Essig, S.

G. von Freymann, A. Ledermann, M. Thiel, I. Staude, S. Essig, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional nanostructures for photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(7), 1038–1052 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Feng, X.-B.

Z.-P. Liu, Y. Li, Y.-F. Xiao, B.-B. Li, X.-F. Jiang, Y. Qin, X.-B. Feng, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Direct laser writing of whispering gallery microcavities by two-photon polymerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fröhlich, L.

Fuchs, J.

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, “Low-threshold conical microcavity dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fung, W.

C.-Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. Guo, “Polymer microring resonators for biochemical sensing applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 134–142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gaddam, V. R.

C.-H. Dong, L. He, Y.-F. Xiao, V. R. Gaddam, S. K. Ozdemir, Z.-F. Han, G.-C. Guo, and L. Yang, “Fabrication of high-Q polydimethylsiloxane optical microspheres for thermal sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gohn-Kreuz, C.

T. Grossmann, M. Hauser, T. Beck, C. Gohn-Kreuz, M. Karl, H. Kalt, C. Vannahme, and T. Mappes, “High-Q conical polymeric microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 013303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Q.

Z.-P. Liu, Y. Li, Y.-F. Xiao, B.-B. Li, X.-F. Jiang, Y. Qin, X.-B. Feng, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Direct laser writing of whispering gallery microcavities by two-photon polymerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gorodetsky, M. L.

Grossmann, T.

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, “Low-threshold conical microcavity dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Grossmann, M. Hauser, T. Beck, C. Gohn-Kreuz, M. Karl, H. Kalt, C. Vannahme, and T. Mappes, “High-Q conical polymeric microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 013303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Guo, G.-C.

C.-H. Dong, L. He, Y.-F. Xiao, V. R. Gaddam, S. K. Ozdemir, Z.-F. Han, G.-C. Guo, and L. Yang, “Fabrication of high-Q polydimethylsiloxane optical microspheres for thermal sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Guo, L.

C.-Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. Guo, “Polymer microring resonators for biochemical sensing applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 134–142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Han, Z.-F.

C.-H. Dong, L. He, Y.-F. Xiao, V. R. Gaddam, S. K. Ozdemir, Z.-F. Han, G.-C. Guo, and L. Yang, “Fabrication of high-Q polydimethylsiloxane optical microspheres for thermal sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hauser, M.

T. Grossmann, M. Hauser, T. Beck, C. Gohn-Kreuz, M. Karl, H. Kalt, C. Vannahme, and T. Mappes, “High-Q conical polymeric microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 013303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, “Low-threshold conical microcavity dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

He, L.

C.-H. Dong, L. He, Y.-F. Xiao, V. R. Gaddam, S. K. Ozdemir, Z.-F. Han, G.-C. Guo, and L. Yang, “Fabrication of high-Q polydimethylsiloxane optical microspheres for thermal sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hierle, R.

M. Lebental, J. S. Lauret, R. Hierle, and J. Zyss, “Highly directional stadium-shaped polymer microlasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(3), 031108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Houbertz, R.

Ilchenko, V. S.

Jiang, X.-F.

Z.-P. Liu, Y. Li, Y.-F. Xiao, B.-B. Li, X.-F. Jiang, Y. Qin, X.-B. Feng, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Direct laser writing of whispering gallery microcavities by two-photon polymerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jokerst, N.

S.-Y. Cho and N. Jokerst, “A polymer microdisk photonic sensor integrated onto silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(20), 2096–2098 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jordan, R. H.

Kalt, H.

T. Grossmann, M. Hauser, T. Beck, C. Gohn-Kreuz, M. Karl, H. Kalt, C. Vannahme, and T. Mappes, “High-Q conical polymeric microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 013303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, “Low-threshold conical microcavity dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Karl, M.

T. Grossmann, M. Hauser, T. Beck, C. Gohn-Kreuz, M. Karl, H. Kalt, C. Vannahme, and T. Mappes, “High-Q conical polymeric microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 013303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Katz, H. E.

Kawata, S.

H.-B. Sun, K. Takada, M.-S. Kim, K.-S. Lee, and S. Kawata, “Scaling laws of voxels in two-photon photopolymerization nanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1104–1106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M.-S.

H.-B. Sun, K. Takada, M.-S. Kim, K.-S. Lee, and S. Kawata, “Scaling laws of voxels in two-photon photopolymerization nanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1104–1106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Klinkhammer, S.

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, “Low-threshold conical microcavity dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kristensen, A.

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, “Low-threshold conical microcavity dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kuwata-Gonokami, M.

Lauret, J. S.

M. Lebental, J. S. Lauret, R. Hierle, and J. Zyss, “Highly directional stadium-shaped polymer microlasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(3), 031108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lebental, M.

M. Lebental, J. S. Lauret, R. Hierle, and J. Zyss, “Highly directional stadium-shaped polymer microlasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(3), 031108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ledermann, A.

G. von Freymann, A. Ledermann, M. Thiel, I. Staude, S. Essig, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional nanostructures for photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(7), 1038–1052 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.-S.

H.-B. Sun, K. Takada, M.-S. Kim, K.-S. Lee, and S. Kawata, “Scaling laws of voxels in two-photon photopolymerization nanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1104–1106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lemmer, U.

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, “Low-threshold conical microcavity dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, B.-B.

Z.-P. Liu, Y. Li, Y.-F. Xiao, B.-B. Li, X.-F. Jiang, Y. Qin, X.-B. Feng, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Direct laser writing of whispering gallery microcavities by two-photon polymerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Z.-P. Liu, Y. Li, Y.-F. Xiao, B.-B. Li, X.-F. Jiang, Y. Qin, X.-B. Feng, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Direct laser writing of whispering gallery microcavities by two-photon polymerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.-P.

Z.-P. Liu, Y. Li, Y.-F. Xiao, B.-B. Li, X.-F. Jiang, Y. Qin, X.-B. Feng, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Direct laser writing of whispering gallery microcavities by two-photon polymerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mappes, T.

T. Grossmann, M. Hauser, T. Beck, C. Gohn-Kreuz, M. Karl, H. Kalt, C. Vannahme, and T. Mappes, “High-Q conical polymeric microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 013303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, “Low-threshold conical microcavity dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Martin, A. L.

Nienhaus, G. U.

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, “Low-threshold conical microcavity dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ostendorf, A.

Ozawa, S.

Ozdemir, S. K.

C.-H. Dong, L. He, Y.-F. Xiao, V. R. Gaddam, S. K. Ozdemir, Z.-F. Han, G.-C. Guo, and L. Yang, “Fabrication of high-Q polydimethylsiloxane optical microspheres for thermal sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Popall, M.

Qin, Y.

Z.-P. Liu, Y. Li, Y.-F. Xiao, B.-B. Li, X.-F. Jiang, Y. Qin, X.-B. Feng, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Direct laser writing of whispering gallery microcavities by two-photon polymerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rabiei, P.

P. Rabiei and W. Steier, “Tunable polymer double micro-ring filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(9), 1255–1257 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Rabiei, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymer micro-ring filters and modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(11), 1968–1975 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Savchenkov, A. A.

Schilling, M. L.

Schleede, S.

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, “Low-threshold conical microcavity dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, J.

Serbin, J.

Slusher, R. E.

Srinivasan, A.

A. M. Armani, A. Srinivasan, and K. J. Vahala, “Soft lithographic fabrication of high Q polymer microcavity arrays,” Nano Lett. 7(6), 1823–1826 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Staude, I.

G. von Freymann, A. Ledermann, M. Thiel, I. Staude, S. Essig, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional nanostructures for photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(7), 1038–1052 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Steier, W.

P. Rabiei and W. Steier, “Tunable polymer double micro-ring filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(9), 1255–1257 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Steier, W. H.

Sun, H.-B.

H.-B. Sun, K. Takada, M.-S. Kim, K.-S. Lee, and S. Kawata, “Scaling laws of voxels in two-photon photopolymerization nanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1104–1106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Takada, K.

H.-B. Sun, K. Takada, M.-S. Kim, K.-S. Lee, and S. Kawata, “Scaling laws of voxels in two-photon photopolymerization nanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1104–1106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thiel, M.

G. von Freymann, A. Ledermann, M. Thiel, I. Staude, S. Essig, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional nanostructures for photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(7), 1038–1052 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

A. M. Armani, A. Srinivasan, and K. J. Vahala, “Soft lithographic fabrication of high Q polymer microcavity arrays,” Nano Lett. 7(6), 1823–1826 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Martin, D. K. Armani, L. Yang, and K. J. Vahala, “Replica-molded high-Q polymer microresonators,” Opt. Lett. 29(6), 533–535 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vannahme, C.

T. Grossmann, M. Hauser, T. Beck, C. Gohn-Kreuz, M. Karl, H. Kalt, C. Vannahme, and T. Mappes, “High-Q conical polymeric microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 013303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Grossmann, S. Schleede, M. Hauser, M. B. Christiansen, C. Vannahme, C. Eschenbaum, S. Klinkhammer, T. Beck, J. Fuchs, G. U. Nienhaus, U. Lemmer, A. Kristensen, T. Mappes, and H. Kalt, “Low-threshold conical microcavity dye lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063304 (2010).
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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the layer system used to fabricate Ormocomp microdisks on silicon via DLW. (b) Microscope image of a fabricated microdisk with a diameter of 47 µm standing on a silicon pedestal. (c) Scanning electron micrograph showing a 4 µm thick polymeric microdisk. (d) Microdisk thickness can be controlled by varying the offset between voxel position and Ormocomp-silicon interface.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Transmission spectrum showing WGM-resonances of an Ormocomp microdisk with a diameter of 47 µm and a thickness of 3 µm standing on a silicon pedestal. The free spectral range is 7.5 nm. (b) WGM-resonance with a loaded Q factor of 1.2x106, determined from the Lorentzian fit (red curve).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Input-output curve of an optically pumped dye-doped microdisk laser with a threshold energy of 24 nJ. (b) High-resolution spectrum above lasing threshold, showing multiple laser modes around 610 nm with linewidths of 62 pm. (c) CCD image with color-coded photoluminescence intensity, with a spatial resolution in the vertical dimension (y-axis) and spectral information along the x-axis. The imaged region from the center of the microdisk shows spectrally and spatially narrow WGM-lasing at the border of the disk.

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