Abstract

Nonlinear optical molecules can be vacuum deposited into uniform thin films using thermal evaporation. Alignment order can be achieved during thin film deposition by an in-plane electrical field poling using electrodes patterned on the substrate. Electro-optic (EO) coefficients, r 33 and r 13 are independently measured using Young's interferometry technique. Thin-films of N-benzyl-2-methyl-4-nitroaniline (BNA) can exhibit an EO coefficient, r 33, comparable to that of BNA single crystals. EO coefficients of BNA at different poling fields, wavelengths, and frequencies are investigated.

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  17. O. P. Kwon, S. J. Kwon, H. Figi, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, “Organic electro-optic single- crystalline thin films grown directly on modified amorphous substrates,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(3), 543–545 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2009

2008

O. P. Kwon, S. J. Kwon, H. Figi, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, “Organic electro-optic single- crystalline thin films grown directly on modified amorphous substrates,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(3), 543–545 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Hunziker, S.-J. Kwon, H. Figi, F. Juvalta, O.-P. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, “Configurationally locked, phenolic polyene organic crystal 2-{3-(4-hydroxystyryl)-5,5-dimethylcyclohex-2-enylidene}malononitrile: Linear and nonlinear optical properties,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(10), 1678–1683 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Rezzonico, S. J. Kwon, H. Figi, O. P. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, “Photochemical stability of nonlinear optical chromophores in polymeric and crystalline materials,” J. Chem. Phys. 128(12), 124713 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

T. D. Kim, J. W. Kang, J. Luo, S. H. Jang, J. W. Ka, N. Tucker, J. B. Benedict, L. R. Dalton, T. Gray, R. M. Overney, D. H. Park, W. N. Herman, and A. K. Jen, “Ultralarge and thermally stable electro-optic activities from supramolecular self-assembled molecular glasses,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(3), 488–489 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fujiwara, M. Maruyama, M. Sugisaki, H. Takahashi, S.- Aoshima, R. J. Cogdell, and H. Hashimoto, “Determination of the d-tensor components of a single crystal of N-Benzyl-2-methyl-4-nitroaniline,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(No. 4A), 1528–1530 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

M. Fujiwara, K. Yanagi, M. Maruyama, M. Sugisaki, K. Kuroyanagi, H. Takahashi, S. Aoshima, Y. Tsuchiya, A. Gall, and H. Hashimoto, “Second order nonlinear optical properties of the single crystal of N-Benzyl 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline: Anomalous enhancement of the d333 component and its possible origin,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(11), 8676–8685 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Kwon, B. Ruiz, A. Choubey, L. Mutter, A. Schneider, M. Jazbinsek, V. Gramlich, and P. Gunter, “Organic nonlinear optical crystals based on configurationally locked polyene for melt growth,” Chem. Mater. 18(17), 4049–4054 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1997

H. Hashimoto, Y. Okada, H. Fujimura, M. Morioka, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, and R. Matsushima, “Second-harmonic generation from single crystals of N-Substituted 4-Nitroanilines,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 1, No. 11), 6754–6760 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

S. Kalluri, S. Garner, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, Y. Shi, and L. R. Dalton, “Simple two-slit interference electro-optic coefficients measurement technique and efficient coplanar electrode poling of polymer thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(2), 275–277 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

D. Burland, “Optical nonlinearities in chemistry: introduction,” Chem. Rev. 94(1), 1–2 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1987

P. Günter, C. Bosshard, K. Sutter, H. Arend, G. Chapuis, R. J. Twieg, and D. Dobrowolski, “2-cyclooctylamino-5-nitropyridine, a new nonlinear optical crystal with orthorhombic symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(9), 486–488 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, “Second harmonic generation in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(5), 248–250 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1977

J. L. Oudar and D. S. Chemla, “Hyperpolarizabilities of the nitroanilines and their relations to the excited state dipole moment,” J. Chem. Phys. 66(6), 2664–2668 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Aoshima, S.

M. Fujiwara, K. Yanagi, M. Maruyama, M. Sugisaki, K. Kuroyanagi, H. Takahashi, S. Aoshima, Y. Tsuchiya, A. Gall, and H. Hashimoto, “Second order nonlinear optical properties of the single crystal of N-Benzyl 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline: Anomalous enhancement of the d333 component and its possible origin,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(11), 8676–8685 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Aoshima, S.-

M. Fujiwara, M. Maruyama, M. Sugisaki, H. Takahashi, S.- Aoshima, R. J. Cogdell, and H. Hashimoto, “Determination of the d-tensor components of a single crystal of N-Benzyl-2-methyl-4-nitroaniline,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(No. 4A), 1528–1530 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Arend, H.

P. Günter, C. Bosshard, K. Sutter, H. Arend, G. Chapuis, R. J. Twieg, and D. Dobrowolski, “2-cyclooctylamino-5-nitropyridine, a new nonlinear optical crystal with orthorhombic symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(9), 486–488 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Benedict, J. B.

T. D. Kim, J. W. Kang, J. Luo, S. H. Jang, J. W. Ka, N. Tucker, J. B. Benedict, L. R. Dalton, T. Gray, R. M. Overney, D. H. Park, W. N. Herman, and A. K. Jen, “Ultralarge and thermally stable electro-optic activities from supramolecular self-assembled molecular glasses,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(3), 488–489 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bosshard, C.

P. Günter, C. Bosshard, K. Sutter, H. Arend, G. Chapuis, R. J. Twieg, and D. Dobrowolski, “2-cyclooctylamino-5-nitropyridine, a new nonlinear optical crystal with orthorhombic symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(9), 486–488 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Burland, D.

D. Burland, “Optical nonlinearities in chemistry: introduction,” Chem. Rev. 94(1), 1–2 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chapuis, G.

P. Günter, C. Bosshard, K. Sutter, H. Arend, G. Chapuis, R. J. Twieg, and D. Dobrowolski, “2-cyclooctylamino-5-nitropyridine, a new nonlinear optical crystal with orthorhombic symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(9), 486–488 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Chemla, D. S.

J. L. Oudar and D. S. Chemla, “Hyperpolarizabilities of the nitroanilines and their relations to the excited state dipole moment,” J. Chem. Phys. 66(6), 2664–2668 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Choubey, A.

O. P. Kwon, B. Ruiz, A. Choubey, L. Mutter, A. Schneider, M. Jazbinsek, V. Gramlich, and P. Gunter, “Organic nonlinear optical crystals based on configurationally locked polyene for melt growth,” Chem. Mater. 18(17), 4049–4054 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cogdell, R. J.

M. Fujiwara, M. Maruyama, M. Sugisaki, H. Takahashi, S.- Aoshima, R. J. Cogdell, and H. Hashimoto, “Determination of the d-tensor components of a single crystal of N-Benzyl-2-methyl-4-nitroaniline,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(No. 4A), 1528–1530 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cooke, D. G.

Dalton, L. R.

T. D. Kim, J. W. Kang, J. Luo, S. H. Jang, J. W. Ka, N. Tucker, J. B. Benedict, L. R. Dalton, T. Gray, R. M. Overney, D. H. Park, W. N. Herman, and A. K. Jen, “Ultralarge and thermally stable electro-optic activities from supramolecular self-assembled molecular glasses,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(3), 488–489 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kalluri, S. Garner, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, Y. Shi, and L. R. Dalton, “Simple two-slit interference electro-optic coefficients measurement technique and efficient coplanar electrode poling of polymer thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(2), 275–277 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dobrowolski, D.

P. Günter, C. Bosshard, K. Sutter, H. Arend, G. Chapuis, R. J. Twieg, and D. Dobrowolski, “2-cyclooctylamino-5-nitropyridine, a new nonlinear optical crystal with orthorhombic symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(9), 486–488 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Figi, H.

O. P. Kwon, S. J. Kwon, H. Figi, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, “Organic electro-optic single- crystalline thin films grown directly on modified amorphous substrates,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(3), 543–545 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Rezzonico, S. J. Kwon, H. Figi, O. P. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, “Photochemical stability of nonlinear optical chromophores in polymeric and crystalline materials,” J. Chem. Phys. 128(12), 124713 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hunziker, S.-J. Kwon, H. Figi, F. Juvalta, O.-P. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, “Configurationally locked, phenolic polyene organic crystal 2-{3-(4-hydroxystyryl)-5,5-dimethylcyclohex-2-enylidene}malononitrile: Linear and nonlinear optical properties,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(10), 1678–1683 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fujimura, H.

H. Hashimoto, Y. Okada, H. Fujimura, M. Morioka, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, and R. Matsushima, “Second-harmonic generation from single crystals of N-Substituted 4-Nitroanilines,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 1, No. 11), 6754–6760 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, M.

K. Iwaszczuk, D. G. Cooke, M. Fujiwara, H. Hashimoto, and P. Uhd Jepsen, “Simultaneous reference and differential waveform acquisition in time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21969–21976 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Miyamoto, S. Ohno, M. Fujiwara, H. Minamide, H. Hashimoto, and H. Ito, “Optimized terahertz-wave generation using BNA-DFG,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14832–14838 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fujiwara, M. Maruyama, M. Sugisaki, H. Takahashi, S.- Aoshima, R. J. Cogdell, and H. Hashimoto, “Determination of the d-tensor components of a single crystal of N-Benzyl-2-methyl-4-nitroaniline,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(No. 4A), 1528–1530 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujiwara, K. Yanagi, M. Maruyama, M. Sugisaki, K. Kuroyanagi, H. Takahashi, S. Aoshima, Y. Tsuchiya, A. Gall, and H. Hashimoto, “Second order nonlinear optical properties of the single crystal of N-Benzyl 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline: Anomalous enhancement of the d333 component and its possible origin,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(11), 8676–8685 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gall, A.

M. Fujiwara, K. Yanagi, M. Maruyama, M. Sugisaki, K. Kuroyanagi, H. Takahashi, S. Aoshima, Y. Tsuchiya, A. Gall, and H. Hashimoto, “Second order nonlinear optical properties of the single crystal of N-Benzyl 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline: Anomalous enhancement of the d333 component and its possible origin,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(11), 8676–8685 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Garner, S.

S. Kalluri, S. Garner, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, Y. Shi, and L. R. Dalton, “Simple two-slit interference electro-optic coefficients measurement technique and efficient coplanar electrode poling of polymer thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(2), 275–277 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gramlich, V.

O. P. Kwon, B. Ruiz, A. Choubey, L. Mutter, A. Schneider, M. Jazbinsek, V. Gramlich, and P. Gunter, “Organic nonlinear optical crystals based on configurationally locked polyene for melt growth,” Chem. Mater. 18(17), 4049–4054 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gray, T.

T. D. Kim, J. W. Kang, J. Luo, S. H. Jang, J. W. Ka, N. Tucker, J. B. Benedict, L. R. Dalton, T. Gray, R. M. Overney, D. H. Park, W. N. Herman, and A. K. Jen, “Ultralarge and thermally stable electro-optic activities from supramolecular self-assembled molecular glasses,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(3), 488–489 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gunter, P.

O. P. Kwon, B. Ruiz, A. Choubey, L. Mutter, A. Schneider, M. Jazbinsek, V. Gramlich, and P. Gunter, “Organic nonlinear optical crystals based on configurationally locked polyene for melt growth,” Chem. Mater. 18(17), 4049–4054 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Günter, P.

O. P. Kwon, S. J. Kwon, H. Figi, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, “Organic electro-optic single- crystalline thin films grown directly on modified amorphous substrates,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(3), 543–545 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Rezzonico, S. J. Kwon, H. Figi, O. P. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, “Photochemical stability of nonlinear optical chromophores in polymeric and crystalline materials,” J. Chem. Phys. 128(12), 124713 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hunziker, S.-J. Kwon, H. Figi, F. Juvalta, O.-P. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, “Configurationally locked, phenolic polyene organic crystal 2-{3-(4-hydroxystyryl)-5,5-dimethylcyclohex-2-enylidene}malononitrile: Linear and nonlinear optical properties,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(10), 1678–1683 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Günter, C. Bosshard, K. Sutter, H. Arend, G. Chapuis, R. J. Twieg, and D. Dobrowolski, “2-cyclooctylamino-5-nitropyridine, a new nonlinear optical crystal with orthorhombic symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(9), 486–488 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, H.

K. Miyamoto, S. Ohno, M. Fujiwara, H. Minamide, H. Hashimoto, and H. Ito, “Optimized terahertz-wave generation using BNA-DFG,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14832–14838 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Iwaszczuk, D. G. Cooke, M. Fujiwara, H. Hashimoto, and P. Uhd Jepsen, “Simultaneous reference and differential waveform acquisition in time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21969–21976 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fujiwara, M. Maruyama, M. Sugisaki, H. Takahashi, S.- Aoshima, R. J. Cogdell, and H. Hashimoto, “Determination of the d-tensor components of a single crystal of N-Benzyl-2-methyl-4-nitroaniline,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(No. 4A), 1528–1530 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujiwara, K. Yanagi, M. Maruyama, M. Sugisaki, K. Kuroyanagi, H. Takahashi, S. Aoshima, Y. Tsuchiya, A. Gall, and H. Hashimoto, “Second order nonlinear optical properties of the single crystal of N-Benzyl 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline: Anomalous enhancement of the d333 component and its possible origin,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(11), 8676–8685 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Hashimoto, Y. Okada, H. Fujimura, M. Morioka, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, and R. Matsushima, “Second-harmonic generation from single crystals of N-Substituted 4-Nitroanilines,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 1, No. 11), 6754–6760 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Herman, W. N.

T. D. Kim, J. W. Kang, J. Luo, S. H. Jang, J. W. Ka, N. Tucker, J. B. Benedict, L. R. Dalton, T. Gray, R. M. Overney, D. H. Park, W. N. Herman, and A. K. Jen, “Ultralarge and thermally stable electro-optic activities from supramolecular self-assembled molecular glasses,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(3), 488–489 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hunziker, C.

Ito, H.

Iwaszczuk, K.

Jang, S. H.

T. D. Kim, J. W. Kang, J. Luo, S. H. Jang, J. W. Ka, N. Tucker, J. B. Benedict, L. R. Dalton, T. Gray, R. M. Overney, D. H. Park, W. N. Herman, and A. K. Jen, “Ultralarge and thermally stable electro-optic activities from supramolecular self-assembled molecular glasses,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(3), 488–489 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jazbinsek, M.

D. Rezzonico, S. J. Kwon, H. Figi, O. P. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, “Photochemical stability of nonlinear optical chromophores in polymeric and crystalline materials,” J. Chem. Phys. 128(12), 124713 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. P. Kwon, S. J. Kwon, H. Figi, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, “Organic electro-optic single- crystalline thin films grown directly on modified amorphous substrates,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(3), 543–545 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Hunziker, S.-J. Kwon, H. Figi, F. Juvalta, O.-P. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, “Configurationally locked, phenolic polyene organic crystal 2-{3-(4-hydroxystyryl)-5,5-dimethylcyclohex-2-enylidene}malononitrile: Linear and nonlinear optical properties,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(10), 1678–1683 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Kwon, B. Ruiz, A. Choubey, L. Mutter, A. Schneider, M. Jazbinsek, V. Gramlich, and P. Gunter, “Organic nonlinear optical crystals based on configurationally locked polyene for melt growth,” Chem. Mater. 18(17), 4049–4054 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A. K.

T. D. Kim, J. W. Kang, J. Luo, S. H. Jang, J. W. Ka, N. Tucker, J. B. Benedict, L. R. Dalton, T. Gray, R. M. Overney, D. H. Park, W. N. Herman, and A. K. Jen, “Ultralarge and thermally stable electro-optic activities from supramolecular self-assembled molecular glasses,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(3), 488–489 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Juvalta, F.

Ka, J. W.

T. D. Kim, J. W. Kang, J. Luo, S. H. Jang, J. W. Ka, N. Tucker, J. B. Benedict, L. R. Dalton, T. Gray, R. M. Overney, D. H. Park, W. N. Herman, and A. K. Jen, “Ultralarge and thermally stable electro-optic activities from supramolecular self-assembled molecular glasses,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(3), 488–489 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kalluri, S.

S. Kalluri, S. Garner, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, Y. Shi, and L. R. Dalton, “Simple two-slit interference electro-optic coefficients measurement technique and efficient coplanar electrode poling of polymer thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(2), 275–277 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. W.

T. D. Kim, J. W. Kang, J. Luo, S. H. Jang, J. W. Ka, N. Tucker, J. B. Benedict, L. R. Dalton, T. Gray, R. M. Overney, D. H. Park, W. N. Herman, and A. K. Jen, “Ultralarge and thermally stable electro-optic activities from supramolecular self-assembled molecular glasses,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(3), 488–489 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, T. D.

T. D. Kim, J. W. Kang, J. Luo, S. H. Jang, J. W. Ka, N. Tucker, J. B. Benedict, L. R. Dalton, T. Gray, R. M. Overney, D. H. Park, W. N. Herman, and A. K. Jen, “Ultralarge and thermally stable electro-optic activities from supramolecular self-assembled molecular glasses,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(3), 488–489 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuroyanagi, K.

M. Fujiwara, K. Yanagi, M. Maruyama, M. Sugisaki, K. Kuroyanagi, H. Takahashi, S. Aoshima, Y. Tsuchiya, A. Gall, and H. Hashimoto, “Second order nonlinear optical properties of the single crystal of N-Benzyl 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline: Anomalous enhancement of the d333 component and its possible origin,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(11), 8676–8685 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, O. P.

D. Rezzonico, S. J. Kwon, H. Figi, O. P. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, “Photochemical stability of nonlinear optical chromophores in polymeric and crystalline materials,” J. Chem. Phys. 128(12), 124713 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. P. Kwon, S. J. Kwon, H. Figi, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, “Organic electro-optic single- crystalline thin films grown directly on modified amorphous substrates,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(3), 543–545 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Kwon, B. Ruiz, A. Choubey, L. Mutter, A. Schneider, M. Jazbinsek, V. Gramlich, and P. Gunter, “Organic nonlinear optical crystals based on configurationally locked polyene for melt growth,” Chem. Mater. 18(17), 4049–4054 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, O.-P.

Kwon, S. J.

O. P. Kwon, S. J. Kwon, H. Figi, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, “Organic electro-optic single- crystalline thin films grown directly on modified amorphous substrates,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(3), 543–545 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Rezzonico, S. J. Kwon, H. Figi, O. P. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, “Photochemical stability of nonlinear optical chromophores in polymeric and crystalline materials,” J. Chem. Phys. 128(12), 124713 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwon, S.-J.

Lalama, S. J.

K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, “Second harmonic generation in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(5), 248–250 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J.

T. D. Kim, J. W. Kang, J. Luo, S. H. Jang, J. W. Ka, N. Tucker, J. B. Benedict, L. R. Dalton, T. Gray, R. M. Overney, D. H. Park, W. N. Herman, and A. K. Jen, “Ultralarge and thermally stable electro-optic activities from supramolecular self-assembled molecular glasses,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(3), 488–489 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maruyama, M.

M. Fujiwara, M. Maruyama, M. Sugisaki, H. Takahashi, S.- Aoshima, R. J. Cogdell, and H. Hashimoto, “Determination of the d-tensor components of a single crystal of N-Benzyl-2-methyl-4-nitroaniline,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(No. 4A), 1528–1530 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujiwara, K. Yanagi, M. Maruyama, M. Sugisaki, K. Kuroyanagi, H. Takahashi, S. Aoshima, Y. Tsuchiya, A. Gall, and H. Hashimoto, “Second order nonlinear optical properties of the single crystal of N-Benzyl 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline: Anomalous enhancement of the d333 component and its possible origin,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(11), 8676–8685 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Matsushima, R.

H. Hashimoto, Y. Okada, H. Fujimura, M. Morioka, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, and R. Matsushima, “Second-harmonic generation from single crystals of N-Substituted 4-Nitroanilines,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 1, No. 11), 6754–6760 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Minamide, H.

Miyamoto, K.

Morioka, M.

H. Hashimoto, Y. Okada, H. Fujimura, M. Morioka, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, and R. Matsushima, “Second-harmonic generation from single crystals of N-Substituted 4-Nitroanilines,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 1, No. 11), 6754–6760 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mutter, L.

O. P. Kwon, B. Ruiz, A. Choubey, L. Mutter, A. Schneider, M. Jazbinsek, V. Gramlich, and P. Gunter, “Organic nonlinear optical crystals based on configurationally locked polyene for melt growth,” Chem. Mater. 18(17), 4049–4054 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ohno, S.

Okada, Y.

H. Hashimoto, Y. Okada, H. Fujimura, M. Morioka, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, and R. Matsushima, “Second-harmonic generation from single crystals of N-Substituted 4-Nitroanilines,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 1, No. 11), 6754–6760 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, N.

H. Hashimoto, Y. Okada, H. Fujimura, M. Morioka, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, and R. Matsushima, “Second-harmonic generation from single crystals of N-Substituted 4-Nitroanilines,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 1, No. 11), 6754–6760 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Oudar, J. L.

J. L. Oudar and D. S. Chemla, “Hyperpolarizabilities of the nitroanilines and their relations to the excited state dipole moment,” J. Chem. Phys. 66(6), 2664–2668 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Overney, R. M.

T. D. Kim, J. W. Kang, J. Luo, S. H. Jang, J. W. Ka, N. Tucker, J. B. Benedict, L. R. Dalton, T. Gray, R. M. Overney, D. H. Park, W. N. Herman, and A. K. Jen, “Ultralarge and thermally stable electro-optic activities from supramolecular self-assembled molecular glasses,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(3), 488–489 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, D. H.

T. D. Kim, J. W. Kang, J. Luo, S. H. Jang, J. W. Ka, N. Tucker, J. B. Benedict, L. R. Dalton, T. Gray, R. M. Overney, D. H. Park, W. N. Herman, and A. K. Jen, “Ultralarge and thermally stable electro-optic activities from supramolecular self-assembled molecular glasses,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(3), 488–489 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rezzonico, D.

D. Rezzonico, S. J. Kwon, H. Figi, O. P. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, “Photochemical stability of nonlinear optical chromophores in polymeric and crystalline materials,” J. Chem. Phys. 128(12), 124713 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruiz, B.

O. P. Kwon, B. Ruiz, A. Choubey, L. Mutter, A. Schneider, M. Jazbinsek, V. Gramlich, and P. Gunter, “Organic nonlinear optical crystals based on configurationally locked polyene for melt growth,” Chem. Mater. 18(17), 4049–4054 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, A.

O. P. Kwon, B. Ruiz, A. Choubey, L. Mutter, A. Schneider, M. Jazbinsek, V. Gramlich, and P. Gunter, “Organic nonlinear optical crystals based on configurationally locked polyene for melt growth,” Chem. Mater. 18(17), 4049–4054 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Y.

S. Kalluri, S. Garner, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, Y. Shi, and L. R. Dalton, “Simple two-slit interference electro-optic coefficients measurement technique and efficient coplanar electrode poling of polymer thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(2), 275–277 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Singer, K. D.

K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, “Second harmonic generation in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(5), 248–250 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sohn, J. E.

K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, “Second harmonic generation in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(5), 248–250 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Steier, W. H.

S. Kalluri, S. Garner, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, Y. Shi, and L. R. Dalton, “Simple two-slit interference electro-optic coefficients measurement technique and efficient coplanar electrode poling of polymer thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(2), 275–277 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sugihara, O.

H. Hashimoto, Y. Okada, H. Fujimura, M. Morioka, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, and R. Matsushima, “Second-harmonic generation from single crystals of N-Substituted 4-Nitroanilines,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 1, No. 11), 6754–6760 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sugisaki, M.

M. Fujiwara, M. Maruyama, M. Sugisaki, H. Takahashi, S.- Aoshima, R. J. Cogdell, and H. Hashimoto, “Determination of the d-tensor components of a single crystal of N-Benzyl-2-methyl-4-nitroaniline,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(No. 4A), 1528–1530 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujiwara, K. Yanagi, M. Maruyama, M. Sugisaki, K. Kuroyanagi, H. Takahashi, S. Aoshima, Y. Tsuchiya, A. Gall, and H. Hashimoto, “Second order nonlinear optical properties of the single crystal of N-Benzyl 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline: Anomalous enhancement of the d333 component and its possible origin,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(11), 8676–8685 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sutter, K.

P. Günter, C. Bosshard, K. Sutter, H. Arend, G. Chapuis, R. J. Twieg, and D. Dobrowolski, “2-cyclooctylamino-5-nitropyridine, a new nonlinear optical crystal with orthorhombic symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(9), 486–488 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, H.

M. Fujiwara, M. Maruyama, M. Sugisaki, H. Takahashi, S.- Aoshima, R. J. Cogdell, and H. Hashimoto, “Determination of the d-tensor components of a single crystal of N-Benzyl-2-methyl-4-nitroaniline,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(No. 4A), 1528–1530 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujiwara, K. Yanagi, M. Maruyama, M. Sugisaki, K. Kuroyanagi, H. Takahashi, S. Aoshima, Y. Tsuchiya, A. Gall, and H. Hashimoto, “Second order nonlinear optical properties of the single crystal of N-Benzyl 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline: Anomalous enhancement of the d333 component and its possible origin,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(11), 8676–8685 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchiya, Y.

M. Fujiwara, K. Yanagi, M. Maruyama, M. Sugisaki, K. Kuroyanagi, H. Takahashi, S. Aoshima, Y. Tsuchiya, A. Gall, and H. Hashimoto, “Second order nonlinear optical properties of the single crystal of N-Benzyl 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline: Anomalous enhancement of the d333 component and its possible origin,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(11), 8676–8685 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tucker, N.

T. D. Kim, J. W. Kang, J. Luo, S. H. Jang, J. W. Ka, N. Tucker, J. B. Benedict, L. R. Dalton, T. Gray, R. M. Overney, D. H. Park, W. N. Herman, and A. K. Jen, “Ultralarge and thermally stable electro-optic activities from supramolecular self-assembled molecular glasses,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(3), 488–489 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Twieg, R. J.

P. Günter, C. Bosshard, K. Sutter, H. Arend, G. Chapuis, R. J. Twieg, and D. Dobrowolski, “2-cyclooctylamino-5-nitropyridine, a new nonlinear optical crystal with orthorhombic symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(9), 486–488 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Uhd Jepsen, P.

Yanagi, K.

M. Fujiwara, K. Yanagi, M. Maruyama, M. Sugisaki, K. Kuroyanagi, H. Takahashi, S. Aoshima, Y. Tsuchiya, A. Gall, and H. Hashimoto, “Second order nonlinear optical properties of the single crystal of N-Benzyl 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline: Anomalous enhancement of the d333 component and its possible origin,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(11), 8676–8685 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ziari, M.

S. Kalluri, S. Garner, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, Y. Shi, and L. R. Dalton, “Simple two-slit interference electro-optic coefficients measurement technique and efficient coplanar electrode poling of polymer thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(2), 275–277 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)

O. P. Kwon, S. J. Kwon, H. Figi, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, “Organic electro-optic single- crystalline thin films grown directly on modified amorphous substrates,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(3), 543–545 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, “Second harmonic generation in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(5), 248–250 (1986).
[CrossRef]

S. Kalluri, S. Garner, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, Y. Shi, and L. R. Dalton, “Simple two-slit interference electro-optic coefficients measurement technique and efficient coplanar electrode poling of polymer thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(2), 275–277 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Günter, C. Bosshard, K. Sutter, H. Arend, G. Chapuis, R. J. Twieg, and D. Dobrowolski, “2-cyclooctylamino-5-nitropyridine, a new nonlinear optical crystal with orthorhombic symmetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(9), 486–488 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater.

O. P. Kwon, B. Ruiz, A. Choubey, L. Mutter, A. Schneider, M. Jazbinsek, V. Gramlich, and P. Gunter, “Organic nonlinear optical crystals based on configurationally locked polyene for melt growth,” Chem. Mater. 18(17), 4049–4054 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev.

D. Burland, “Optical nonlinearities in chemistry: introduction,” Chem. Rev. 94(1), 1–2 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

T. D. Kim, J. W. Kang, J. Luo, S. H. Jang, J. W. Ka, N. Tucker, J. B. Benedict, L. R. Dalton, T. Gray, R. M. Overney, D. H. Park, W. N. Herman, and A. K. Jen, “Ultralarge and thermally stable electro-optic activities from supramolecular self-assembled molecular glasses,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(3), 488–489 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chem. Phys.

D. Rezzonico, S. J. Kwon, H. Figi, O. P. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, “Photochemical stability of nonlinear optical chromophores in polymeric and crystalline materials,” J. Chem. Phys. 128(12), 124713 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Oudar and D. S. Chemla, “Hyperpolarizabilities of the nitroanilines and their relations to the excited state dipole moment,” J. Chem. Phys. 66(6), 2664–2668 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

H. Hashimoto, Y. Okada, H. Fujimura, M. Morioka, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, and R. Matsushima, “Second-harmonic generation from single crystals of N-Substituted 4-Nitroanilines,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 1, No. 11), 6754–6760 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujiwara, K. Yanagi, M. Maruyama, M. Sugisaki, K. Kuroyanagi, H. Takahashi, S. Aoshima, Y. Tsuchiya, A. Gall, and H. Hashimoto, “Second order nonlinear optical properties of the single crystal of N-Benzyl 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline: Anomalous enhancement of the d333 component and its possible origin,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(11), 8676–8685 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujiwara, M. Maruyama, M. Sugisaki, H. Takahashi, S.- Aoshima, R. J. Cogdell, and H. Hashimoto, “Determination of the d-tensor components of a single crystal of N-Benzyl-2-methyl-4-nitroaniline,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(No. 4A), 1528–1530 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Other

M. G. Kuzyk and C. W. Dirk, Characterization Techniques and Tabulations for Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials (Marcel Dekkar, 1998).

T. A. Skotheim and J. R. Reynolds, Handbook of Conducting Polymers. Conjugated polymers: Theory, Synthesis, Properties, and Characterization, 3rd ed. (CRC Press, 2007).

R. P. Fraser, H. Sun, and P. Sullivan, “Use of spatially anisotropic intermolecular interactions to define order in molecular films grown by physical vapor deposition (PVD),” in Photonics, CMDITR Review of Undergraduate Research, Vol. 6, (2009).
[PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) The chemical structure of BNA; (b) Schematic side view of the sample.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Top view of the sample substrate, with the polarity of voltage connection across the slits during the deposition and EO measurement indicated. (a) DC electric field is applied across the slits when EO material is thermally evaporated on the sample; (b) AC electric field is applied during the measurement of EO coefficients.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The SEM image of BNA thin film around the slit.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

EO measurement setup.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured DC and AC signals detected across several fringes.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The r 33 coefficient as a function of electric poling field and as a function of wavelength. (a) The r 33 coefficient as a function of electric poling field at the measurement wavelength of 1550 nm; (b) Theoretical and experimental results of EO coefficient r 33 at different wavelengths.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

EO coefficient r 33 under different modulation frequencies and different modulation voltages. (a) EO coefficient r 33 under different modulation frequencies; (b) EO coefficient r 33 under different modulation voltages.

Equations (1)

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r = 2 V a c λ n 3 E t k L ,

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