Abstract

A metallic nanocross geometry sustaining broad dipole and sharp higher order localized surface plasmon resonances is investigated. Spectral tunability is achieved by changing the cross arm length and the angle between the arms. The degree of rotational symmetry of the nanocross is varied by adding extra arms, changing the arm angle and shifting the arm intersection point. The particle’s symmetry is shown to have a crucial influence on the plasmon coupling to incident radiation. Pronounced dipole, quadrupole, octupole and Fano resonances are observed in individual cross structures. Furthermore, the nanocross geometry proves to be a useful building block for coherently coupled plasmonic dimers and trimers where the reduced symmetry results in hybridized subradiant and superradiant modes and multiple Fano interferences. Finite difference time domain calculations of absorption and scattering cross-sections as well as charge density profiles are used to reveal the nature of the different plasmon modes. Experimental spectra for the discussed geometries support the calculations.

© 2011 OSA

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2014 (1)

A. Christ, Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, N. A. Gippius, S. G. Tikhodeev, and O. J. F. Martin, “Controlling the Fano interference in a plasmonic lattice,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 201405 (2007).

2011 (1)

N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Plasmon line shaping using nanocrosses for high sensitivity localized surface plasmon resonance sensing,” Nano Lett. 11, 391–397 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (17)

M. J. Mulvihill, X. Y. Ling, J. Henzie, and P. Yang, “Anisotropic etching of silver nanoparticles for plasmonic structures capable of single-particle SERS,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 268–274 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Giannini, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, Y. Sonnefraud, T. Roschuk, R. Fernández-García, and S. A. Maier, “Controlling light localization and light-matter interactions with nanoplasmonics,” Small 6, 2498–2507 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wei, A. Reyes-Coronado, P. Nordlander, J. Aizpurua, and H. Xu, “Multipolar plasmon resonances in individual Ag nanorice,” ACS Nano 4, 2649–2654 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z.-G. Dong, H. Liu, M.-X. Xu, T. Li, S.-M. Wang, J.-X. Cao, S.-N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Role of asymmetric environment on the dark mode excitation in metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically-induced transparency,” Opt. Express 18, 22412–22417 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Miroshnichenko, S. Flach, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Fano resonances in nanoscale structures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 2257–2298 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9, 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. K. Valev, A. V. Silhanek, N. Verellen, W. Gillijns, P. Van Dorpe, O. A. Aktsipetrov, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, V. V. Moshchalkov, and T. Verbiest, “Asymmetric optical second-harmonic generation from chiral G-shaped gold nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 127401 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10, 1103–1107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sonnefraud, N. Verellen, H. Sobhani, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Experimental realization of subradiant, superradiant, and fano resonances in ring/disk plasmonic nanocavities,” ACS Nano 4, 1664–1670 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Lassiter, H. Sobhani, J. A. Fan, J. Kundu, F. Capasso, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Fano resonances in plasmonic nanoclusters: geometrical and chemical tunability,” Nano Lett. 10, 3184–3189 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Aksu, A. A. Yanik, R. Adato, A. Artar, M. Huang, and H. Altug, “High-throughput nanofabrication of infrared plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for vibrational nanospectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 10, 2511–2518 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.-P. Chen, V. P. Drachev, J. D. Borneman, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Drude relaxation rate in grained gold nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 10, 916–922 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Berkovitch, P. Ginzburg, and M. Orenstein, “Concave plasmonic particles: Broad-band geometrical tunability in the near-infrared,” Nano Lett. 10, 1405–1408 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. V. Brown, H. Sobhani, J. B. Lassiter, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Heterodimers: Plasmonic properties of mismatched nanoparticle pairs,” ACS Nano 4, 819–832 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Marty, G. Baffou, A. Arbouet, C. Girard, and R. Quidant, “Charge distribution induced inside complex plasmonic nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 18, 3035–3044 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329, 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Davis, D. E. Gómez, and K. C. Vernon, “Simple model for the hybridization of surface plasmon resonances in metallic nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 10, 2618–2625 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (8)

F. Hao, P. Nordlander, Y. Sonnefraud, P. Van Dorpe, and S. A. Maier, “Tunability of subradiant dipolar and fano-type plasmon resonances in metallic ring/disk cavities: implications for nanoscale optical sensing,” ACS Nano 3, 643–652 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Mirin, K. Bao, and P. Nordlander, “Fano resonances in plasmonic nanoparticle aggregates,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113, 4028–4034 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 9, 1663–1667 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kastel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8, 758–762 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Lassiter, M. W. Knight, N. A. Mirin, and N. J. Halas, “Reshaping the plasmonic properties of an individual nanoparticle,” Nano Lett. 9, 4326–4332 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460, 1110 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Rodríguez-Lorenzo, R. A. Álvarez-Puebla, I. Pastoriza-Santos, S. Mazzucco, O. Stéphan, M. Kociak, L. M. Liz-Marzán, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Zeptomol detection through controlled ultrasensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 4616–4618 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Cortie, N. Stokes, and A. McDonagh, “Plasmon resonance and electric field amplification of crossed gold nanorods,” Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 7, 143–152 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (6)

X. Liu, R. Huang, and J. Zhu, “Functional faceted silver nano-hexapods: synthesis, structure characterizations, and optical properties,” Chem. Mater. 20, 192–197 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. V. Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7, 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, J. Dorfmüller, A. Dmitriev, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, and K. Kern, “Direct near-field optical imaging of higher order plasmonic resonances,” Nano Lett. 8, 3155–3159 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Hao, E. M. Larsson, T. A. Ali, D. S. Sutherland, and P. Nordlander, “Shedding light on dark plasmons in gold nanorings,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 458, 262 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 047401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Hao, Y. Sonnefraud, P. Van Dorpe, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “Symmetry breaking in plasmonic nanocavities: subradiant LSPR sensing and a tunable fano resonance,” Nano Lett. 8, 3983–3988 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Sharp trapped-mode resonances in planar metamaterials with a broken structural symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 147401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, D. W. Brandl, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmonic nanostructures: artificial molecules,” Acc. Chem. Res. 40, 53–62 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. N. Khlebtsov and N. G. Khlebtsov, “Multipole plasmons in metal nanorods: scaling properties and dependence on particle size, shape, orientation, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 11516–11527 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Tam, A. L. Chen, J. Kundu, H. Wang, and N. J. Halas, “Mesoscopic nanoshells: geometry-dependent plasmon resonances beyond the quasistatic limit,” J. Chem. Phys. 127, 204703 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

C. L. Nehl, H. Liao, and J. H. Hafner, “Optical properties of star-shaped gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 6, 683–688 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Lassiter, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Symmetry breaking in individual plasmonic nanoparticles,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 10856–10860 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Jain, S. Eustis, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Plasmon coupling in nanorod assemblies: optical absorption, discrete dipole approximation simulation, and exciton-coupling model,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 18243–18253 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

C. Ropers, D. J. Park, G. Stibenz, G. Steinmeyer, J. Kim, D. S. Kim, and C. Lienau, “Femtosecond light transmission and subradiant damping in plasmonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 113901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

P. Nordlander, C. Oubre, E. Prodan, K. Li, and M. I. Stockman, “Plasmon hybridization in nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett. 4, 899–903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Radloff and N. J. Halas, “Plasmonic properties of concentric nanoshells,” Nano Lett. 4, 1323–1327 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation: Quantum generation of coherent surface plasmons in nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 027402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

R. Jin, Y. Cao, C. A. Mirkin, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and J. G. Zheng, “Photoinduced conversion of silver nanospheres to nanoprisms,” Science 294, 1901–1903 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, W. Rechberger, B. Lamprecht, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, “Design of multipolar plasmon excitations in silver nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3379–3381 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

S. J. Oldenburg, G. D. Hale, J. B. Jackson, and N. J. Halas, “Light scattering from dipole and quadrupole nanoshell antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1063–1065 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Adato, R.

S. Aksu, A. A. Yanik, R. Adato, A. Artar, M. Huang, and H. Altug, “High-throughput nanofabrication of infrared plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for vibrational nanospectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 10, 2511–2518 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aizpurua, J.

H. Wei, A. Reyes-Coronado, P. Nordlander, J. Aizpurua, and H. Xu, “Multipolar plasmon resonances in individual Ag nanorice,” ACS Nano 4, 2649–2654 (2010).
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Aksu, S.

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F. Hao, P. Nordlander, Y. Sonnefraud, P. Van Dorpe, and S. A. Maier, “Tunability of subradiant dipolar and fano-type plasmon resonances in metallic ring/disk cavities: implications for nanoscale optical sensing,” ACS Nano 3, 643–652 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Hao, Y. Sonnefraud, P. Van Dorpe, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “Symmetry breaking in plasmonic nanocavities: subradiant LSPR sensing and a tunable fano resonance,” Nano Lett. 8, 3983–3988 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sönnichsen, C.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10, 1103–1107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Steinmeyer, G.

C. Ropers, D. J. Park, G. Stibenz, G. Steinmeyer, J. Kim, D. S. Kim, and C. Lienau, “Femtosecond light transmission and subradiant damping in plasmonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 113901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stéphan, O.

L. Rodríguez-Lorenzo, R. A. Álvarez-Puebla, I. Pastoriza-Santos, S. Mazzucco, O. Stéphan, M. Kociak, L. M. Liz-Marzán, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Zeptomol detection through controlled ultrasensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 4616–4618 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stibenz, G.

C. Ropers, D. J. Park, G. Stibenz, G. Steinmeyer, J. Kim, D. S. Kim, and C. Lienau, “Femtosecond light transmission and subradiant damping in plasmonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 113901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stockman, M. I.

P. Nordlander, C. Oubre, E. Prodan, K. Li, and M. I. Stockman, “Plasmon hybridization in nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett. 4, 899–903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation: Quantum generation of coherent surface plasmons in nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 027402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stokes, N.

M. B. Cortie, N. Stokes, and A. McDonagh, “Plasmon resonance and electric field amplification of crossed gold nanorods,” Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 7, 143–152 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stout, S.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460, 1110 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suteewong, T.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460, 1110 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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F. Hao, E. M. Larsson, T. A. Ali, D. S. Sutherland, and P. Nordlander, “Shedding light on dark plasmons in gold nanorings,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 458, 262 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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F. Tam, A. L. Chen, J. Kundu, H. Wang, and N. J. Halas, “Mesoscopic nanoshells: geometry-dependent plasmon resonances beyond the quasistatic limit,” J. Chem. Phys. 127, 204703 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329, 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. Christ, Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, N. A. Gippius, S. G. Tikhodeev, and O. J. F. Martin, “Controlling the Fano interference in a plasmonic lattice,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 201405 (2007).

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V. K. Valev, A. V. Silhanek, N. Verellen, W. Gillijns, P. Van Dorpe, O. A. Aktsipetrov, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, V. V. Moshchalkov, and T. Verbiest, “Asymmetric optical second-harmonic generation from chiral G-shaped gold nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 127401 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Plasmon line shaping using nanocrosses for high sensitivity localized surface plasmon resonance sensing,” Nano Lett. 11, 391–397 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. K. Valev, A. V. Silhanek, N. Verellen, W. Gillijns, P. Van Dorpe, O. A. Aktsipetrov, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, V. V. Moshchalkov, and T. Verbiest, “Asymmetric optical second-harmonic generation from chiral G-shaped gold nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 127401 (2010).
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Y. Sonnefraud, N. Verellen, H. Sobhani, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Experimental realization of subradiant, superradiant, and fano resonances in ring/disk plasmonic nanocavities,” ACS Nano 4, 1664–1670 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 9, 1663–1667 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Hao, P. Nordlander, Y. Sonnefraud, P. Van Dorpe, and S. A. Maier, “Tunability of subradiant dipolar and fano-type plasmon resonances in metallic ring/disk cavities: implications for nanoscale optical sensing,” ACS Nano 3, 643–652 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Hao, Y. Sonnefraud, P. Van Dorpe, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “Symmetry breaking in plasmonic nanocavities: subradiant LSPR sensing and a tunable fano resonance,” Nano Lett. 8, 3983–3988 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329, 930–933 (2010).
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N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Plasmon line shaping using nanocrosses for high sensitivity localized surface plasmon resonance sensing,” Nano Lett. 11, 391–397 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. K. Valev, A. V. Silhanek, N. Verellen, W. Gillijns, P. Van Dorpe, O. A. Aktsipetrov, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, V. V. Moshchalkov, and T. Verbiest, “Asymmetric optical second-harmonic generation from chiral G-shaped gold nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 127401 (2010).
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Y. Sonnefraud, N. Verellen, H. Sobhani, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Experimental realization of subradiant, superradiant, and fano resonances in ring/disk plasmonic nanocavities,” ACS Nano 4, 1664–1670 (2010).
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V. K. Valev, A. V. Silhanek, N. Verellen, W. Gillijns, P. Van Dorpe, O. A. Aktsipetrov, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, V. V. Moshchalkov, and T. Verbiest, “Asymmetric optical second-harmonic generation from chiral G-shaped gold nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 127401 (2010).
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N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Plasmon line shaping using nanocrosses for high sensitivity localized surface plasmon resonance sensing,” Nano Lett. 11, 391–397 (2011).
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V. K. Valev, A. V. Silhanek, N. Verellen, W. Gillijns, P. Van Dorpe, O. A. Aktsipetrov, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, V. V. Moshchalkov, and T. Verbiest, “Asymmetric optical second-harmonic generation from chiral G-shaped gold nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 127401 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sonnefraud, N. Verellen, H. Sobhani, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Experimental realization of subradiant, superradiant, and fano resonances in ring/disk plasmonic nanocavities,” ACS Nano 4, 1664–1670 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 9, 1663–1667 (2009).
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T. J. Davis, D. E. Gómez, and K. C. Vernon, “Simple model for the hybridization of surface plasmon resonances in metallic nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 10, 2618–2625 (2010).
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R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, J. Dorfmüller, A. Dmitriev, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, and K. Kern, “Direct near-field optical imaging of higher order plasmonic resonances,” Nano Lett. 8, 3155–3159 (2008).
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A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329, 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

H. Wang, D. W. Brandl, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmonic nanostructures: artificial molecules,” Acc. Chem. Res. 40, 53–62 (2007).
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F. Tam, A. L. Chen, J. Kundu, H. Wang, and N. J. Halas, “Mesoscopic nanoshells: geometry-dependent plasmon resonances beyond the quasistatic limit,” J. Chem. Phys. 127, 204703 (2007).
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H. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Lassiter, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Symmetry breaking in individual plasmonic nanoparticles,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 10856–10860 (2006).
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Wang, Y.

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 047401 (2008).
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J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, W. Rechberger, B. Lamprecht, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, “Design of multipolar plasmon excitations in silver nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3379–3381 (2000).
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H. Wei, A. Reyes-Coronado, P. Nordlander, J. Aizpurua, and H. Xu, “Multipolar plasmon resonances in individual Ag nanorice,” ACS Nano 4, 2649–2654 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiss, T.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10, 1103–1107 (2010).
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N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kastel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8, 758–762 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460, 1110 (2009).
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H. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Lassiter, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Symmetry breaking in individual plasmonic nanoparticles,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 10856–10860 (2006).
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H. Wei, A. Reyes-Coronado, P. Nordlander, J. Aizpurua, and H. Xu, “Multipolar plasmon resonances in individual Ag nanorice,” ACS Nano 4, 2649–2654 (2010).
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Yang, P.

M. J. Mulvihill, X. Y. Ling, J. Henzie, and P. Yang, “Anisotropic etching of silver nanoparticles for plasmonic structures capable of single-particle SERS,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 268–274 (2010).
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S. Aksu, A. A. Yanik, R. Adato, A. Artar, M. Huang, and H. Altug, “High-throughput nanofabrication of infrared plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for vibrational nanospectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 10, 2511–2518 (2010).
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S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 047401 (2008).
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Zhang, X.

Zhao, J.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. V. Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7, 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9, 707–715 (2010).
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V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Sharp trapped-mode resonances in planar metamaterials with a broken structural symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 147401 (2007).
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M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460, 1110 (2009).
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X. Liu, R. Huang, and J. Zhu, “Functional faceted silver nano-hexapods: synthesis, structure characterizations, and optical properties,” Chem. Mater. 20, 192–197 (2008).
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Acc. Chem. Res. (1)

H. Wang, D. W. Brandl, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Plasmonic nanostructures: artificial molecules,” Acc. Chem. Res. 40, 53–62 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (4)

L. V. Brown, H. Sobhani, J. B. Lassiter, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Heterodimers: Plasmonic properties of mismatched nanoparticle pairs,” ACS Nano 4, 819–832 (2010).
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F. Hao, P. Nordlander, Y. Sonnefraud, P. Van Dorpe, and S. A. Maier, “Tunability of subradiant dipolar and fano-type plasmon resonances in metallic ring/disk cavities: implications for nanoscale optical sensing,” ACS Nano 3, 643–652 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wei, A. Reyes-Coronado, P. Nordlander, J. Aizpurua, and H. Xu, “Multipolar plasmon resonances in individual Ag nanorice,” ACS Nano 4, 2649–2654 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sonnefraud, N. Verellen, H. Sobhani, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Experimental realization of subradiant, superradiant, and fano resonances in ring/disk plasmonic nanocavities,” ACS Nano 4, 1664–1670 (2010).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

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[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

X. Liu, R. Huang, and J. Zhu, “Functional faceted silver nano-hexapods: synthesis, structure characterizations, and optical properties,” Chem. Mater. 20, 192–197 (2008).
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Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

F. Hao, E. M. Larsson, T. A. Ali, D. S. Sutherland, and P. Nordlander, “Shedding light on dark plasmons in gold nanorings,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 458, 262 (2008).
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J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2)

M. J. Mulvihill, X. Y. Ling, J. Henzie, and P. Yang, “Anisotropic etching of silver nanoparticles for plasmonic structures capable of single-particle SERS,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 268–274 (2010).
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L. Rodríguez-Lorenzo, R. A. Álvarez-Puebla, I. Pastoriza-Santos, S. Mazzucco, O. Stéphan, M. Kociak, L. M. Liz-Marzán, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Zeptomol detection through controlled ultrasensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 4616–4618 (2009).
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J. Chem. Phys. (1)

F. Tam, A. L. Chen, J. Kundu, H. Wang, and N. J. Halas, “Mesoscopic nanoshells: geometry-dependent plasmon resonances beyond the quasistatic limit,” J. Chem. Phys. 127, 204703 (2007).
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J. Phys. Chem. A (1)

N. A. Mirin, K. Bao, and P. Nordlander, “Fano resonances in plasmonic nanoparticle aggregates,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113, 4028–4034 (2009).
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J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

P. K. Jain, S. Eustis, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Plasmon coupling in nanorod assemblies: optical absorption, discrete dipole approximation simulation, and exciton-coupling model,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 18243–18253 (2006).
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J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

B. N. Khlebtsov and N. G. Khlebtsov, “Multipole plasmons in metal nanorods: scaling properties and dependence on particle size, shape, orientation, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 11516–11527 (2007).
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Nano Lett. (14)

C. L. Nehl, H. Liao, and J. H. Hafner, “Optical properties of star-shaped gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 6, 683–688 (2006).
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R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, J. Dorfmüller, A. Dmitriev, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, and K. Kern, “Direct near-field optical imaging of higher order plasmonic resonances,” Nano Lett. 8, 3155–3159 (2008).
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C. Radloff and N. J. Halas, “Plasmonic properties of concentric nanoshells,” Nano Lett. 4, 1323–1327 (2004).
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N. Verellen, P. Van Dorpe, C. Huang, K. Lodewijks, G. A. E. Vandenbosch, L. Lagae, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Plasmon line shaping using nanocrosses for high sensitivity localized surface plasmon resonance sensing,” Nano Lett. 11, 391–397 (2011).
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J. B. Lassiter, M. W. Knight, N. A. Mirin, and N. J. Halas, “Reshaping the plasmonic properties of an individual nanoparticle,” Nano Lett. 9, 4326–4332 (2009).
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J. B. Lassiter, H. Sobhani, J. A. Fan, J. Kundu, F. Capasso, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Fano resonances in plasmonic nanoclusters: geometrical and chemical tunability,” Nano Lett. 10, 3184–3189 (2010).
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S. Aksu, A. A. Yanik, R. Adato, A. Artar, M. Huang, and H. Altug, “High-throughput nanofabrication of infrared plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for vibrational nanospectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 10, 2511–2518 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 9, 1663–1667 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Nordlander, C. Oubre, E. Prodan, K. Li, and M. I. Stockman, “Plasmon hybridization in nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett. 4, 899–903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Davis, D. E. Gómez, and K. C. Vernon, “Simple model for the hybridization of surface plasmon resonances in metallic nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 10, 2618–2625 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Hao, Y. Sonnefraud, P. Van Dorpe, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “Symmetry breaking in plasmonic nanocavities: subradiant LSPR sensing and a tunable fano resonance,” Nano Lett. 8, 3983–3988 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10, 1103–1107 (2010).
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Nat. Mater. (3)

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kastel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8, 758–762 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9, 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. V. Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7, 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460, 1110 (2009).
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Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. (1)

M. B. Cortie, N. Stokes, and A. McDonagh, “Plasmon resonance and electric field amplification of crossed gold nanorods,” Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 7, 143–152 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

A. Christ, Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, N. A. Gippius, S. G. Tikhodeev, and O. J. F. Martin, “Controlling the Fano interference in a plasmonic lattice,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 201405 (2007).

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Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

C. Ropers, D. J. Park, G. Stibenz, G. Steinmeyer, J. Kim, D. S. Kim, and C. Lienau, “Femtosecond light transmission and subradiant damping in plasmonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 113901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation: Quantum generation of coherent surface plasmons in nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 027402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Structural parameters of the studied nanocross cavities. (a) two-arm cross: 2AX, (b) three-arm cross: 3AX and (c) three-arm cross and bar heterodimer: 3AX-I. Panel (d): SEM image taken under an angle of the three-arm cross in panel (c).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

LSPR modes and spectral tunability in a two-arm nanocross. (a–b) Calculated extinction spectra of (a) a nanobar and (b) a 2AX. (c–d) Corresponding experimental spectra. Red lines: normal incident illumination, blue lines: side illumination. Polarization in vertical direction. Lb = Lc = 370 nm, Wb = Wc = 70 nm, T = 50 nm and α = 45°. Insets: calculated charge density distributions corresponding to the indicated resonances. (e–f) Spectral dependence of the D2AX mode (red) and Q2AX mode (blue) on (e) the arm length Lc (α = 45°) and (f) the arm angle α (Lc = 370 nm). Lines: simulation, symbols: experiment. Simulated and experimental data obtained with side illumination. The substrate was not taken into account in the simulations. SEM images corresponding to the measured particles in (f) are shown on top with arm angle α and associated direction of side illumination indicated. Dashed lines: comparison with the electrostatic model. The calculated extinction spectra for each α are displayed in the gray scale intensity map in (f).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Rotational anisotropy of mode excitation in two-arm nanocrosses. (a) Schematic drawing defining the plane wave angle of incidence θ. The light is incident from the side in the k-vector direction and polarized along the E-field vector. (b) An α = 45° 2AX with C 4 rotational symmetry. (c) An α = 60° 2AX with C 2 rotational symmetry. (b) and (c) top left graph: experimental data, bottom graph: corresponding simulated spectra without substrate, top right: polar plot of the different modes’ peak intensity. Black spectra correspond to θ = 0°, gray spectra to θ = 90°, and cyan spectra to the indicated θ. Dashed lines indicate the plasmon modes in the polar plots (red and orange: dipolar, blue: quadrupolar). Scale bar in SEM image: 100 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

LSPR modes and spectral tunability in a three-arm nanocross. (a) Calculated and (b) experimental extinction spectra of a 3AX. Red lines: normal incident illumination, blue lines: side illumination. Polarization in vertical direction. Lc 1 = Lc 2 = 370 nm, Wc = 70 nm, T = 50 nm and α = 45°. Insets: calculated charge density distributions corresponding to the indicated resonances. (c) Simulated normal incidence extinction spectra of the 3AX in (a) for varying α between 20° and 40°. The displayed spectral window corresponds to the dashed box in (a) and shows the O3AX dipole activation for reduced rotational symmetry and spectral shift for varying α. (d–e) Extinction (red), scattering (black) and absorption (green) cross-sections showing Fano interference in the 3AX. (d) A zoom-in of the 3AX side illumination spectrum indicated by the dashed box in (a). (e) Same as (d) but for normal incidence.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Rotational anisotropy of mode excitation in three-arm nanocrosses. (a) An α = 30° 3AX with C 6 rotational symmetry. (b) An α = 45° 2AX with C 2 rotational symmetry. (c) An α = 60° 2AX with C 2 rotational symmetry. (a–c) top left graph: experimental data, bottom graph: corresponding simulated spectra without substrate, top right: polar plot of the different modes’ peak intensity. Black spectra correspond to θ = 0°, gray spectra to θ = 90°, and cyan spectra to the indicated θ. Plasmon modes indicated with the dashed lines are the dipolar (red and orange), quadrupolar (blue and purple) and octupolar modes (green). Insets: calculated charge density distributions corresponding to the indicated resonances. Scale bar in SEM image: 100 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Symmetry breaking in a two-arm cross: scissor cross. (a) Calculated extinction (red), scattering (black) and absorption (green) spectra of a 2AX with α = 45°, Lc = 370 nm, Wc = 70 nm and center offset of 40 nm under vertically polarized normal incidence showing the excitation of a quadrupole (blue dot) and dipole (red dot) resonance and resulting Fano line shape. Dashed line: symmetric 2AX (offset = 0 nm). Insets show corresponding charge density maps. (b) Evolution of the resonances as the offset (and hence asymmetry) of the scissor cross is increased. The calculated extinction spectra for each offset value, normalized to maximum extinction, are displayed in the gray scale intensity map in (b).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Hybridization diagrams for a 3AX-I heterodimer. Calculated extinction (black), scattering (blue) and absorption (red) cross-sections. Left panels: (b) 3AX-I and corresponding individual cross (a) and bar (c) in the electrostatic limit (Lc 1 , c 2 = 30 nm, Wc = 7 nm, α = 45°, L b = 17 nm, W b = 9 nm, T = 5 nm and G = 2 nm). Green dashed line: cross quadrupole moment. Black dashed lines: relevant mode interactions. Mode color code corresponds to Fig. 4. (e) Scaling of the 3AX-I from 0.1 (same as panel (b)) to 1 times the experimental dimensions (same as panel (g)). Left axis: absorption, right axis: scattering. Dashed lines indicate the spectral shifts of the hybridized modes: HDI (black), BOD (green), BQD (cyan) and BDD (orange). Right panels: the fabricated unscaled 3AX-I structure (Lc 1 ,c 2 = 300 nm, Wc = 70 nm, α = 45°, Lb = 170 nm, Wb = 90 nm, T = 50 nm and G = 20 nm). (d, i): phase difference between the cross and bar dipole moment Δϕ(pbar-pcross) in the 3AX-I. Au was modeled with a Drude fit and no substrate was used. Spectra calculated for vertically polarized normal incidence, except for (a) and (f).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Influence of interparticle distance G in a 3AX-I heterodimer cavity. (a) Measured and (b) calculated extinction spectra without substrate. Calculated gap sizes: G = 20 nm (red), G = 40 nm (blue), G = 50 nm (green). Spectra are offset on the y-axis for clarity. The thin black lines in (a) and (b) are four oscillator Fano model fits to the red spectra (G = 20 nm). Arrows indicate from short to long wavelength the BOD Fano antiresonance, BQD and BDD modes. Insets: SEM images of the corresponding fabricated cavities.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Nanocross based heterodimers and -trimers. (a, e) 2AX-I dimer. (b, f) Xx dimer. (c, g) 2AX-I trimer. (d, h) 2AX-I-2AX trimer. (a–d) Normal incidence calculated spectra taking the substrate and substrate etching into account. (e–h) Experimental data with an SEM image of the corresponding geometry (scale bar: 100 nm). Red lines: vertical polarization, blue lines: horizontal polarization, black lines: unpolarized. Top panels show charge density distributions of the indicated resonances.

Equations (1)

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e ( ω ) = a r + j b j Γ j e i ϕ j ω ω j + i ( γ j + Γ j )

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