Abstract

We present a detailed theoretical analysis of the measurement limits of polarization sensitive reflectometry, imposed by spatial resolution and measurement accuracy. The limits are conveniently represented in a map of constraints. We also describe and experimentally verify a procedure that allows to measure spin profiles of single-mode fibers with spin rates exceeding the measurable range of the reflectometer. The technique consists in twisting the fiber to locally unwind the spin.

© 2011 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. J. Rogers, “Polarization-optical time domain reflectometry: a technique for the measurement of field distributions,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1060–1074 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. Galtarossa and C. R. Menyuk, eds., Polarization Mode Dispersion (Springer, 2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. E. Schuh, X. Shan, and A. S. Siddiqui, “Polarization mode dispersion in spun fibers with different linear birefringence and spinning parameters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1583–1588 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Sunnerud, B. E. Olsson, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, and J. Brentel, “Polarization-mode dispersion measurements along installed optical fibers using gated backscattered light and a polarimeter,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 897–904 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Wuilpart, P. Megret, M. Blondel, A. Rogers, and Y. Defosse, “Measurement of the spatial distribution of birefringence in optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 836–838 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Wegmuller, M. Legré, and N. Gisin, “Distributed beatlength measurement in single-mode fibers with optical frequency-domain reflectometry,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 828–835 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Dong, P. Shum, J. Q. Zhou, G. X. Ning, Y. D. Gong, and C. Q. Wu, “Spectral-resolved backreflection measurement of polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1665–1667 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. Geisler, P. Kristensen, and O. Knop, “New details of spun fibers measured with an OFDR,” Tech Digest. OFC (paper OWA3) (Anaheim (CA), 2006).
  9. A. Galtarossa, D. Grosso, L. Palmieri, and L. Schenato, “Reflectometric measurement of birefringence rotation in single-mode optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2284–2286 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Galtarossa, D. Grosso, L. Palmieri, and M. Rizzo, “Spin-profile characterization in randomly birefringent spun fibers by means of frequency-domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1078–1080 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. Galtarossa, D. Grosso, and L. Palmieri, “Accurate characterization of twist-induced optical activity in single-mode fibers by means of polarization-sensitive reflectometry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1713–1715 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. Palmieri, “Polarization properties of spun single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4075–4088 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. Palmieri, T. Geisler, and A. Galtarossa, “Characterization of strongly spun fibers with spin rate exceeding OFDR spatial resolution,” Tech. Digest OFC (paper OMF2) (Los Angeles (CA), 2011).
  14. A. Galtarossa, L. Palmieri, and D. Sarchi, “Measure of spin period in randomly-birefringent low-PMD fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1131–1133 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. K. Gifford, M. E. Froggatt, S. T. Kreger, M. S. Wolfe, and B. J. T. Soller, “Polarization echoes based on scatter de-correlation in polarization maintaining fiber,” Tech Digest. OFC (paper JWA8) (Anaheim (CA), 2007).
  16. A. Savitzky and M. J. E. Golay, “Smoothing and differentiation of data by simplified least squares procedures,” Anal. Chem. 36, 1627–1639 (1964).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

L. Palmieri, T. Geisler, and A. Galtarossa, “Characterization of strongly spun fibers with spin rate exceeding OFDR spatial resolution,” Tech. Digest OFC (paper OMF2) (Los Angeles (CA), 2011).

2009 (2)

A. Galtarossa, D. Grosso, L. Palmieri, and M. Rizzo, “Spin-profile characterization in randomly birefringent spun fibers by means of frequency-domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1078–1080 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Galtarossa, D. Grosso, and L. Palmieri, “Accurate characterization of twist-induced optical activity in single-mode fibers by means of polarization-sensitive reflectometry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1713–1715 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

D. K. Gifford, M. E. Froggatt, S. T. Kreger, M. S. Wolfe, and B. J. T. Soller, “Polarization echoes based on scatter de-correlation in polarization maintaining fiber,” Tech Digest. OFC (paper JWA8) (Anaheim (CA), 2007).

H. Dong, P. Shum, J. Q. Zhou, G. X. Ning, Y. D. Gong, and C. Q. Wu, “Spectral-resolved backreflection measurement of polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1665–1667 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

T. Geisler, P. Kristensen, and O. Knop, “New details of spun fibers measured with an OFDR,” Tech Digest. OFC (paper OWA3) (Anaheim (CA), 2006).

L. Palmieri, “Polarization properties of spun single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4075–4088 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

A. Galtarossa and C. R. Menyuk, eds., Polarization Mode Dispersion (Springer, 2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

A. Galtarossa, L. Palmieri, and D. Sarchi, “Measure of spin period in randomly-birefringent low-PMD fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1131–1133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. Wegmuller, M. Legré, and N. Gisin, “Distributed beatlength measurement in single-mode fibers with optical frequency-domain reflectometry,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 828–835 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. Wuilpart, P. Megret, M. Blondel, A. Rogers, and Y. Defosse, “Measurement of the spatial distribution of birefringence in optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 836–838 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

1981 (1)

1964 (1)

A. Savitzky and M. J. E. Golay, “Smoothing and differentiation of data by simplified least squares procedures,” Anal. Chem. 36, 1627–1639 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Andrekson, P. A.

Blondel, M.

M. Wuilpart, P. Megret, M. Blondel, A. Rogers, and Y. Defosse, “Measurement of the spatial distribution of birefringence in optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 836–838 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brentel, J.

Defosse, Y.

M. Wuilpart, P. Megret, M. Blondel, A. Rogers, and Y. Defosse, “Measurement of the spatial distribution of birefringence in optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 836–838 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dong, H.

Froggatt, M. E.

D. K. Gifford, M. E. Froggatt, S. T. Kreger, M. S. Wolfe, and B. J. T. Soller, “Polarization echoes based on scatter de-correlation in polarization maintaining fiber,” Tech Digest. OFC (paper JWA8) (Anaheim (CA), 2007).

Galtarossa, A.

L. Palmieri, T. Geisler, and A. Galtarossa, “Characterization of strongly spun fibers with spin rate exceeding OFDR spatial resolution,” Tech. Digest OFC (paper OMF2) (Los Angeles (CA), 2011).

A. Galtarossa, D. Grosso, L. Palmieri, and M. Rizzo, “Spin-profile characterization in randomly birefringent spun fibers by means of frequency-domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1078–1080 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Galtarossa, D. Grosso, and L. Palmieri, “Accurate characterization of twist-induced optical activity in single-mode fibers by means of polarization-sensitive reflectometry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1713–1715 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Galtarossa, D. Grosso, L. Palmieri, and L. Schenato, “Reflectometric measurement of birefringence rotation in single-mode optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2284–2286 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Galtarossa, L. Palmieri, and D. Sarchi, “Measure of spin period in randomly-birefringent low-PMD fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1131–1133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Geisler, T.

L. Palmieri, T. Geisler, and A. Galtarossa, “Characterization of strongly spun fibers with spin rate exceeding OFDR spatial resolution,” Tech. Digest OFC (paper OMF2) (Los Angeles (CA), 2011).

T. Geisler, P. Kristensen, and O. Knop, “New details of spun fibers measured with an OFDR,” Tech Digest. OFC (paper OWA3) (Anaheim (CA), 2006).

Gifford, D. K.

D. K. Gifford, M. E. Froggatt, S. T. Kreger, M. S. Wolfe, and B. J. T. Soller, “Polarization echoes based on scatter de-correlation in polarization maintaining fiber,” Tech Digest. OFC (paper JWA8) (Anaheim (CA), 2007).

Gisin, N.

M. Wegmuller, M. Legré, and N. Gisin, “Distributed beatlength measurement in single-mode fibers with optical frequency-domain reflectometry,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 828–835 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Golay, M. J. E.

A. Savitzky and M. J. E. Golay, “Smoothing and differentiation of data by simplified least squares procedures,” Anal. Chem. 36, 1627–1639 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Y. D.

Grosso, D.

Karlsson, M.

Knop, O.

T. Geisler, P. Kristensen, and O. Knop, “New details of spun fibers measured with an OFDR,” Tech Digest. OFC (paper OWA3) (Anaheim (CA), 2006).

Kreger, S. T.

D. K. Gifford, M. E. Froggatt, S. T. Kreger, M. S. Wolfe, and B. J. T. Soller, “Polarization echoes based on scatter de-correlation in polarization maintaining fiber,” Tech Digest. OFC (paper JWA8) (Anaheim (CA), 2007).

Kristensen, P.

T. Geisler, P. Kristensen, and O. Knop, “New details of spun fibers measured with an OFDR,” Tech Digest. OFC (paper OWA3) (Anaheim (CA), 2006).

Legré, M.

M. Wegmuller, M. Legré, and N. Gisin, “Distributed beatlength measurement in single-mode fibers with optical frequency-domain reflectometry,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 828–835 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Megret, P.

M. Wuilpart, P. Megret, M. Blondel, A. Rogers, and Y. Defosse, “Measurement of the spatial distribution of birefringence in optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 836–838 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ning, G. X.

Olsson, B. E.

Palmieri, L.

L. Palmieri, T. Geisler, and A. Galtarossa, “Characterization of strongly spun fibers with spin rate exceeding OFDR spatial resolution,” Tech. Digest OFC (paper OMF2) (Los Angeles (CA), 2011).

A. Galtarossa, D. Grosso, L. Palmieri, and M. Rizzo, “Spin-profile characterization in randomly birefringent spun fibers by means of frequency-domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1078–1080 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Galtarossa, D. Grosso, and L. Palmieri, “Accurate characterization of twist-induced optical activity in single-mode fibers by means of polarization-sensitive reflectometry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1713–1715 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Galtarossa, D. Grosso, L. Palmieri, and L. Schenato, “Reflectometric measurement of birefringence rotation in single-mode optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2284–2286 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Palmieri, “Polarization properties of spun single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4075–4088 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Galtarossa, L. Palmieri, and D. Sarchi, “Measure of spin period in randomly-birefringent low-PMD fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1131–1133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rizzo, M.

Rogers, A.

M. Wuilpart, P. Megret, M. Blondel, A. Rogers, and Y. Defosse, “Measurement of the spatial distribution of birefringence in optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 836–838 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, A. J.

Sarchi, D.

A. Galtarossa, L. Palmieri, and D. Sarchi, “Measure of spin period in randomly-birefringent low-PMD fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1131–1133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Savitzky, A.

A. Savitzky and M. J. E. Golay, “Smoothing and differentiation of data by simplified least squares procedures,” Anal. Chem. 36, 1627–1639 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Schenato, L.

Schuh, R. E.

Shan, X.

Shum, P.

Siddiqui, A. S.

Soller, B. J. T.

D. K. Gifford, M. E. Froggatt, S. T. Kreger, M. S. Wolfe, and B. J. T. Soller, “Polarization echoes based on scatter de-correlation in polarization maintaining fiber,” Tech Digest. OFC (paper JWA8) (Anaheim (CA), 2007).

Sunnerud, H.

Wegmuller, M.

M. Wegmuller, M. Legré, and N. Gisin, “Distributed beatlength measurement in single-mode fibers with optical frequency-domain reflectometry,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 828–835 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wolfe, M. S.

D. K. Gifford, M. E. Froggatt, S. T. Kreger, M. S. Wolfe, and B. J. T. Soller, “Polarization echoes based on scatter de-correlation in polarization maintaining fiber,” Tech Digest. OFC (paper JWA8) (Anaheim (CA), 2007).

Wu, C. Q.

Wuilpart, M.

M. Wuilpart, P. Megret, M. Blondel, A. Rogers, and Y. Defosse, “Measurement of the spatial distribution of birefringence in optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 836–838 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J. Q.

Anal. Chem. (1)

A. Savitzky and M. J. E. Golay, “Smoothing and differentiation of data by simplified least squares procedures,” Anal. Chem. 36, 1627–1639 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

M. Wuilpart, P. Megret, M. Blondel, A. Rogers, and Y. Defosse, “Measurement of the spatial distribution of birefringence in optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 836–838 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Galtarossa, L. Palmieri, and D. Sarchi, “Measure of spin period in randomly-birefringent low-PMD fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1131–1133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Galtarossa, D. Grosso, and L. Palmieri, “Accurate characterization of twist-induced optical activity in single-mode fibers by means of polarization-sensitive reflectometry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1713–1715 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (4)

L. Palmieri, T. Geisler, and A. Galtarossa, “Characterization of strongly spun fibers with spin rate exceeding OFDR spatial resolution,” Tech. Digest OFC (paper OMF2) (Los Angeles (CA), 2011).

D. K. Gifford, M. E. Froggatt, S. T. Kreger, M. S. Wolfe, and B. J. T. Soller, “Polarization echoes based on scatter de-correlation in polarization maintaining fiber,” Tech Digest. OFC (paper JWA8) (Anaheim (CA), 2007).

T. Geisler, P. Kristensen, and O. Knop, “New details of spun fibers measured with an OFDR,” Tech Digest. OFC (paper OWA3) (Anaheim (CA), 2006).

A. Galtarossa and C. R. Menyuk, eds., Polarization Mode Dispersion (Springer, 2005).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Map of constraints of PSR. (b) Map of constraints calculated for δz = 1 cm, σ = 1.2%, ρ = 6 dB and κ = 10. Markers indicate values measured on different fibers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Angle of birefringence measured on a spun fiber and (b) its z-derivative. In both figures the orange curves represent the good portion of the experimental data.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Good portions of the birefringence angle measured for different numbers of turns. (b) z-derivative of the same portions. (c) Complete spin rate obtained by compensating the applied twist. Graphs share the same z-axis. Same colors correspond to the same number of turns, from −105 [lowest curve in (b)] to +70 [upper curve in (b)], in steps of 35. (d) Estimate of the spin rate (black, solid) and of the spin profile (black, dashed); in orange, the best fitting sinusoid; in green, the result of the procedure described in [13].

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

C 1 = 1 2 ( 1 c 4 0 s 4 0 0 0 s 4 0 1 c 4 ) , C 2 = 1 2 ( 0 0 s 2 / 2 0 1 + c 2 0 s 2 / 2 0 1 + c 2 ) 1 4 C 1 ,
S 1 = 1 2 ( 0 s 1 + s 3 0 s 1 + s 3 0 c 1 + c 3 0 c 1 c 3 0 ) , S 2 = ( 0 0 0 0 0 c 1 0 c 1 0 ) 1 2 S 1 ,
α < β [ 4 3 ρ 2 σ 2 + ( 16 18 ρ 2 σ 2 ) 1 / 2 ] 1 / 2 / ( 3 ρ σ ) .
α < ( 1 / 2 ) [ π 2 / ( 4 δ z 2 ) β 2 ] 1 / 2 .
α ( 1 / 2 ) ( 4 π 2 / L F 2 β 2 ) 1 / 2 and α ( 1 / 2 ) [ 2 π 4 / ( 3 p 2 ) β 2 ] 1 / 2 ,

Metrics