Abstract

A partially fluorinated terphenyl liquid crystal with low absorption in both mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and near IR regions is developed and its properties evaluated. This compound exhibits a nematic phase (although only about 2 °C), reasonably high birefringence (Δn~0.2), low visco-elastic coefficient, and modest dielectric anisotropy (Δε = −2.7). This compound serves as an important first example for future development of low-loss MWIR liquid crystals and devices.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. S. T. Wu, U. Efron, and L. D. Hess, “Infrared birefringence of liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(11), 1033–1035 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. T. Wu, “Birefringence dispersions of liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 33(2), 1270–1274 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. U. Efron, S. T. Wu, J. Grinberg, and L. D. Hess, “Liquid-crystal-based visible-to-infrared dynamic image converter,” Opt. Eng. 24, 111–118 (1985).
  4. P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. C. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. K. O. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. W. McCargar, R. Ondris-Crawford, and J. L. West, “Polymer dispersed liquid crystal infrared light shutter,” J. Electron. Imaging 1(1), 22–28 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. Scolari, L. Wei, S. Gauza, S. T. Wu, and A. Bjarklev, “Low loss liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber in the near-infrared region,” Opt. Rev. 18(1), 114–116 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. T. Wu, “Absorption measurements of liquid crystals in the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(8), 4462–4465 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. W. Gray and A. Mosley, “The synthesis of deuterated 4-n-Alkyl-4'-cyanobiphenyls molecular crystals and liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 48, 233–242 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. L. Hoatson, A. L. Bailey, A. J. Van der Est, G. S. Bates, and E. E. Burnell, “2H-N.M.R. studies of flexibility and orientational order in nematic liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 3(6), 683–694 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. T. Wu, Q. H. Wang, M. D. Kempe, and J. A. Kornfield, “Perdeuterated cyanobiphenyl liquid crystals for infrared applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(12), 7146–7148 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Hird, “Fluorinated liquid crystals--properties and applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 36(12), 2070–2095 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Schadt, “Liquid crystal materials and liquid crystal displays,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 27(1), 305–379 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. D. Mistry, A Handbook of Spectroscopic Data: Chemistry-UV, IR, PMR, CNMR and Mass Spectroscopy, (Oxford book company, Jaipur, India, 2009), Chap. 2.
  14. S. T. Wu, “Infrared properties of liquid crystals: an overview,” Opt. Eng. 26, 120–128 (1987).
  15. R. C. Sharp, D. P. Resler, D. S. Hobbs, and T. A. Dorschner, “Electrically tunable liquid-crystal wave plate in the infrared,” Opt. Lett. 15(1), 87–89 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. S. T. Wu, U. Efron, and L. D. Hess, “Birefringence measurements of liquid crystals,” Appl. Opt. 23(21), 3911–3915 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S. T. Wu and C. S. Wu, “Experimental confirmation of the Osipov-Terentjev theory on the viscosity of nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 42(4), 2219–2227 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. R. Hittich, G. Weber, H. Plach, A. Wachtler, and B. Scheuble, “Liquid-crystal matrix display,” US Patent 5,171,469, Dec. 15 (1992).
  19. G. W. Gray and S. M. Kelly, “Liquid crystals for twisted nematic display devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(9), 2037–2050 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  20. E. Bartmann, “Liquid crystalline α, α-difluorobenzyl phenyl ethers,” Adv. Mater. 8, 570–573 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  21. P. Kirsch and M. Bremer, “Nematic liquid crystals for active matrix displays: molecular design and synthesis,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 39(23), 4216–4235 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

L. Scolari, L. Wei, S. Gauza, S. T. Wu, and A. Bjarklev, “Low loss liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber in the near-infrared region,” Opt. Rev. 18(1), 114–116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

M. Hird, “Fluorinated liquid crystals--properties and applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 36(12), 2070–2095 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

S. T. Wu, Q. H. Wang, M. D. Kempe, and J. A. Kornfield, “Perdeuterated cyanobiphenyl liquid crystals for infrared applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(12), 7146–7148 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

P. Kirsch and M. Bremer, “Nematic liquid crystals for active matrix displays: molecular design and synthesis,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 39(23), 4216–4235 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

G. W. Gray and S. M. Kelly, “Liquid crystals for twisted nematic display devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(9), 2037–2050 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. T. Wu, “Absorption measurements of liquid crystals in the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(8), 4462–4465 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. Schadt, “Liquid crystal materials and liquid crystal displays,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 27(1), 305–379 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

E. Bartmann, “Liquid crystalline α, α-difluorobenzyl phenyl ethers,” Adv. Mater. 8, 570–573 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. C. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. K. O. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

J. W. McCargar, R. Ondris-Crawford, and J. L. West, “Polymer dispersed liquid crystal infrared light shutter,” J. Electron. Imaging 1(1), 22–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

R. C. Sharp, D. P. Resler, D. S. Hobbs, and T. A. Dorschner, “Electrically tunable liquid-crystal wave plate in the infrared,” Opt. Lett. 15(1), 87–89 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Wu and C. S. Wu, “Experimental confirmation of the Osipov-Terentjev theory on the viscosity of nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 42(4), 2219–2227 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

G. L. Hoatson, A. L. Bailey, A. J. Van der Est, G. S. Bates, and E. E. Burnell, “2H-N.M.R. studies of flexibility and orientational order in nematic liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 3(6), 683–694 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

S. T. Wu, “Infrared properties of liquid crystals: an overview,” Opt. Eng. 26, 120–128 (1987).

1986 (1)

S. T. Wu, “Birefringence dispersions of liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 33(2), 1270–1274 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

U. Efron, S. T. Wu, J. Grinberg, and L. D. Hess, “Liquid-crystal-based visible-to-infrared dynamic image converter,” Opt. Eng. 24, 111–118 (1985).

1984 (2)

S. T. Wu, U. Efron, and L. D. Hess, “Infrared birefringence of liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(11), 1033–1035 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Wu, U. Efron, and L. D. Hess, “Birefringence measurements of liquid crystals,” Appl. Opt. 23(21), 3911–3915 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

G. W. Gray and A. Mosley, “The synthesis of deuterated 4-n-Alkyl-4'-cyanobiphenyls molecular crystals and liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 48, 233–242 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, A. L.

G. L. Hoatson, A. L. Bailey, A. J. Van der Est, G. S. Bates, and E. E. Burnell, “2H-N.M.R. studies of flexibility and orientational order in nematic liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 3(6), 683–694 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bartmann, E.

E. Bartmann, “Liquid crystalline α, α-difluorobenzyl phenyl ethers,” Adv. Mater. 8, 570–573 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bates, G. S.

G. L. Hoatson, A. L. Bailey, A. J. Van der Est, G. S. Bates, and E. E. Burnell, “2H-N.M.R. studies of flexibility and orientational order in nematic liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 3(6), 683–694 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bjarklev, A.

L. Scolari, L. Wei, S. Gauza, S. T. Wu, and A. Bjarklev, “Low loss liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber in the near-infrared region,” Opt. Rev. 18(1), 114–116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bremer, M.

P. Kirsch and M. Bremer, “Nematic liquid crystals for active matrix displays: molecular design and synthesis,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 39(23), 4216–4235 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Burnell, E. E.

G. L. Hoatson, A. L. Bailey, A. J. Van der Est, G. S. Bates, and E. E. Burnell, “2H-N.M.R. studies of flexibility and orientational order in nematic liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 3(6), 683–694 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, D. C.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. C. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. K. O. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dorschner, T. A.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. C. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. K. O. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Sharp, D. P. Resler, D. S. Hobbs, and T. A. Dorschner, “Electrically tunable liquid-crystal wave plate in the infrared,” Opt. Lett. 15(1), 87–89 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Efron, U.

U. Efron, S. T. Wu, J. Grinberg, and L. D. Hess, “Liquid-crystal-based visible-to-infrared dynamic image converter,” Opt. Eng. 24, 111–118 (1985).

S. T. Wu, U. Efron, and L. D. Hess, “Birefringence measurements of liquid crystals,” Appl. Opt. 23(21), 3911–3915 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Wu, U. Efron, and L. D. Hess, “Infrared birefringence of liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(11), 1033–1035 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Friedman, L. J.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. C. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. K. O. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gauza, S.

L. Scolari, L. Wei, S. Gauza, S. T. Wu, and A. Bjarklev, “Low loss liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber in the near-infrared region,” Opt. Rev. 18(1), 114–116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gray, G. W.

G. W. Gray and S. M. Kelly, “Liquid crystals for twisted nematic display devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(9), 2037–2050 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Gray and A. Mosley, “The synthesis of deuterated 4-n-Alkyl-4'-cyanobiphenyls molecular crystals and liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 48, 233–242 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Grinberg, J.

U. Efron, S. T. Wu, J. Grinberg, and L. D. Hess, “Liquid-crystal-based visible-to-infrared dynamic image converter,” Opt. Eng. 24, 111–118 (1985).

Hess, L. D.

U. Efron, S. T. Wu, J. Grinberg, and L. D. Hess, “Liquid-crystal-based visible-to-infrared dynamic image converter,” Opt. Eng. 24, 111–118 (1985).

S. T. Wu, U. Efron, and L. D. Hess, “Infrared birefringence of liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(11), 1033–1035 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Wu, U. Efron, and L. D. Hess, “Birefringence measurements of liquid crystals,” Appl. Opt. 23(21), 3911–3915 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hird, M.

M. Hird, “Fluorinated liquid crystals--properties and applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 36(12), 2070–2095 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoatson, G. L.

G. L. Hoatson, A. L. Bailey, A. J. Van der Est, G. S. Bates, and E. E. Burnell, “2H-N.M.R. studies of flexibility and orientational order in nematic liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 3(6), 683–694 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hobbs, D. S.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. C. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. K. O. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Sharp, D. P. Resler, D. S. Hobbs, and T. A. Dorschner, “Electrically tunable liquid-crystal wave plate in the infrared,” Opt. Lett. 15(1), 87–89 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holz, M. K. O.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. C. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. K. O. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, S. M.

G. W. Gray and S. M. Kelly, “Liquid crystals for twisted nematic display devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(9), 2037–2050 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kempe, M. D.

S. T. Wu, Q. H. Wang, M. D. Kempe, and J. A. Kornfield, “Perdeuterated cyanobiphenyl liquid crystals for infrared applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(12), 7146–7148 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kirsch, P.

P. Kirsch and M. Bremer, “Nematic liquid crystals for active matrix displays: molecular design and synthesis,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 39(23), 4216–4235 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kornfield, J. A.

S. T. Wu, Q. H. Wang, M. D. Kempe, and J. A. Kornfield, “Perdeuterated cyanobiphenyl liquid crystals for infrared applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(12), 7146–7148 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liberman, S.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. C. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. K. O. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McCargar, J. W.

J. W. McCargar, R. Ondris-Crawford, and J. L. West, “Polymer dispersed liquid crystal infrared light shutter,” J. Electron. Imaging 1(1), 22–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

McManamon, P. F.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. C. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. K. O. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mosley, A.

G. W. Gray and A. Mosley, “The synthesis of deuterated 4-n-Alkyl-4'-cyanobiphenyls molecular crystals and liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 48, 233–242 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. C. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. K. O. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ondris-Crawford, R.

J. W. McCargar, R. Ondris-Crawford, and J. L. West, “Polymer dispersed liquid crystal infrared light shutter,” J. Electron. Imaging 1(1), 22–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Resler, D. P.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. C. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. K. O. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Sharp, D. P. Resler, D. S. Hobbs, and T. A. Dorschner, “Electrically tunable liquid-crystal wave plate in the infrared,” Opt. Lett. 15(1), 87–89 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schadt, M.

M. Schadt, “Liquid crystal materials and liquid crystal displays,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 27(1), 305–379 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Scolari, L.

L. Scolari, L. Wei, S. Gauza, S. T. Wu, and A. Bjarklev, “Low loss liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber in the near-infrared region,” Opt. Rev. 18(1), 114–116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sharp, R. C.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. C. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. K. O. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Sharp, D. P. Resler, D. S. Hobbs, and T. A. Dorschner, “Electrically tunable liquid-crystal wave plate in the infrared,” Opt. Lett. 15(1), 87–89 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van der Est, A. J.

G. L. Hoatson, A. L. Bailey, A. J. Van der Est, G. S. Bates, and E. E. Burnell, “2H-N.M.R. studies of flexibility and orientational order in nematic liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 3(6), 683–694 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q. H.

S. T. Wu, Q. H. Wang, M. D. Kempe, and J. A. Kornfield, “Perdeuterated cyanobiphenyl liquid crystals for infrared applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(12), 7146–7148 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Watson, E. A.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. C. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. K. O. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wei, L.

L. Scolari, L. Wei, S. Gauza, S. T. Wu, and A. Bjarklev, “Low loss liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber in the near-infrared region,” Opt. Rev. 18(1), 114–116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

West, J. L.

J. W. McCargar, R. Ondris-Crawford, and J. L. West, “Polymer dispersed liquid crystal infrared light shutter,” J. Electron. Imaging 1(1), 22–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. S.

S. T. Wu and C. S. Wu, “Experimental confirmation of the Osipov-Terentjev theory on the viscosity of nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 42(4), 2219–2227 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, S. T.

L. Scolari, L. Wei, S. Gauza, S. T. Wu, and A. Bjarklev, “Low loss liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber in the near-infrared region,” Opt. Rev. 18(1), 114–116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Wu, Q. H. Wang, M. D. Kempe, and J. A. Kornfield, “Perdeuterated cyanobiphenyl liquid crystals for infrared applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(12), 7146–7148 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Wu, “Absorption measurements of liquid crystals in the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(8), 4462–4465 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Wu and C. S. Wu, “Experimental confirmation of the Osipov-Terentjev theory on the viscosity of nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 42(4), 2219–2227 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Wu, “Infrared properties of liquid crystals: an overview,” Opt. Eng. 26, 120–128 (1987).

S. T. Wu, “Birefringence dispersions of liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 33(2), 1270–1274 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Efron, S. T. Wu, J. Grinberg, and L. D. Hess, “Liquid-crystal-based visible-to-infrared dynamic image converter,” Opt. Eng. 24, 111–118 (1985).

S. T. Wu, U. Efron, and L. D. Hess, “Birefringence measurements of liquid crystals,” Appl. Opt. 23(21), 3911–3915 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Wu, U. Efron, and L. D. Hess, “Infrared birefringence of liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(11), 1033–1035 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

E. Bartmann, “Liquid crystalline α, α-difluorobenzyl phenyl ethers,” Adv. Mater. 8, 570–573 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. (1)

P. Kirsch and M. Bremer, “Nematic liquid crystals for active matrix displays: molecular design and synthesis,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 39(23), 4216–4235 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. (1)

M. Schadt, “Liquid crystal materials and liquid crystal displays,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 27(1), 305–379 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. T. Wu, U. Efron, and L. D. Hess, “Infrared birefringence of liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(11), 1033–1035 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Soc. Rev. (1)

M. Hird, “Fluorinated liquid crystals--properties and applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 36(12), 2070–2095 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S. T. Wu, Q. H. Wang, M. D. Kempe, and J. A. Kornfield, “Perdeuterated cyanobiphenyl liquid crystals for infrared applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(12), 7146–7148 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Wu, “Absorption measurements of liquid crystals in the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(8), 4462–4465 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron. Imaging (1)

J. W. McCargar, R. Ondris-Crawford, and J. L. West, “Polymer dispersed liquid crystal infrared light shutter,” J. Electron. Imaging 1(1), 22–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

G. W. Gray and S. M. Kelly, “Liquid crystals for twisted nematic display devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(9), 2037–2050 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liq. Cryst. (1)

G. L. Hoatson, A. L. Bailey, A. J. Van der Est, G. S. Bates, and E. E. Burnell, “2H-N.M.R. studies of flexibility and orientational order in nematic liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 3(6), 683–694 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

G. W. Gray and A. Mosley, “The synthesis of deuterated 4-n-Alkyl-4'-cyanobiphenyls molecular crystals and liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 48, 233–242 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

U. Efron, S. T. Wu, J. Grinberg, and L. D. Hess, “Liquid-crystal-based visible-to-infrared dynamic image converter,” Opt. Eng. 24, 111–118 (1985).

S. T. Wu, “Infrared properties of liquid crystals: an overview,” Opt. Eng. 26, 120–128 (1987).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Rev. (1)

L. Scolari, L. Wei, S. Gauza, S. T. Wu, and A. Bjarklev, “Low loss liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber in the near-infrared region,” Opt. Rev. 18(1), 114–116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

S. T. Wu, “Birefringence dispersions of liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 33(2), 1270–1274 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Wu and C. S. Wu, “Experimental confirmation of the Osipov-Terentjev theory on the viscosity of nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 42(4), 2219–2227 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE (1)

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. C. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. K. O. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

R. Hittich, G. Weber, H. Plach, A. Wachtler, and B. Scheuble, “Liquid-crystal matrix display,” US Patent 5,171,469, Dec. 15 (1992).

B. D. Mistry, A Handbook of Spectroscopic Data: Chemistry-UV, IR, PMR, CNMR and Mass Spectroscopy, (Oxford book company, Jaipur, India, 2009), Chap. 2.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measured transmission spectra of 5CB (Red), 1CB (Blue), FB (Green) and F7CB (Violet).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured transmission spectra of 5CB (red line) and FT (blue line) in MWIR region.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured transmission spectra of 5CB (red line) and FT (blue line) in near IR region.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Proposed compound structure with potentially wider nematic range (X = F or OCF3).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Chemical Structures and Properties of Compounds Studied, where Cr Stands for Crystalline, N for Nematic, and I for Isotropic Phase

Equations (4)

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ω = κ / μ .
δ = 2 π d Δ n / λ ,
δ ( t ) = δ 0 exp ( 2 t / τ 0 ) ,
τ 0 = γ 1 d 2 / ( K 33 π 2 ) ,

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