Abstract

Abstract: Neural optical imaging can evaluate cortical hemodynamic fluctuations which reflect neural activity and disease state. We evaluate the use of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) as illumination source for simultaneous imaging of blood flow and tissue oxygenation dynamics ex vivo and in vivo and demonstrate optical imaging of blood flow changes and oxygenation changes in response to induced ischemia. Using VCSELs we show a rapid switching from a single-mode to a special multi-mode rapid current sweep operation and noise values reduced to within a factor of 40% compared to non-coherent LED illumination. These VCSELs are promising for long-term portable continuous monitoring of brain dynamics in freely moving animals.

© 2011 OSA

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2011 (1)

O. Yang, D. Cuccia, and B. Choi, “Real-time blood flow visualization using the graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 016009–016014 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (7)

J. C. Ramírez-San-Juan, Y. C. Huang, N. Salazar-Hermenegildo, R. Ramos-García, J. Muñoz-Lopez, and B. Choi, “Integration of image exposure time into a modified laser speckle imaging method,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(22), 6857–6866 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Boas and A. K. Dunn, “Laser speckle contrast imaging in biomedical optics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 011109 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ponticorvo and A. K. Dunn, “How to build a Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging (LSCI) system to monitor blood flow,” J. Vis. Exp. 45(45), (2010), http://www.jove.com/details.stp?id=2004 .
[PubMed]

M. J. Rossow, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Scanning laser image correlation for measurement of flow,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026003 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. B. Thompson and M. K. Andrews, “Tissue perfusion measurements: multiple-exposure laser speckle analysis generates laser Doppler-like spectra,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 027015 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. O’Sullivan, E. A. Munro, N. Parashurama, C. Conca, S. S. Gambhir, J. S. Harris, and O. Levi, “Implantable semiconductor biosensor for continuous in vivo sensing of far-red fluorescent molecules,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12513–12525 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Parthasarathy, S. M. S. Kazmi, and A. K. Dunn, “Quantitative imaging of ischemic stroke through thinned skull in mice with Multi Exposure Speckle Imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(1), 246–259 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (7)

Y. B. Sirotin, E. M. C. Hillman, C. Bordier, and A. Das, “Spatiotemporal precision and hemodynamic mechanism of optical point spreads in alert primates,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(43), 18390–18395 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Craggs, G. Verschaffelt, S. K. Mandre, H. Thienpont, and I. Fischer, “Thermally controlled onset of spatially incoherent emission in a broad-area vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 555–562 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, B. L. Edlow, G. Q. Yu, R. Choe, M. N. Kim, B. L. Cucchiara, M. E. Putt, Q. Shah, S. E. Kasner, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Transcranial optical monitoring of cerebrovascular hemodynamics in acute stroke patients,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3884–3902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Luo, Z. Yuan, Y. Pan, and C. Du, “Simultaneous imaging of cortical hemodynamics and blood oxygenation change during cerebral ischemia using dual-wavelength laser speckle contrast imaging,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1480–1482 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Zakharov, A. C. Völker, M. T. Wyss, F. Haiss, N. Calcinaghi, C. Zunzunegui, A. Buck, F. Scheffold, and B. Weber, “Dynamic laser speckle imaging of cerebral blood flow,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13904–13917 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Bouchard, B. R. Chen, S. A. Burgess, and E. M. Hillman, “Ultra-fast multispectral optical imaging of cortical oxygenation, blood flow, and intracellular calcium dynamics,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15670–15678 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhou, S. A. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. H. Friess, R. N. Ichord, S. S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034015 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (7)

P. B. Jones, H. K. Shin, D. A. Boas, B. T. Hyman, M. A. Moskowitz, C. Ayata, and A. K. Dunn, “Simultaneous multispectral reflectance imaging and laser speckle flowmetry of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in focal cerebral ischemia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044007 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Watanabe, F. Homae, T. Nakano, and G. Taga, “Functional activation in diverse regions of the developing brain of human infants,” Neuroimage 43(2), 346–357 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. T. Lee, P. G. Lim, J. S. Harris, K. V. Shenoy, and S. J. Smith, “Low-frequency noise characterization of near-IR VCSELs for functional brain imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6852, 68422T, 68422T-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Foust, J. L. Schei, M. J. Rojas, and D. M. Rector, “In vitro and in vivo noise analysis for optical neural recording,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044038 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Parthasarathy, W. J. Tom, A. Gopal, X. J. Zhang, and A. K. Dunn, “Robust flow measurement with multi-exposure speckle imaging,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1975–1989 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Ramirez-San-Juan, R. Ramos-García, I. Guizar-Iturbide, G. Martínez-Niconoff, and B. Choi, “Impact of velocity distribution assumption on simplified laser speckle imaging equation,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3197–3203 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. D. Duncan and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Can laser speckle flowmetry be made a quantitative tool?” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25(8), 2088–2094 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

C. H. Chen-Bee, T. Agoncillo, Y. Xiong, and R. D. Frostig, “The triphasic intrinsic signal: implications for functional imaging,” J. Neurosci. 27(17), 4572–4586 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Hillman, “Optical brain imaging in vivo: techniques and applications from animal to man,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051402 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wolf, M. Ferrari, and V. Quaresima, “Progress of near-infrared spectroscopy and topography for brain and muscle clinical applications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 062104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hamaoka, K. K. McCully, V. Quaresima, K. Yamamoto, and B. Chance, “Near-infrared spectroscopy/imaging for monitoring muscle oxygenation and oxidative metabolism in healthy and diseased humans,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 062105 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

2001 (1)

J. D. Briers, “Laser Doppler, speckle and related techniques for blood perfusion mapping and imaging,” Physiol. Meas. 22(4), R35–R66 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

A. Grinvald, R. Siegel, E. Bartfeld, and R. D. Frostig, “High resolution optical imaging of functional architecture in the awake primate,” Soc. Neurosci. Abstracts 17, 1016 (1991).

1990 (1)

R. D. Frostig, E. E. Lieke, D. Y. Ts’o, and A. Grinvald, “Cortical functional architecture and local coupling between neuronal activity and the microcirculation revealed by in vivo high-resolution optical imaging of intrinsic signals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87(16), 6082–6086 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

A. Grinvald, E. Lieke, R. D. Frostig, C. D. Gilbert, and T. N. Wiesel, “Functional architecture of cortex revealed by optical imaging of intrinsic signals,” Nature 324(6095), 361–364 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976 (1)

Agoncillo, T.

C. H. Chen-Bee, T. Agoncillo, Y. Xiong, and R. D. Frostig, “The triphasic intrinsic signal: implications for functional imaging,” J. Neurosci. 27(17), 4572–4586 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andermann, M. L.

Andrews, M. K.

O. B. Thompson and M. K. Andrews, “Tissue perfusion measurements: multiple-exposure laser speckle analysis generates laser Doppler-like spectra,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 027015 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ayata, C.

P. B. Jones, H. K. Shin, D. A. Boas, B. T. Hyman, M. A. Moskowitz, C. Ayata, and A. K. Dunn, “Simultaneous multispectral reflectance imaging and laser speckle flowmetry of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in focal cerebral ischemia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044007 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartfeld, E.

A. Grinvald, R. Siegel, E. Bartfeld, and R. D. Frostig, “High resolution optical imaging of functional architecture in the awake primate,” Soc. Neurosci. Abstracts 17, 1016 (1991).

Boas, D. A.

D. A. Boas and A. K. Dunn, “Laser speckle contrast imaging in biomedical optics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 011109 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Jones, H. K. Shin, D. A. Boas, B. T. Hyman, M. A. Moskowitz, C. Ayata, and A. K. Dunn, “Simultaneous multispectral reflectance imaging and laser speckle flowmetry of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in focal cerebral ischemia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044007 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Dunn, A. Devor, H. Bolay, M. L. Andermann, M. A. Moskowitz, A. M. Dale, and D. A. Boas, “Simultaneous imaging of total cerebral hemoglobin concentration, oxygenation, and blood flow during functional activation,” Opt. Lett. 28(1), 28–30 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bolay, H.

Bordier, C.

Y. B. Sirotin, E. M. C. Hillman, C. Bordier, and A. Das, “Spatiotemporal precision and hemodynamic mechanism of optical point spreads in alert primates,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(43), 18390–18395 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouchard, M. B.

Briers, J. D.

J. D. Briers, “Laser Doppler, speckle and related techniques for blood perfusion mapping and imaging,” Physiol. Meas. 22(4), R35–R66 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buck, A.

Burgess, S. A.

Calcinaghi, N.

Chance, B.

T. Hamaoka, K. K. McCully, V. Quaresima, K. Yamamoto, and B. Chance, “Near-infrared spectroscopy/imaging for monitoring muscle oxygenation and oxidative metabolism in healthy and diseased humans,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 062105 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, B. R.

Chen-Bee, C. H.

C. H. Chen-Bee, T. Agoncillo, Y. Xiong, and R. D. Frostig, “The triphasic intrinsic signal: implications for functional imaging,” J. Neurosci. 27(17), 4572–4586 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choe, R.

Choi, B.

O. Yang, D. Cuccia, and B. Choi, “Real-time blood flow visualization using the graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 016009–016014 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Ramírez-San-Juan, Y. C. Huang, N. Salazar-Hermenegildo, R. Ramos-García, J. Muñoz-Lopez, and B. Choi, “Integration of image exposure time into a modified laser speckle imaging method,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(22), 6857–6866 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Ramirez-San-Juan, R. Ramos-García, I. Guizar-Iturbide, G. Martínez-Niconoff, and B. Choi, “Impact of velocity distribution assumption on simplified laser speckle imaging equation,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3197–3203 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conca, C.

Craggs, G.

G. Craggs, G. Verschaffelt, S. K. Mandre, H. Thienpont, and I. Fischer, “Thermally controlled onset of spatially incoherent emission in a broad-area vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 555–562 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cucchiara, B. L.

Cuccia, D.

O. Yang, D. Cuccia, and B. Choi, “Real-time blood flow visualization using the graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 016009–016014 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dale, A. M.

Das, A.

Y. B. Sirotin, E. M. C. Hillman, C. Bordier, and A. Das, “Spatiotemporal precision and hemodynamic mechanism of optical point spreads in alert primates,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(43), 18390–18395 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Detre, J. A.

Devor, A.

Du, C.

Duncan, D. D.

Dunn, A. K.

A. B. Parthasarathy, S. M. S. Kazmi, and A. K. Dunn, “Quantitative imaging of ischemic stroke through thinned skull in mice with Multi Exposure Speckle Imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(1), 246–259 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ponticorvo and A. K. Dunn, “How to build a Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging (LSCI) system to monitor blood flow,” J. Vis. Exp. 45(45), (2010), http://www.jove.com/details.stp?id=2004 .
[PubMed]

D. A. Boas and A. K. Dunn, “Laser speckle contrast imaging in biomedical optics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 011109 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Jones, H. K. Shin, D. A. Boas, B. T. Hyman, M. A. Moskowitz, C. Ayata, and A. K. Dunn, “Simultaneous multispectral reflectance imaging and laser speckle flowmetry of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in focal cerebral ischemia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044007 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Parthasarathy, W. J. Tom, A. Gopal, X. J. Zhang, and A. K. Dunn, “Robust flow measurement with multi-exposure speckle imaging,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1975–1989 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Dunn, A. Devor, H. Bolay, M. L. Andermann, M. A. Moskowitz, A. M. Dale, and D. A. Boas, “Simultaneous imaging of total cerebral hemoglobin concentration, oxygenation, and blood flow during functional activation,” Opt. Lett. 28(1), 28–30 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durduran, T.

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, B. L. Edlow, G. Q. Yu, R. Choe, M. N. Kim, B. L. Cucchiara, M. E. Putt, Q. Shah, S. E. Kasner, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Transcranial optical monitoring of cerebrovascular hemodynamics in acute stroke patients,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3884–3902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhou, S. A. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. H. Friess, R. N. Ichord, S. S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034015 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Edlow, B. L.

Eucker, S. A.

C. Zhou, S. A. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. H. Friess, R. N. Ichord, S. S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034015 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferrari, M.

M. Wolf, M. Ferrari, and V. Quaresima, “Progress of near-infrared spectroscopy and topography for brain and muscle clinical applications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 062104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, I.

G. Craggs, G. Verschaffelt, S. K. Mandre, H. Thienpont, and I. Fischer, “Thermally controlled onset of spatially incoherent emission in a broad-area vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 555–562 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Foust, A. J.

A. J. Foust, J. L. Schei, M. J. Rojas, and D. M. Rector, “In vitro and in vivo noise analysis for optical neural recording,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044038 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friess, S. H.

C. Zhou, S. A. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. H. Friess, R. N. Ichord, S. S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034015 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frostig, R. D.

C. H. Chen-Bee, T. Agoncillo, Y. Xiong, and R. D. Frostig, “The triphasic intrinsic signal: implications for functional imaging,” J. Neurosci. 27(17), 4572–4586 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Grinvald, R. Siegel, E. Bartfeld, and R. D. Frostig, “High resolution optical imaging of functional architecture in the awake primate,” Soc. Neurosci. Abstracts 17, 1016 (1991).

R. D. Frostig, E. E. Lieke, D. Y. Ts’o, and A. Grinvald, “Cortical functional architecture and local coupling between neuronal activity and the microcirculation revealed by in vivo high-resolution optical imaging of intrinsic signals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87(16), 6082–6086 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Grinvald, E. Lieke, R. D. Frostig, C. D. Gilbert, and T. N. Wiesel, “Functional architecture of cortex revealed by optical imaging of intrinsic signals,” Nature 324(6095), 361–364 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gambhir, S. S.

Gilbert, C. D.

A. Grinvald, E. Lieke, R. D. Frostig, C. D. Gilbert, and T. N. Wiesel, “Functional architecture of cortex revealed by optical imaging of intrinsic signals,” Nature 324(6095), 361–364 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goodman, J. W.

Gopal, A.

Gratton, E.

M. J. Rossow, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Scanning laser image correlation for measurement of flow,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026003 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greenberg, J. H.

Grinvald, A.

A. Grinvald, R. Siegel, E. Bartfeld, and R. D. Frostig, “High resolution optical imaging of functional architecture in the awake primate,” Soc. Neurosci. Abstracts 17, 1016 (1991).

R. D. Frostig, E. E. Lieke, D. Y. Ts’o, and A. Grinvald, “Cortical functional architecture and local coupling between neuronal activity and the microcirculation revealed by in vivo high-resolution optical imaging of intrinsic signals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87(16), 6082–6086 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Grinvald, E. Lieke, R. D. Frostig, C. D. Gilbert, and T. N. Wiesel, “Functional architecture of cortex revealed by optical imaging of intrinsic signals,” Nature 324(6095), 361–364 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guizar-Iturbide, I.

Haiss, F.

Hamaoka, T.

T. Hamaoka, K. K. McCully, V. Quaresima, K. Yamamoto, and B. Chance, “Near-infrared spectroscopy/imaging for monitoring muscle oxygenation and oxidative metabolism in healthy and diseased humans,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 062105 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, J. S.

T. O’Sullivan, E. A. Munro, N. Parashurama, C. Conca, S. S. Gambhir, J. S. Harris, and O. Levi, “Implantable semiconductor biosensor for continuous in vivo sensing of far-red fluorescent molecules,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12513–12525 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. T. Lee, P. G. Lim, J. S. Harris, K. V. Shenoy, and S. J. Smith, “Low-frequency noise characterization of near-IR VCSELs for functional brain imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6852, 68422T, 68422T-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hillman, E. M.

Hillman, E. M. C.

Y. B. Sirotin, E. M. C. Hillman, C. Bordier, and A. Das, “Spatiotemporal precision and hemodynamic mechanism of optical point spreads in alert primates,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(43), 18390–18395 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Homae, F.

H. Watanabe, F. Homae, T. Nakano, and G. Taga, “Functional activation in diverse regions of the developing brain of human infants,” Neuroimage 43(2), 346–357 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Y. C.

J. C. Ramírez-San-Juan, Y. C. Huang, N. Salazar-Hermenegildo, R. Ramos-García, J. Muñoz-Lopez, and B. Choi, “Integration of image exposure time into a modified laser speckle imaging method,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(22), 6857–6866 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hyman, B. T.

P. B. Jones, H. K. Shin, D. A. Boas, B. T. Hyman, M. A. Moskowitz, C. Ayata, and A. K. Dunn, “Simultaneous multispectral reflectance imaging and laser speckle flowmetry of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in focal cerebral ischemia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044007 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ichord, R. N.

C. Zhou, S. A. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. H. Friess, R. N. Ichord, S. S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034015 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, P. B.

P. B. Jones, H. K. Shin, D. A. Boas, B. T. Hyman, M. A. Moskowitz, C. Ayata, and A. K. Dunn, “Simultaneous multispectral reflectance imaging and laser speckle flowmetry of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in focal cerebral ischemia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044007 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kalatsky, V. A.

V. A. Kalatsky and M. P. Stryker, “New paradigm for optical imaging: temporally encoded maps of intrinsic signal,” Neuron 38(4), 529–545 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasner, S. E.

Kazmi, S. M. S.

Kim, M. N.

Kirkpatrick, S. J.

Lee, T. T.

T. T. Lee, P. G. Lim, J. S. Harris, K. V. Shenoy, and S. J. Smith, “Low-frequency noise characterization of near-IR VCSELs for functional brain imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6852, 68422T, 68422T-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Levi, O.

Lieke, E.

A. Grinvald, E. Lieke, R. D. Frostig, C. D. Gilbert, and T. N. Wiesel, “Functional architecture of cortex revealed by optical imaging of intrinsic signals,” Nature 324(6095), 361–364 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lieke, E. E.

R. D. Frostig, E. E. Lieke, D. Y. Ts’o, and A. Grinvald, “Cortical functional architecture and local coupling between neuronal activity and the microcirculation revealed by in vivo high-resolution optical imaging of intrinsic signals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87(16), 6082–6086 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, P. G.

T. T. Lee, P. G. Lim, J. S. Harris, K. V. Shenoy, and S. J. Smith, “Low-frequency noise characterization of near-IR VCSELs for functional brain imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6852, 68422T, 68422T-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Z.

Mandre, S. K.

G. Craggs, G. Verschaffelt, S. K. Mandre, H. Thienpont, and I. Fischer, “Thermally controlled onset of spatially incoherent emission in a broad-area vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 555–562 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mantulin, W. W.

M. J. Rossow, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Scanning laser image correlation for measurement of flow,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026003 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Margulies, S. S.

C. Zhou, S. A. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. H. Friess, R. N. Ichord, S. S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034015 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martínez-Niconoff, G.

McCully, K. K.

T. Hamaoka, K. K. McCully, V. Quaresima, K. Yamamoto, and B. Chance, “Near-infrared spectroscopy/imaging for monitoring muscle oxygenation and oxidative metabolism in healthy and diseased humans,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 062105 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moskowitz, M. A.

P. B. Jones, H. K. Shin, D. A. Boas, B. T. Hyman, M. A. Moskowitz, C. Ayata, and A. K. Dunn, “Simultaneous multispectral reflectance imaging and laser speckle flowmetry of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in focal cerebral ischemia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044007 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Dunn, A. Devor, H. Bolay, M. L. Andermann, M. A. Moskowitz, A. M. Dale, and D. A. Boas, “Simultaneous imaging of total cerebral hemoglobin concentration, oxygenation, and blood flow during functional activation,” Opt. Lett. 28(1), 28–30 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muñoz-Lopez, J.

J. C. Ramírez-San-Juan, Y. C. Huang, N. Salazar-Hermenegildo, R. Ramos-García, J. Muñoz-Lopez, and B. Choi, “Integration of image exposure time into a modified laser speckle imaging method,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(22), 6857–6866 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Munro, E. A.

Nakano, T.

H. Watanabe, F. Homae, T. Nakano, and G. Taga, “Functional activation in diverse regions of the developing brain of human infants,” Neuroimage 43(2), 346–357 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Sullivan, T.

Pan, Y.

Parashurama, N.

Parthasarathy, A. B.

Ponticorvo, A.

A. Ponticorvo and A. K. Dunn, “How to build a Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging (LSCI) system to monitor blood flow,” J. Vis. Exp. 45(45), (2010), http://www.jove.com/details.stp?id=2004 .
[PubMed]

Putt, M. E.

Quaresima, V.

T. Hamaoka, K. K. McCully, V. Quaresima, K. Yamamoto, and B. Chance, “Near-infrared spectroscopy/imaging for monitoring muscle oxygenation and oxidative metabolism in healthy and diseased humans,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 062105 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wolf, M. Ferrari, and V. Quaresima, “Progress of near-infrared spectroscopy and topography for brain and muscle clinical applications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 062104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ralston, J.

C. Zhou, S. A. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. H. Friess, R. N. Ichord, S. S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034015 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramirez-San-Juan, J. C.

Ramírez-San-Juan, J. C.

J. C. Ramírez-San-Juan, Y. C. Huang, N. Salazar-Hermenegildo, R. Ramos-García, J. Muñoz-Lopez, and B. Choi, “Integration of image exposure time into a modified laser speckle imaging method,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(22), 6857–6866 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramos-García, R.

J. C. Ramírez-San-Juan, Y. C. Huang, N. Salazar-Hermenegildo, R. Ramos-García, J. Muñoz-Lopez, and B. Choi, “Integration of image exposure time into a modified laser speckle imaging method,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(22), 6857–6866 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Ramirez-San-Juan, R. Ramos-García, I. Guizar-Iturbide, G. Martínez-Niconoff, and B. Choi, “Impact of velocity distribution assumption on simplified laser speckle imaging equation,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3197–3203 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rector, D. M.

A. J. Foust, J. L. Schei, M. J. Rojas, and D. M. Rector, “In vitro and in vivo noise analysis for optical neural recording,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044038 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rojas, M. J.

A. J. Foust, J. L. Schei, M. J. Rojas, and D. M. Rector, “In vitro and in vivo noise analysis for optical neural recording,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044038 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rossow, M. J.

M. J. Rossow, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Scanning laser image correlation for measurement of flow,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026003 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salazar-Hermenegildo, N.

J. C. Ramírez-San-Juan, Y. C. Huang, N. Salazar-Hermenegildo, R. Ramos-García, J. Muñoz-Lopez, and B. Choi, “Integration of image exposure time into a modified laser speckle imaging method,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(22), 6857–6866 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scheffold, F.

Schei, J. L.

A. J. Foust, J. L. Schei, M. J. Rojas, and D. M. Rector, “In vitro and in vivo noise analysis for optical neural recording,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044038 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shah, Q.

Shenoy, K. V.

T. T. Lee, P. G. Lim, J. S. Harris, K. V. Shenoy, and S. J. Smith, “Low-frequency noise characterization of near-IR VCSELs for functional brain imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6852, 68422T, 68422T-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shin, H. K.

P. B. Jones, H. K. Shin, D. A. Boas, B. T. Hyman, M. A. Moskowitz, C. Ayata, and A. K. Dunn, “Simultaneous multispectral reflectance imaging and laser speckle flowmetry of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in focal cerebral ischemia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044007 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siegel, R.

A. Grinvald, R. Siegel, E. Bartfeld, and R. D. Frostig, “High resolution optical imaging of functional architecture in the awake primate,” Soc. Neurosci. Abstracts 17, 1016 (1991).

Sirotin, Y. B.

Y. B. Sirotin, E. M. C. Hillman, C. Bordier, and A. Das, “Spatiotemporal precision and hemodynamic mechanism of optical point spreads in alert primates,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(43), 18390–18395 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, S. J.

T. T. Lee, P. G. Lim, J. S. Harris, K. V. Shenoy, and S. J. Smith, “Low-frequency noise characterization of near-IR VCSELs for functional brain imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6852, 68422T, 68422T-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stryker, M. P.

V. A. Kalatsky and M. P. Stryker, “New paradigm for optical imaging: temporally encoded maps of intrinsic signal,” Neuron 38(4), 529–545 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taga, G.

H. Watanabe, F. Homae, T. Nakano, and G. Taga, “Functional activation in diverse regions of the developing brain of human infants,” Neuroimage 43(2), 346–357 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thienpont, H.

G. Craggs, G. Verschaffelt, S. K. Mandre, H. Thienpont, and I. Fischer, “Thermally controlled onset of spatially incoherent emission in a broad-area vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 555–562 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, O. B.

O. B. Thompson and M. K. Andrews, “Tissue perfusion measurements: multiple-exposure laser speckle analysis generates laser Doppler-like spectra,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 027015 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tom, W. J.

Ts’o, D. Y.

R. D. Frostig, E. E. Lieke, D. Y. Ts’o, and A. Grinvald, “Cortical functional architecture and local coupling between neuronal activity and the microcirculation revealed by in vivo high-resolution optical imaging of intrinsic signals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87(16), 6082–6086 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verschaffelt, G.

G. Craggs, G. Verschaffelt, S. K. Mandre, H. Thienpont, and I. Fischer, “Thermally controlled onset of spatially incoherent emission in a broad-area vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 555–562 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Völker, A. C.

Watanabe, H.

H. Watanabe, F. Homae, T. Nakano, and G. Taga, “Functional activation in diverse regions of the developing brain of human infants,” Neuroimage 43(2), 346–357 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, B.

Wiesel, T. N.

A. Grinvald, E. Lieke, R. D. Frostig, C. D. Gilbert, and T. N. Wiesel, “Functional architecture of cortex revealed by optical imaging of intrinsic signals,” Nature 324(6095), 361–364 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, M.

M. Wolf, M. Ferrari, and V. Quaresima, “Progress of near-infrared spectroscopy and topography for brain and muscle clinical applications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 062104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wyss, M. T.

Xiong, Y.

C. H. Chen-Bee, T. Agoncillo, Y. Xiong, and R. D. Frostig, “The triphasic intrinsic signal: implications for functional imaging,” J. Neurosci. 27(17), 4572–4586 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, K.

T. Hamaoka, K. K. McCully, V. Quaresima, K. Yamamoto, and B. Chance, “Near-infrared spectroscopy/imaging for monitoring muscle oxygenation and oxidative metabolism in healthy and diseased humans,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 062105 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, O.

O. Yang, D. Cuccia, and B. Choi, “Real-time blood flow visualization using the graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 016009–016014 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yodh, A. G.

C. Zhou, S. A. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. H. Friess, R. N. Ichord, S. S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034015 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, B. L. Edlow, G. Q. Yu, R. Choe, M. N. Kim, B. L. Cucchiara, M. E. Putt, Q. Shah, S. E. Kasner, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Transcranial optical monitoring of cerebrovascular hemodynamics in acute stroke patients,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3884–3902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, G.

C. Zhou, S. A. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. H. Friess, R. N. Ichord, S. S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034015 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, G. Q.

Yuan, Z.

Zakharov, P.

Zhang, X. J.

Zhou, C.

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, B. L. Edlow, G. Q. Yu, R. Choe, M. N. Kim, B. L. Cucchiara, M. E. Putt, Q. Shah, S. E. Kasner, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Transcranial optical monitoring of cerebrovascular hemodynamics in acute stroke patients,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3884–3902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhou, S. A. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. H. Friess, R. N. Ichord, S. S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034015 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zunzunegui, C.

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. Craggs, G. Verschaffelt, S. K. Mandre, H. Thienpont, and I. Fischer, “Thermally controlled onset of spatially incoherent emission in a broad-area vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 555–562 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (10)

A. J. Foust, J. L. Schei, M. J. Rojas, and D. M. Rector, “In vitro and in vivo noise analysis for optical neural recording,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044038 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Rossow, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Scanning laser image correlation for measurement of flow,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026003 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. B. Thompson and M. K. Andrews, “Tissue perfusion measurements: multiple-exposure laser speckle analysis generates laser Doppler-like spectra,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 027015 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Hillman, “Optical brain imaging in vivo: techniques and applications from animal to man,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051402 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wolf, M. Ferrari, and V. Quaresima, “Progress of near-infrared spectroscopy and topography for brain and muscle clinical applications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 062104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hamaoka, K. K. McCully, V. Quaresima, K. Yamamoto, and B. Chance, “Near-infrared spectroscopy/imaging for monitoring muscle oxygenation and oxidative metabolism in healthy and diseased humans,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 062105 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Boas and A. K. Dunn, “Laser speckle contrast imaging in biomedical optics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 011109 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Yang, D. Cuccia, and B. Choi, “Real-time blood flow visualization using the graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 016009–016014 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhou, S. A. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. H. Friess, R. N. Ichord, S. S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034015 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Jones, H. K. Shin, D. A. Boas, B. T. Hyman, M. A. Moskowitz, C. Ayata, and A. K. Dunn, “Simultaneous multispectral reflectance imaging and laser speckle flowmetry of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in focal cerebral ischemia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044007 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurosci. (1)

C. H. Chen-Bee, T. Agoncillo, Y. Xiong, and R. D. Frostig, “The triphasic intrinsic signal: implications for functional imaging,” J. Neurosci. 27(17), 4572–4586 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Vis. Exp. (1)

A. Ponticorvo and A. K. Dunn, “How to build a Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging (LSCI) system to monitor blood flow,” J. Vis. Exp. 45(45), (2010), http://www.jove.com/details.stp?id=2004 .
[PubMed]

Nature (1)

A. Grinvald, E. Lieke, R. D. Frostig, C. D. Gilbert, and T. N. Wiesel, “Functional architecture of cortex revealed by optical imaging of intrinsic signals,” Nature 324(6095), 361–364 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neuroimage (1)

H. Watanabe, F. Homae, T. Nakano, and G. Taga, “Functional activation in diverse regions of the developing brain of human infants,” Neuroimage 43(2), 346–357 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neuron (1)

V. A. Kalatsky and M. P. Stryker, “New paradigm for optical imaging: temporally encoded maps of intrinsic signal,” Neuron 38(4), 529–545 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (6)

A. B. Parthasarathy, W. J. Tom, A. Gopal, X. J. Zhang, and A. K. Dunn, “Robust flow measurement with multi-exposure speckle imaging,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1975–1989 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Ramirez-San-Juan, R. Ramos-García, I. Guizar-Iturbide, G. Martínez-Niconoff, and B. Choi, “Impact of velocity distribution assumption on simplified laser speckle imaging equation,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3197–3203 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, B. L. Edlow, G. Q. Yu, R. Choe, M. N. Kim, B. L. Cucchiara, M. E. Putt, Q. Shah, S. E. Kasner, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Transcranial optical monitoring of cerebrovascular hemodynamics in acute stroke patients,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3884–3902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Zakharov, A. C. Völker, M. T. Wyss, F. Haiss, N. Calcinaghi, C. Zunzunegui, A. Buck, F. Scheffold, and B. Weber, “Dynamic laser speckle imaging of cerebral blood flow,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13904–13917 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Bouchard, B. R. Chen, S. A. Burgess, and E. M. Hillman, “Ultra-fast multispectral optical imaging of cortical oxygenation, blood flow, and intracellular calcium dynamics,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15670–15678 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. O’Sullivan, E. A. Munro, N. Parashurama, C. Conca, S. S. Gambhir, J. S. Harris, and O. Levi, “Implantable semiconductor biosensor for continuous in vivo sensing of far-red fluorescent molecules,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12513–12525 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

J. C. Ramírez-San-Juan, Y. C. Huang, N. Salazar-Hermenegildo, R. Ramos-García, J. Muñoz-Lopez, and B. Choi, “Integration of image exposure time into a modified laser speckle imaging method,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(22), 6857–6866 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Physiol. Meas. (1)

J. D. Briers, “Laser Doppler, speckle and related techniques for blood perfusion mapping and imaging,” Physiol. Meas. 22(4), R35–R66 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2)

R. D. Frostig, E. E. Lieke, D. Y. Ts’o, and A. Grinvald, “Cortical functional architecture and local coupling between neuronal activity and the microcirculation revealed by in vivo high-resolution optical imaging of intrinsic signals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87(16), 6082–6086 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. B. Sirotin, E. M. C. Hillman, C. Bordier, and A. Das, “Spatiotemporal precision and hemodynamic mechanism of optical point spreads in alert primates,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(43), 18390–18395 (2009).
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Proc. SPIE (1)

T. T. Lee, P. G. Lim, J. S. Harris, K. V. Shenoy, and S. J. Smith, “Low-frequency noise characterization of near-IR VCSELs for functional brain imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6852, 68422T, 68422T-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Soc. Neurosci. Abstracts (1)

A. Grinvald, R. Siegel, E. Bartfeld, and R. D. Frostig, “High resolution optical imaging of functional architecture in the awake primate,” Soc. Neurosci. Abstracts 17, 1016 (1991).

Other (3)

E. Gratton, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, and M. Wolf, “Detection of brain activity by near-infrared light,” in Biomedical Optical Imaging, J. G. Fujimoto and D. Farkas, eds. (Oxford University Press, New York, 2009), p. 356.

R. Michalzik and K. J. Ebeling, “Operating principles of VCSELs,” in Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser Devices, H. Li and K. Iga, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2003), pp. 53–98.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics, 2nd ed., Wiley Series in Pure and Applied Optics (Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, 2007).

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