Abstract

We report the fabrication and characterization of a cylindrically symmetric fiber structure that possesses significant and thermodynamically stable second-order nonlinearity. Such fiber structure is produced through nanoscale self-assembly of nonlinear molecules on a silica fiber taper and possesses full rotational symmetry. Despite its highly symmetric configuration, we observed significant second harmonic generation (SHG) and obtained good agreement between experimental results and theoretical predictions.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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2010 (3)

B. Brochers, J. Bekesi, P. Simon, and J. Ihlemann, “Submicron surface patterning by laser ablation with short UV pulses using a proximity phase mask setup,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 063106(1)-063106(4) (2010).

A. Rastogi, M. Y. Paik, M. Tanaka, and C. K. Ober, “Direct patterning of intrinsically electron beam sensitive polymer brushes,” ACS Nano 4(2), 771–780 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Wiedemann, K. Karapetyan, C. Dan, D. Pritzkau, W. Alt, S. Irsen, and D. Meschede, “Measurement of submicrometre diameters of tapered optical fibres using harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7693–7704 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (4)

V. Tombelaine, C. Buy-Lesvigne, P. Leproux, V. Couderc, and G. Mélin, “Optical poling in germanium-doped microstructured optical fiber for visible supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Lett. 33(17), 2011–2013 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Cho, D. H. Choi, P. A. Sullivan, A. J. P. Akelaitis, and L. R. Dalton, “Recent progress in second-order nonlinear optical polymer and dendrimers,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 33(11), 1013–1058 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C.-A. Tsai, J. N. Wang, V. Chao-Wei-Kuo, T. Y. Cheng, W.-R. Liou, and A. Y. Wu, “Enhancement of SHG in fused SiO2 by corona poling under water, water vapor and salty environments,” J. Mar. Sci. Technol. 16, 90–102 (2008).

Y. Xu, M. Han, A. Wang, Z. Liu, and J. R. Heflin, “Second order parametric processes in nonlinear silica microspheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(16), 163905 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (6)

S. Xue, M. van Eijkelenborg, G. W. Barton, and P. Hambley, “Theoretical, numerical, and experimental analysis of optical fiber tapering,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(5), 1169–1176 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhai and L. Tong, “Roughness-induced radiation losses in optical micro or nanofibers,” Opt. Express 15(21), 13805–13816 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Xu, A. Wang, J. R. Heflin, and Z. Liu, “Proposal and analysis of a silica fiber with large thermodynamically stable second order nonlinearity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 211110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Grubsky and J. Feinberg, “Phase-matched third-harmonic UV generation using low-order modes in a glass micro-fiber,” Opt. Commun. 274(2), 447–450 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Canagasabey, C. Corbari, Z. Zhang, P. G. Kazansky, and M. Ibsen, “Broadly tunable second-harmonic generation in periodically poled silica fibers,” Opt. Lett. 32(13), 1863–1865 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Xiao, Q. Liu, G. Dong, and X. Zhao, “Second-order optical nonlinearity in Sb2S3 microcrystal doped glasses by electron beam irradiation,” Opt. Commun. 274(2), 456–460 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

A. L. Moura, M. T. de Araujo, M. V. D. Vermelho, and J. S. Aitchison, “Improved stability of the induced second-order nonlinearity in soft glass by thermal poling,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(3), 033509 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. An and S. Fleming, “Second-order optical nonlinearity in thermally poled borosilicate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181111(1)-181111(3) (2006).

J. R. Heflin, M. T. Guzy, P. J. Neyman, K. J. Gaskins, C. Brands, Z. Wang, H. W. Gibson, R. M. Davis, and K. E. Van Cott, “Efficient, thermally stable, second order nonlinear optical response in organic hybrid covalent/ionic self-assembled films,” Langmuir 22(13), 5723–5727 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

F. Pan, P. Wang, K. Lee, A. Wu, N. J. Turro, and J. T. Koberstein, “Photochemical modification and patterning of polymer surfaces by surface adsorption of photoactive block copolymers,” Langmuir 21(8), 3605–3612 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Corbari, P. G. Kazasky, S. A. Slattery, and N. Nikogosyan, “Ultraviolet poling of pure fused silica by high-intensity femtosecond radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071106(1)-071106 (3) (2005).

2003 (2)

M. K. Balakirev, V. A. Smirnov, and L. I. Vostrikova, “Photorefractive effect on all optical polling of glass,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 5(6), S437–S443 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Akimov, A. A. Ivanov, A. N. Naumov, O. A. Kolevatova, M. V. Alfimov, T. A. Brisk, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, A. A. Podshivalov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Generation of a spectrally asymmetric third harmonic with unamplified 30-fs Cr:forsterite laser pulses in a tapered fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 515–519 (2003).

2002 (1)

K. Van Cott, M. Guzy, P. Neyman, C. Brands, J. R. Heflin, H. W. Gibson, and R. M. Davis, “P, Neyman, C. Brands, J. R. Heflin, H. W. Gibson, and R. M. Davis, “Layer-by-layer deposition and ordering of low-molecular-weight dye molecules for second order nonlinear optics,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 41(17), 3236–3238 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

Y. Jiang, P. T. Wilson, M. Downer, C. W. White, and S. P. Withrow, “Second harmonic generation from silicon nanocrystals embedded in SiO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(6), 766–768 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yamamoto, H. Nasu, T. Hashimoto, and K. Kamiya, “Second harmonic generation from thermally poled CdS microcrystal-containing glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 281(1-3), 198–204 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. P. Antonyuk, N. N. Novikova, N. V. Didenko, and O. A. Aktsipetrov, “All optical poling and second harmonic generation in glasses: theory and experiment,” Phys. Lett. A 287(1-2), 161–168 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1997 (2)

T. Fujiwara, M. Takahashi, and A. J. Ikushima, “Second-harmonic generation in germanosilicate glass poled with ArF laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(8), 1032–1034 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujiwara, M. Takahashi, and A. J. Ikushima, “Decay behaviour of second-order nonlinearity in GeO2-SiO2 glass poled with UV-irradiation,” Electron. Lett. 33(11), 980–982 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

H. Imai, S. Horinouchi, Y. Uchida, H. Yamasaki, K. Fukao, G. Zhang, T. Kinoshita, K. Mito, H. Hirashima, and K. Sasaki, “Time-dependent decay of quadratic non-linearity in corona-poled silicate glass films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 196, 63–66 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Horinouchi, H. Imai, G. J. Zhang, K. Mito, and K. Sasaki, “Optical quadratic nonlinearity in multilayer corona-poled glass films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(25), 3552–3554 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

A. Okada, K. Ishii, K. Mito, and K. Sasaki, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in novel corona poled glass waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(23), 2853–2855 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, “The shape of fiber tapers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(4), 432–438 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1988 (1)

1980 (1)

Aitchison, J. S.

A. L. Moura, M. T. de Araujo, M. V. D. Vermelho, and J. S. Aitchison, “Improved stability of the induced second-order nonlinearity in soft glass by thermal poling,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(3), 033509 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Akelaitis, A. J. P.

M. J. Cho, D. H. Choi, P. A. Sullivan, A. J. P. Akelaitis, and L. R. Dalton, “Recent progress in second-order nonlinear optical polymer and dendrimers,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 33(11), 1013–1058 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Akimov, D. A.

D. A. Akimov, A. A. Ivanov, A. N. Naumov, O. A. Kolevatova, M. V. Alfimov, T. A. Brisk, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, A. A. Podshivalov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Generation of a spectrally asymmetric third harmonic with unamplified 30-fs Cr:forsterite laser pulses in a tapered fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 515–519 (2003).

Aktsipetrov, O. A.

B. P. Antonyuk, N. N. Novikova, N. V. Didenko, and O. A. Aktsipetrov, “All optical poling and second harmonic generation in glasses: theory and experiment,” Phys. Lett. A 287(1-2), 161–168 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Alfimov, M. V.

D. A. Akimov, A. A. Ivanov, A. N. Naumov, O. A. Kolevatova, M. V. Alfimov, T. A. Brisk, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, A. A. Podshivalov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Generation of a spectrally asymmetric third harmonic with unamplified 30-fs Cr:forsterite laser pulses in a tapered fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 515–519 (2003).

Alt, W.

An, H.

H. An and S. Fleming, “Second-order optical nonlinearity in thermally poled borosilicate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181111(1)-181111(3) (2006).

Andrejco, M. J.

Antonyuk, B. P.

B. P. Antonyuk, N. N. Novikova, N. V. Didenko, and O. A. Aktsipetrov, “All optical poling and second harmonic generation in glasses: theory and experiment,” Phys. Lett. A 287(1-2), 161–168 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Balakirev, M. K.

M. K. Balakirev, V. A. Smirnov, and L. I. Vostrikova, “Photorefractive effect on all optical polling of glass,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 5(6), S437–S443 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barton, G. W.

Bekesi, J.

B. Brochers, J. Bekesi, P. Simon, and J. Ihlemann, “Submicron surface patterning by laser ablation with short UV pulses using a proximity phase mask setup,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 063106(1)-063106(4) (2010).

Birks, T. A.

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, “The shape of fiber tapers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(4), 432–438 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bonfrate, G.

Brands, C.

J. R. Heflin, M. T. Guzy, P. J. Neyman, K. J. Gaskins, C. Brands, Z. Wang, H. W. Gibson, R. M. Davis, and K. E. Van Cott, “Efficient, thermally stable, second order nonlinear optical response in organic hybrid covalent/ionic self-assembled films,” Langmuir 22(13), 5723–5727 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Van Cott, M. Guzy, P. Neyman, C. Brands, J. R. Heflin, H. W. Gibson, and R. M. Davis, “P, Neyman, C. Brands, J. R. Heflin, H. W. Gibson, and R. M. Davis, “Layer-by-layer deposition and ordering of low-molecular-weight dye molecules for second order nonlinear optics,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 41(17), 3236–3238 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brisk, T. A.

D. A. Akimov, A. A. Ivanov, A. N. Naumov, O. A. Kolevatova, M. V. Alfimov, T. A. Brisk, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, A. A. Podshivalov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Generation of a spectrally asymmetric third harmonic with unamplified 30-fs Cr:forsterite laser pulses in a tapered fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 515–519 (2003).

Brochers, B.

B. Brochers, J. Bekesi, P. Simon, and J. Ihlemann, “Submicron surface patterning by laser ablation with short UV pulses using a proximity phase mask setup,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 063106(1)-063106(4) (2010).

Broderick, N. G.

Brueck, S. R. J.

Buy-Lesvigne, C.

Canagasabey, A.

Chao-Wei-Kuo, V.

C.-A. Tsai, J. N. Wang, V. Chao-Wei-Kuo, T. Y. Cheng, W.-R. Liou, and A. Y. Wu, “Enhancement of SHG in fused SiO2 by corona poling under water, water vapor and salty environments,” J. Mar. Sci. Technol. 16, 90–102 (2008).

Cheng, T. Y.

C.-A. Tsai, J. N. Wang, V. Chao-Wei-Kuo, T. Y. Cheng, W.-R. Liou, and A. Y. Wu, “Enhancement of SHG in fused SiO2 by corona poling under water, water vapor and salty environments,” J. Mar. Sci. Technol. 16, 90–102 (2008).

Cho, M. J.

M. J. Cho, D. H. Choi, P. A. Sullivan, A. J. P. Akelaitis, and L. R. Dalton, “Recent progress in second-order nonlinear optical polymer and dendrimers,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 33(11), 1013–1058 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Choi, D. H.

M. J. Cho, D. H. Choi, P. A. Sullivan, A. J. P. Akelaitis, and L. R. Dalton, “Recent progress in second-order nonlinear optical polymer and dendrimers,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 33(11), 1013–1058 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Corbari, C.

Couderc, V.

Dalton, L. R.

M. J. Cho, D. H. Choi, P. A. Sullivan, A. J. P. Akelaitis, and L. R. Dalton, “Recent progress in second-order nonlinear optical polymer and dendrimers,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 33(11), 1013–1058 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dan, C.

Davis, R. M.

J. R. Heflin, M. T. Guzy, P. J. Neyman, K. J. Gaskins, C. Brands, Z. Wang, H. W. Gibson, R. M. Davis, and K. E. Van Cott, “Efficient, thermally stable, second order nonlinear optical response in organic hybrid covalent/ionic self-assembled films,” Langmuir 22(13), 5723–5727 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Van Cott, M. Guzy, P. Neyman, C. Brands, J. R. Heflin, H. W. Gibson, and R. M. Davis, “P, Neyman, C. Brands, J. R. Heflin, H. W. Gibson, and R. M. Davis, “Layer-by-layer deposition and ordering of low-molecular-weight dye molecules for second order nonlinear optics,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 41(17), 3236–3238 (2002).
[CrossRef]

de Araujo, M. T.

A. L. Moura, M. T. de Araujo, M. V. D. Vermelho, and J. S. Aitchison, “Improved stability of the induced second-order nonlinearity in soft glass by thermal poling,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(3), 033509 (2006).
[CrossRef]

de Sandro, J. P.

Dianov, E. M.

Didenko, N. V.

B. P. Antonyuk, N. N. Novikova, N. V. Didenko, and O. A. Aktsipetrov, “All optical poling and second harmonic generation in glasses: theory and experiment,” Phys. Lett. A 287(1-2), 161–168 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dong, G.

X. Xiao, Q. Liu, G. Dong, and X. Zhao, “Second-order optical nonlinearity in Sb2S3 microcrystal doped glasses by electron beam irradiation,” Opt. Commun. 274(2), 456–460 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Downer, M.

Y. Jiang, P. T. Wilson, M. Downer, C. W. White, and S. P. Withrow, “Second harmonic generation from silicon nanocrystals embedded in SiO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(6), 766–768 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Feinberg, J.

V. Grubsky and J. Feinberg, “Phase-matched third-harmonic UV generation using low-order modes in a glass micro-fiber,” Opt. Commun. 274(2), 447–450 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, S.

H. An and S. Fleming, “Second-order optical nonlinearity in thermally poled borosilicate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181111(1)-181111(3) (2006).

Fujii, Y.

Fujiwara, T.

T. Fujiwara, M. Takahashi, and A. J. Ikushima, “Decay behaviour of second-order nonlinearity in GeO2-SiO2 glass poled with UV-irradiation,” Electron. Lett. 33(11), 980–982 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujiwara, M. Takahashi, and A. J. Ikushima, “Second-harmonic generation in germanosilicate glass poled with ArF laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(8), 1032–1034 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fukao, K.

H. Imai, S. Horinouchi, Y. Uchida, H. Yamasaki, K. Fukao, G. Zhang, T. Kinoshita, K. Mito, H. Hirashima, and K. Sasaki, “Time-dependent decay of quadratic non-linearity in corona-poled silicate glass films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 196, 63–66 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gaskins, K. J.

J. R. Heflin, M. T. Guzy, P. J. Neyman, K. J. Gaskins, C. Brands, Z. Wang, H. W. Gibson, R. M. Davis, and K. E. Van Cott, “Efficient, thermally stable, second order nonlinear optical response in organic hybrid covalent/ionic self-assembled films,” Langmuir 22(13), 5723–5727 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibson, H. W.

J. R. Heflin, M. T. Guzy, P. J. Neyman, K. J. Gaskins, C. Brands, Z. Wang, H. W. Gibson, R. M. Davis, and K. E. Van Cott, “Efficient, thermally stable, second order nonlinear optical response in organic hybrid covalent/ionic self-assembled films,” Langmuir 22(13), 5723–5727 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Van Cott, M. Guzy, P. Neyman, C. Brands, J. R. Heflin, H. W. Gibson, and R. M. Davis, “P, Neyman, C. Brands, J. R. Heflin, H. W. Gibson, and R. M. Davis, “Layer-by-layer deposition and ordering of low-molecular-weight dye molecules for second order nonlinear optics,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 41(17), 3236–3238 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Grubsky, V.

V. Grubsky and J. Feinberg, “Phase-matched third-harmonic UV generation using low-order modes in a glass micro-fiber,” Opt. Commun. 274(2), 447–450 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guillemet, S.

Guzy, M.

K. Van Cott, M. Guzy, P. Neyman, C. Brands, J. R. Heflin, H. W. Gibson, and R. M. Davis, “P, Neyman, C. Brands, J. R. Heflin, H. W. Gibson, and R. M. Davis, “Layer-by-layer deposition and ordering of low-molecular-weight dye molecules for second order nonlinear optics,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 41(17), 3236–3238 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Guzy, M. T.

J. R. Heflin, M. T. Guzy, P. J. Neyman, K. J. Gaskins, C. Brands, Z. Wang, H. W. Gibson, R. M. Davis, and K. E. Van Cott, “Efficient, thermally stable, second order nonlinear optical response in organic hybrid covalent/ionic self-assembled films,” Langmuir 22(13), 5723–5727 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hambley, P.

Han, M.

Y. Xu, M. Han, A. Wang, Z. Liu, and J. R. Heflin, “Second order parametric processes in nonlinear silica microspheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(16), 163905 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hashimoto, T.

Y. Yamamoto, H. Nasu, T. Hashimoto, and K. Kamiya, “Second harmonic generation from thermally poled CdS microcrystal-containing glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 281(1-3), 198–204 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Heflin, J. R.

Y. Xu, M. Han, A. Wang, Z. Liu, and J. R. Heflin, “Second order parametric processes in nonlinear silica microspheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(16), 163905 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Xu, A. Wang, J. R. Heflin, and Z. Liu, “Proposal and analysis of a silica fiber with large thermodynamically stable second order nonlinearity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 211110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Heflin, M. T. Guzy, P. J. Neyman, K. J. Gaskins, C. Brands, Z. Wang, H. W. Gibson, R. M. Davis, and K. E. Van Cott, “Efficient, thermally stable, second order nonlinear optical response in organic hybrid covalent/ionic self-assembled films,” Langmuir 22(13), 5723–5727 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Van Cott, M. Guzy, P. Neyman, C. Brands, J. R. Heflin, H. W. Gibson, and R. M. Davis, “P, Neyman, C. Brands, J. R. Heflin, H. W. Gibson, and R. M. Davis, “Layer-by-layer deposition and ordering of low-molecular-weight dye molecules for second order nonlinear optics,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 41(17), 3236–3238 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hernandez, Y.

Hill, K. O.

Hirashima, H.

H. Imai, S. Horinouchi, Y. Uchida, H. Yamasaki, K. Fukao, G. Zhang, T. Kinoshita, K. Mito, H. Hirashima, and K. Sasaki, “Time-dependent decay of quadratic non-linearity in corona-poled silicate glass films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 196, 63–66 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Horinouchi, S.

H. Imai, S. Horinouchi, Y. Uchida, H. Yamasaki, K. Fukao, G. Zhang, T. Kinoshita, K. Mito, H. Hirashima, and K. Sasaki, “Time-dependent decay of quadratic non-linearity in corona-poled silicate glass films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 196, 63–66 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Horinouchi, H. Imai, G. J. Zhang, K. Mito, and K. Sasaki, “Optical quadratic nonlinearity in multilayer corona-poled glass films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(25), 3552–3554 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ibsen, M.

Ihlemann, J.

B. Brochers, J. Bekesi, P. Simon, and J. Ihlemann, “Submicron surface patterning by laser ablation with short UV pulses using a proximity phase mask setup,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 063106(1)-063106(4) (2010).

Ikushima, A. J.

T. Fujiwara, M. Takahashi, and A. J. Ikushima, “Second-harmonic generation in germanosilicate glass poled with ArF laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(8), 1032–1034 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujiwara, M. Takahashi, and A. J. Ikushima, “Decay behaviour of second-order nonlinearity in GeO2-SiO2 glass poled with UV-irradiation,” Electron. Lett. 33(11), 980–982 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Imai, H.

H. Imai, S. Horinouchi, Y. Uchida, H. Yamasaki, K. Fukao, G. Zhang, T. Kinoshita, K. Mito, H. Hirashima, and K. Sasaki, “Time-dependent decay of quadratic non-linearity in corona-poled silicate glass films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 196, 63–66 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Horinouchi, H. Imai, G. J. Zhang, K. Mito, and K. Sasaki, “Optical quadratic nonlinearity in multilayer corona-poled glass films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(25), 3552–3554 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Irsen, S.

Ishii, K.

A. Okada, K. Ishii, K. Mito, and K. Sasaki, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in novel corona poled glass waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(23), 2853–2855 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, A. A.

D. A. Akimov, A. A. Ivanov, A. N. Naumov, O. A. Kolevatova, M. V. Alfimov, T. A. Brisk, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, A. A. Podshivalov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Generation of a spectrally asymmetric third harmonic with unamplified 30-fs Cr:forsterite laser pulses in a tapered fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 515–519 (2003).

Jiang, Y.

Y. Jiang, P. T. Wilson, M. Downer, C. W. White, and S. P. Withrow, “Second harmonic generation from silicon nanocrystals embedded in SiO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(6), 766–768 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, D. C.

Kamiya, K.

Y. Yamamoto, H. Nasu, T. Hashimoto, and K. Kamiya, “Second harmonic generation from thermally poled CdS microcrystal-containing glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 281(1-3), 198–204 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Karapetyan, K.

Kawasaki, B. S.

Kazansky, P. G.

Kazasky, P. G.

C. Corbari, P. G. Kazasky, S. A. Slattery, and N. Nikogosyan, “Ultraviolet poling of pure fused silica by high-intensity femtosecond radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071106(1)-071106 (3) (2005).

Kinoshita, T.

H. Imai, S. Horinouchi, Y. Uchida, H. Yamasaki, K. Fukao, G. Zhang, T. Kinoshita, K. Mito, H. Hirashima, and K. Sasaki, “Time-dependent decay of quadratic non-linearity in corona-poled silicate glass films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 196, 63–66 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Koberstein, J. T.

F. Pan, P. Wang, K. Lee, A. Wu, N. J. Turro, and J. T. Koberstein, “Photochemical modification and patterning of polymer surfaces by surface adsorption of photoactive block copolymers,” Langmuir 21(8), 3605–3612 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kolevatova, O. A.

D. A. Akimov, A. A. Ivanov, A. N. Naumov, O. A. Kolevatova, M. V. Alfimov, T. A. Brisk, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, A. A. Podshivalov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Generation of a spectrally asymmetric third harmonic with unamplified 30-fs Cr:forsterite laser pulses in a tapered fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 515–519 (2003).

Kosolapov, A.

Lee, K.

F. Pan, P. Wang, K. Lee, A. Wu, N. J. Turro, and J. T. Koberstein, “Photochemical modification and patterning of polymer surfaces by surface adsorption of photoactive block copolymers,” Langmuir 21(8), 3605–3612 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leproux, P.

Levenson, J. A.

Li, Y. W.

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, “The shape of fiber tapers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(4), 432–438 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Liegeois, F.

Liou, W.-R.

C.-A. Tsai, J. N. Wang, V. Chao-Wei-Kuo, T. Y. Cheng, W.-R. Liou, and A. Y. Wu, “Enhancement of SHG in fused SiO2 by corona poling under water, water vapor and salty environments,” J. Mar. Sci. Technol. 16, 90–102 (2008).

Liu, Q.

X. Xiao, Q. Liu, G. Dong, and X. Zhao, “Second-order optical nonlinearity in Sb2S3 microcrystal doped glasses by electron beam irradiation,” Opt. Commun. 274(2), 456–460 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

Y. Xu, M. Han, A. Wang, Z. Liu, and J. R. Heflin, “Second order parametric processes in nonlinear silica microspheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(16), 163905 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Xu, A. Wang, J. R. Heflin, and Z. Liu, “Proposal and analysis of a silica fiber with large thermodynamically stable second order nonlinearity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 211110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mélin, G.

Meschede, D.

Mito, K.

S. Horinouchi, H. Imai, G. J. Zhang, K. Mito, and K. Sasaki, “Optical quadratic nonlinearity in multilayer corona-poled glass films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(25), 3552–3554 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Imai, S. Horinouchi, Y. Uchida, H. Yamasaki, K. Fukao, G. Zhang, T. Kinoshita, K. Mito, H. Hirashima, and K. Sasaki, “Time-dependent decay of quadratic non-linearity in corona-poled silicate glass films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 196, 63–66 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Okada, K. Ishii, K. Mito, and K. Sasaki, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in novel corona poled glass waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(23), 2853–2855 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Moura, A. L.

A. L. Moura, M. T. de Araujo, M. V. D. Vermelho, and J. S. Aitchison, “Improved stability of the induced second-order nonlinearity in soft glass by thermal poling,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(3), 033509 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, N.

Myers, R. A.

Nasu, H.

Y. Yamamoto, H. Nasu, T. Hashimoto, and K. Kamiya, “Second harmonic generation from thermally poled CdS microcrystal-containing glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 281(1-3), 198–204 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Naumov, A. N.

D. A. Akimov, A. A. Ivanov, A. N. Naumov, O. A. Kolevatova, M. V. Alfimov, T. A. Brisk, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, A. A. Podshivalov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Generation of a spectrally asymmetric third harmonic with unamplified 30-fs Cr:forsterite laser pulses in a tapered fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 515–519 (2003).

Neyman, P.

K. Van Cott, M. Guzy, P. Neyman, C. Brands, J. R. Heflin, H. W. Gibson, and R. M. Davis, “P, Neyman, C. Brands, J. R. Heflin, H. W. Gibson, and R. M. Davis, “Layer-by-layer deposition and ordering of low-molecular-weight dye molecules for second order nonlinear optics,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 41(17), 3236–3238 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Neyman, P. J.

J. R. Heflin, M. T. Guzy, P. J. Neyman, K. J. Gaskins, C. Brands, Z. Wang, H. W. Gibson, R. M. Davis, and K. E. Van Cott, “Efficient, thermally stable, second order nonlinear optical response in organic hybrid covalent/ionic self-assembled films,” Langmuir 22(13), 5723–5727 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nikogosyan, N.

C. Corbari, P. G. Kazasky, S. A. Slattery, and N. Nikogosyan, “Ultraviolet poling of pure fused silica by high-intensity femtosecond radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071106(1)-071106 (3) (2005).

Novikova, N. N.

B. P. Antonyuk, N. N. Novikova, N. V. Didenko, and O. A. Aktsipetrov, “All optical poling and second harmonic generation in glasses: theory and experiment,” Phys. Lett. A 287(1-2), 161–168 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ober, C. K.

A. Rastogi, M. Y. Paik, M. Tanaka, and C. K. Ober, “Direct patterning of intrinsically electron beam sensitive polymer brushes,” ACS Nano 4(2), 771–780 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okada, A.

A. Okada, K. Ishii, K. Mito, and K. Sasaki, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in novel corona poled glass waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(23), 2853–2855 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Paik, M. Y.

A. Rastogi, M. Y. Paik, M. Tanaka, and C. K. Ober, “Direct patterning of intrinsically electron beam sensitive polymer brushes,” ACS Nano 4(2), 771–780 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, F.

F. Pan, P. Wang, K. Lee, A. Wu, N. J. Turro, and J. T. Koberstein, “Photochemical modification and patterning of polymer surfaces by surface adsorption of photoactive block copolymers,” Langmuir 21(8), 3605–3612 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Podshivalov, A. A.

D. A. Akimov, A. A. Ivanov, A. N. Naumov, O. A. Kolevatova, M. V. Alfimov, T. A. Brisk, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, A. A. Podshivalov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Generation of a spectrally asymmetric third harmonic with unamplified 30-fs Cr:forsterite laser pulses in a tapered fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 515–519 (2003).

Pritzkau, D.

Pruneri, V.

Rastogi, A.

A. Rastogi, M. Y. Paik, M. Tanaka, and C. K. Ober, “Direct patterning of intrinsically electron beam sensitive polymer brushes,” ACS Nano 4(2), 771–780 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richardson, D. J.

Russell, P. St. J.

D. A. Akimov, A. A. Ivanov, A. N. Naumov, O. A. Kolevatova, M. V. Alfimov, T. A. Brisk, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, A. A. Podshivalov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Generation of a spectrally asymmetric third harmonic with unamplified 30-fs Cr:forsterite laser pulses in a tapered fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 515–519 (2003).

Saifi, M. A.

Sasaki, K.

H. Imai, S. Horinouchi, Y. Uchida, H. Yamasaki, K. Fukao, G. Zhang, T. Kinoshita, K. Mito, H. Hirashima, and K. Sasaki, “Time-dependent decay of quadratic non-linearity in corona-poled silicate glass films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 196, 63–66 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Horinouchi, H. Imai, G. J. Zhang, K. Mito, and K. Sasaki, “Optical quadratic nonlinearity in multilayer corona-poled glass films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(25), 3552–3554 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Okada, K. Ishii, K. Mito, and K. Sasaki, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in novel corona poled glass waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(23), 2853–2855 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Simon, P.

B. Brochers, J. Bekesi, P. Simon, and J. Ihlemann, “Submicron surface patterning by laser ablation with short UV pulses using a proximity phase mask setup,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 063106(1)-063106(4) (2010).

Simonneau, C.

Slattery, S. A.

C. Corbari, P. G. Kazasky, S. A. Slattery, and N. Nikogosyan, “Ultraviolet poling of pure fused silica by high-intensity femtosecond radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071106(1)-071106 (3) (2005).

Smirnov, V. A.

M. K. Balakirev, V. A. Smirnov, and L. I. Vostrikova, “Photorefractive effect on all optical polling of glass,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 5(6), S437–S443 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, P. A.

M. J. Cho, D. H. Choi, P. A. Sullivan, A. J. P. Akelaitis, and L. R. Dalton, “Recent progress in second-order nonlinear optical polymer and dendrimers,” Prog. Polym. Sci. 33(11), 1013–1058 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, M.

T. Fujiwara, M. Takahashi, and A. J. Ikushima, “Decay behaviour of second-order nonlinearity in GeO2-SiO2 glass poled with UV-irradiation,” Electron. Lett. 33(11), 980–982 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujiwara, M. Takahashi, and A. J. Ikushima, “Second-harmonic generation in germanosilicate glass poled with ArF laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(8), 1032–1034 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, M.

A. Rastogi, M. Y. Paik, M. Tanaka, and C. K. Ober, “Direct patterning of intrinsically electron beam sensitive polymer brushes,” ACS Nano 4(2), 771–780 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tombelaine, V.

Tong, L.

Tsai, C.-A.

C.-A. Tsai, J. N. Wang, V. Chao-Wei-Kuo, T. Y. Cheng, W.-R. Liou, and A. Y. Wu, “Enhancement of SHG in fused SiO2 by corona poling under water, water vapor and salty environments,” J. Mar. Sci. Technol. 16, 90–102 (2008).

Turro, N. J.

F. Pan, P. Wang, K. Lee, A. Wu, N. J. Turro, and J. T. Koberstein, “Photochemical modification and patterning of polymer surfaces by surface adsorption of photoactive block copolymers,” Langmuir 21(8), 3605–3612 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uchida, Y.

H. Imai, S. Horinouchi, Y. Uchida, H. Yamasaki, K. Fukao, G. Zhang, T. Kinoshita, K. Mito, H. Hirashima, and K. Sasaki, “Time-dependent decay of quadratic non-linearity in corona-poled silicate glass films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 196, 63–66 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Van Cott, K.

K. Van Cott, M. Guzy, P. Neyman, C. Brands, J. R. Heflin, H. W. Gibson, and R. M. Davis, “P, Neyman, C. Brands, J. R. Heflin, H. W. Gibson, and R. M. Davis, “Layer-by-layer deposition and ordering of low-molecular-weight dye molecules for second order nonlinear optics,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 41(17), 3236–3238 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Van Cott, K. E.

J. R. Heflin, M. T. Guzy, P. J. Neyman, K. J. Gaskins, C. Brands, Z. Wang, H. W. Gibson, R. M. Davis, and K. E. Van Cott, “Efficient, thermally stable, second order nonlinear optical response in organic hybrid covalent/ionic self-assembled films,” Langmuir 22(13), 5723–5727 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Eijkelenborg, M.

Vermelho, M. V. D.

A. L. Moura, M. T. de Araujo, M. V. D. Vermelho, and J. S. Aitchison, “Improved stability of the induced second-order nonlinearity in soft glass by thermal poling,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(3), 033509 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vidakovic, P.

Vostrikova, L. I.

M. K. Balakirev, V. A. Smirnov, and L. I. Vostrikova, “Photorefractive effect on all optical polling of glass,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 5(6), S437–S443 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wadsworth, W. J.

D. A. Akimov, A. A. Ivanov, A. N. Naumov, O. A. Kolevatova, M. V. Alfimov, T. A. Brisk, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, A. A. Podshivalov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Generation of a spectrally asymmetric third harmonic with unamplified 30-fs Cr:forsterite laser pulses in a tapered fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 515–519 (2003).

Wang, A.

Y. Xu, M. Han, A. Wang, Z. Liu, and J. R. Heflin, “Second order parametric processes in nonlinear silica microspheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(16), 163905 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Xu, A. Wang, J. R. Heflin, and Z. Liu, “Proposal and analysis of a silica fiber with large thermodynamically stable second order nonlinearity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 211110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. N.

C.-A. Tsai, J. N. Wang, V. Chao-Wei-Kuo, T. Y. Cheng, W.-R. Liou, and A. Y. Wu, “Enhancement of SHG in fused SiO2 by corona poling under water, water vapor and salty environments,” J. Mar. Sci. Technol. 16, 90–102 (2008).

Wang, P.

F. Pan, P. Wang, K. Lee, A. Wu, N. J. Turro, and J. T. Koberstein, “Photochemical modification and patterning of polymer surfaces by surface adsorption of photoactive block copolymers,” Langmuir 21(8), 3605–3612 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

J. R. Heflin, M. T. Guzy, P. J. Neyman, K. J. Gaskins, C. Brands, Z. Wang, H. W. Gibson, R. M. Davis, and K. E. Van Cott, “Efficient, thermally stable, second order nonlinear optical response in organic hybrid covalent/ionic self-assembled films,” Langmuir 22(13), 5723–5727 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, C. W.

Y. Jiang, P. T. Wilson, M. Downer, C. W. White, and S. P. Withrow, “Second harmonic generation from silicon nanocrystals embedded in SiO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(6), 766–768 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wiedemann, U.

Wilson, P. T.

Y. Jiang, P. T. Wilson, M. Downer, C. W. White, and S. P. Withrow, “Second harmonic generation from silicon nanocrystals embedded in SiO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(6), 766–768 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Withrow, S. P.

Y. Jiang, P. T. Wilson, M. Downer, C. W. White, and S. P. Withrow, “Second harmonic generation from silicon nanocrystals embedded in SiO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(6), 766–768 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wu, A.

F. Pan, P. Wang, K. Lee, A. Wu, N. J. Turro, and J. T. Koberstein, “Photochemical modification and patterning of polymer surfaces by surface adsorption of photoactive block copolymers,” Langmuir 21(8), 3605–3612 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, A. Y.

C.-A. Tsai, J. N. Wang, V. Chao-Wei-Kuo, T. Y. Cheng, W.-R. Liou, and A. Y. Wu, “Enhancement of SHG in fused SiO2 by corona poling under water, water vapor and salty environments,” J. Mar. Sci. Technol. 16, 90–102 (2008).

Xiao, X.

X. Xiao, Q. Liu, G. Dong, and X. Zhao, “Second-order optical nonlinearity in Sb2S3 microcrystal doped glasses by electron beam irradiation,” Opt. Commun. 274(2), 456–460 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y.

Y. Xu, M. Han, A. Wang, Z. Liu, and J. R. Heflin, “Second order parametric processes in nonlinear silica microspheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(16), 163905 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Xu, A. Wang, J. R. Heflin, and Z. Liu, “Proposal and analysis of a silica fiber with large thermodynamically stable second order nonlinearity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 211110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xue, S.

Yamamoto, Y.

Y. Yamamoto, H. Nasu, T. Hashimoto, and K. Kamiya, “Second harmonic generation from thermally poled CdS microcrystal-containing glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 281(1-3), 198–204 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yamasaki, H.

H. Imai, S. Horinouchi, Y. Uchida, H. Yamasaki, K. Fukao, G. Zhang, T. Kinoshita, K. Mito, H. Hirashima, and K. Sasaki, “Time-dependent decay of quadratic non-linearity in corona-poled silicate glass films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 196, 63–66 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yashkov, M. V.

Zhai, G.

Zhang, G.

H. Imai, S. Horinouchi, Y. Uchida, H. Yamasaki, K. Fukao, G. Zhang, T. Kinoshita, K. Mito, H. Hirashima, and K. Sasaki, “Time-dependent decay of quadratic non-linearity in corona-poled silicate glass films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 196, 63–66 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G. J.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Nonlinear coating on a silica fiber. (a) The schematic structure of nonlinear fiber with full cylindrical symmetry. The radially aligned nonlinear molecules provide a second-order susceptibility tensor dominated by the χ r r r ( 2 ) component. (b) The AFM image of 10-bilayer nonlinear self-assembled film on a planar glass substrate shows highly uniform coating. (c) SEM image of a nonlinear fiber with 10-bilayer coating. (d) The transmission loss of a coated taper at wavelength of 1294 nm was recorded for every 10-bilayer film deposition.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup. An infrared, nanosecond-pulsed pump beam obtained from an OPO system is coupled into a multimode fiber. The beam propagates through a nonlinear taper, and interacts with the second-order nonlinear molecules on the taper surface. The output SHG signal is collimated, filtered and finally detected by a PMT.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The THG (at 431 nm) and SHG (at 647 nm) spectra from a bare and a 10-bilayer coated taper, excited by pump pulse energy of 2 μJ at 1294 nm. The bare fiber curve is shifted both vertically and horizontally for clarity. The lower inset confirms a cubic dependency of the THG emitted from the bare taper. With nonlinear coating, we observe an increase in SHG power and decreased THG component due to the film absorption at 431 nm as indicated in the upper inset.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SHG power as a function of pump pulse energy. The measurement was taken for a 3.8-µm-radius taper with 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 bilayers of nonlinear film. Each data point is the result of an average of over 100 measurement data and the error bar is smaller than the symbol. The lines are quadratic fits to the data.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dependence of SHG on taper radius. The log-log plot shows the 1/a 4 behavior of SHG power with different taper radius. All samples are coated with 10-bilayer films and excited with pulse energy of 2 μJ. The error bars in the x axis indicate the estimated accuracy of taper radii measurements ( ± 0.2 µm) as determined by the optical microscope.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Typical real-time transmission of optical power (at 980 nm) during the taper pulling process. The taper pulling was stop at the taper radius ~0.5 µm. (b) The difference between the propagation constants of the TM01 mode and HE21 mode at the SHG wavelength of 647 nm. The inset shows the propagation constant of the TM01 (at 647 nm) and HE11 mode (at 1294 nm).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) The profile of a 3.8-μm taper obtained by combining sequential images taken using an optical microscope (Leica DMI-6000 B). (b) Theoretical estimate of SHG power as a function of taper interaction length. The result is obtained by numerically integrating the coupled mode Eq. (2) while using the taper profile determined in (a). (c) Theoretical simulation and experimental result of SHG power versus pump wavelength. Both results are normalized with respect to their corresponding peak SHG power.

Equations (2)

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P 2 ω = 2 ω 2 ( μ 0 ε r ε 0 ) 3 / 2 P ω 2 π a 2 | δ a χ z z z ( 2 ) | 2 L 2 × sin 2 ( Δ β L / 2 ) ( Δ β L / 2 ) 2
d E 2 ω d z = i ω E ω 2 ε 0 υ g δ π ε r 3 / 2 a ( z ) χ z z z ( 2 ) e i Δ β ( z ) z ,

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