Abstract

We demonstrate a coupling scheme for cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy that makes use of an intracavity acousto-optical modulator to actively switch light into (and out of) a resonator. This allows cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS) to be implemented with broadband nonlaser light sources with spectral power densities of less than 30μW/nm. Although the acousto-optical element reduces the ultimate detection limit by introducing additional losses, it permits absorptivities to be measured with a high dynamic range, especially in lossy environments. Absorption measurements for the forbidden transition of gaseous oxygen in air at ∼760nm are presented using a low-coherence cw-superluminescent diode. The same setup was electronically configured to cover absorption losses from 1.8×10−8cm−1 to 7.5% per roundtrip. This could be of interest in process analytical applications.

© 2011 OSA

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References

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  1. A. O’Keefe and D. A. G. Deacon, “Cavity ring-down optical spectrometer for absorption measurements using pulsed laser sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544–2551 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Rempe, R. J. Thompson, H. J. Kimble, and R. Lalezari, “Measurement of ultralow losses in an optical interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 17, 363–365 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. E. R. Crosson, P. Haar, G. A. Marcus, H. A. Schwettman, B. A. Paldus, T. G. Spence, and R. N. Zare, “Pulse-stacked cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 4–10 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Gherman and D. Romanini, “Modelocked cavity–enhanced absorption spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 10, 1033–1042 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  5. J. Morville, S. Kassi, M. Chenevier, and D. Romanini, “Fast, low-noise, mode-by-mode, cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy by diode-laser self-locking,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 1027–1038 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Stelmaszczyk, M. Fechner, P. Rohwetter, M. Queißer, A. Czyzewski, T. Stacewicz, and L. Wöste, “Towards supercontinuum cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 369–373 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Méjean, S. Kassi, and D. Romanini, “Measurement of reactive atmospheric species by ultraviolet cavity-enhanced spectroscopy with a mode-locked femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1231–1233 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. I. Ventrillard-Courtillot, T. Gonthiez, C. Clerici, and D. Romanini, “Multispecies breath analysis faster than a single respiratory cycle by optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064026 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. M. Ball, J. M. Langridge, and R. L. Jones, “Broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy using light emitting diodes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 398, 68–74 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. E. Fiedler, A. Hese, and A. A. Ruth, “Incoherent broad-band cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy of liquids,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 023107 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Wu, W. Zhao, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, “Incoherent broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy for in situ measurements of NO2 with a blue light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 85–94 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. I. Ventrillard-Courtillot, E. Sciamma O’Brien, S. Kassi, G. Méjean, and D. Romanini, “Incoherent broad-band cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy for simultaneous trace measurements of NO2 and NO3 with a LED source,” Appl. Phys. B 101, 661–669 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Ball and R. Jones, “Broadband Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy,” in Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy , G. Berden and R. Engeln, eds. (Wiley, 2010), pp. 57–88.
  14. G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy: experimental schemes and applications,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565–607 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  15. E. O. Potma, C. Evans, X. S. Xie, R. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Picosecond-pulse amplification with an external passive optical cavity,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1835–1837 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. P. Zalicki and R. N. Zare, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy for quantitative absorption measurements,” J. Chem. Phys. 102, 2708–2717 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. S. Johnston and K. K. Lehmann, “Cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy using a broadband prism cavity and a supercontinuum source,” Opt. Express 16, 15013–15023 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. M. Langridge, T. Laurila, R. S. Watt, R. L. Jones, C. F. Kaminski, and J. Hult, “Cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy of multiple trace gas species using a supercontinuum radiation source,” Opt. Express 16, 10178–10188 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

I. Ventrillard-Courtillot, E. Sciamma O’Brien, S. Kassi, G. Méjean, and D. Romanini, “Incoherent broad-band cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy for simultaneous trace measurements of NO2 and NO3 with a LED source,” Appl. Phys. B 101, 661–669 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Ball and R. Jones, “Broadband Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy,” in Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy , G. Berden and R. Engeln, eds. (Wiley, 2010), pp. 57–88.

2009 (1)

I. Ventrillard-Courtillot, T. Gonthiez, C. Clerici, and D. Romanini, “Multispecies breath analysis faster than a single respiratory cycle by optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064026 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

2005 (2)

J. Morville, S. Kassi, M. Chenevier, and D. Romanini, “Fast, low-noise, mode-by-mode, cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy by diode-laser self-locking,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 1027–1038 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Fiedler, A. Hese, and A. A. Ruth, “Incoherent broad-band cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy of liquids,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 023107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

S. M. Ball, J. M. Langridge, and R. L. Jones, “Broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy using light emitting diodes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 398, 68–74 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy: experimental schemes and applications,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565–607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

E. R. Crosson, P. Haar, G. A. Marcus, H. A. Schwettman, B. A. Paldus, T. G. Spence, and R. N. Zare, “Pulse-stacked cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 4–10 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

P. Zalicki and R. N. Zare, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy for quantitative absorption measurements,” J. Chem. Phys. 102, 2708–2717 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1988 (1)

A. O’Keefe and D. A. G. Deacon, “Cavity ring-down optical spectrometer for absorption measurements using pulsed laser sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544–2551 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ball, S.

S. Ball and R. Jones, “Broadband Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy,” in Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy , G. Berden and R. Engeln, eds. (Wiley, 2010), pp. 57–88.

Ball, S. M.

S. M. Ball, J. M. Langridge, and R. L. Jones, “Broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy using light emitting diodes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 398, 68–74 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Berden, G.

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy: experimental schemes and applications,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565–607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

T. Wu, W. Zhao, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, “Incoherent broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy for in situ measurements of NO2 with a blue light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 85–94 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chenevier, M.

J. Morville, S. Kassi, M. Chenevier, and D. Romanini, “Fast, low-noise, mode-by-mode, cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy by diode-laser self-locking,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 1027–1038 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Clerici, C.

I. Ventrillard-Courtillot, T. Gonthiez, C. Clerici, and D. Romanini, “Multispecies breath analysis faster than a single respiratory cycle by optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064026 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Crosson, E. R.

E. R. Crosson, P. Haar, G. A. Marcus, H. A. Schwettman, B. A. Paldus, T. G. Spence, and R. N. Zare, “Pulse-stacked cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 4–10 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Czyzewski, A.

K. Stelmaszczyk, M. Fechner, P. Rohwetter, M. Queißer, A. Czyzewski, T. Stacewicz, and L. Wöste, “Towards supercontinuum cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 369–373 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Deacon, D. A. G.

A. O’Keefe and D. A. G. Deacon, “Cavity ring-down optical spectrometer for absorption measurements using pulsed laser sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544–2551 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Evans, C.

Fechner, M.

K. Stelmaszczyk, M. Fechner, P. Rohwetter, M. Queißer, A. Czyzewski, T. Stacewicz, and L. Wöste, “Towards supercontinuum cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 369–373 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fiedler, S. E.

S. E. Fiedler, A. Hese, and A. A. Ruth, “Incoherent broad-band cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy of liquids,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 023107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gao, X.

T. Wu, W. Zhao, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, “Incoherent broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy for in situ measurements of NO2 with a blue light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 85–94 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gherman, T.

Gonthiez, T.

I. Ventrillard-Courtillot, T. Gonthiez, C. Clerici, and D. Romanini, “Multispecies breath analysis faster than a single respiratory cycle by optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064026 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Haar, P.

E. R. Crosson, P. Haar, G. A. Marcus, H. A. Schwettman, B. A. Paldus, T. G. Spence, and R. N. Zare, “Pulse-stacked cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 4–10 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hese, A.

S. E. Fiedler, A. Hese, and A. A. Ruth, “Incoherent broad-band cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy of liquids,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 023107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hult, J.

Johnston, P. S.

Jones, R.

S. Ball and R. Jones, “Broadband Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy,” in Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy , G. Berden and R. Engeln, eds. (Wiley, 2010), pp. 57–88.

Jones, R. J.

Jones, R. L.

Kaminski, C. F.

Kassi, S.

I. Ventrillard-Courtillot, E. Sciamma O’Brien, S. Kassi, G. Méjean, and D. Romanini, “Incoherent broad-band cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy for simultaneous trace measurements of NO2 and NO3 with a LED source,” Appl. Phys. B 101, 661–669 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Méjean, S. Kassi, and D. Romanini, “Measurement of reactive atmospheric species by ultraviolet cavity-enhanced spectroscopy with a mode-locked femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1231–1233 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Morville, S. Kassi, M. Chenevier, and D. Romanini, “Fast, low-noise, mode-by-mode, cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy by diode-laser self-locking,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 1027–1038 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kimble, H. J.

Lalezari, R.

Langridge, J. M.

Laurila, T.

Lehmann, K. K.

Marcus, G. A.

E. R. Crosson, P. Haar, G. A. Marcus, H. A. Schwettman, B. A. Paldus, T. G. Spence, and R. N. Zare, “Pulse-stacked cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 4–10 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Meijer, G.

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy: experimental schemes and applications,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565–607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Méjean, G.

I. Ventrillard-Courtillot, E. Sciamma O’Brien, S. Kassi, G. Méjean, and D. Romanini, “Incoherent broad-band cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy for simultaneous trace measurements of NO2 and NO3 with a LED source,” Appl. Phys. B 101, 661–669 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Méjean, S. Kassi, and D. Romanini, “Measurement of reactive atmospheric species by ultraviolet cavity-enhanced spectroscopy with a mode-locked femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1231–1233 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morville, J.

J. Morville, S. Kassi, M. Chenevier, and D. Romanini, “Fast, low-noise, mode-by-mode, cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy by diode-laser self-locking,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 1027–1038 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O’Keefe, A.

A. O’Keefe and D. A. G. Deacon, “Cavity ring-down optical spectrometer for absorption measurements using pulsed laser sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544–2551 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Paldus, B. A.

E. R. Crosson, P. Haar, G. A. Marcus, H. A. Schwettman, B. A. Paldus, T. G. Spence, and R. N. Zare, “Pulse-stacked cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 4–10 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Peeters, R.

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy: experimental schemes and applications,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565–607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Potma, E. O.

Queißer, M.

K. Stelmaszczyk, M. Fechner, P. Rohwetter, M. Queißer, A. Czyzewski, T. Stacewicz, and L. Wöste, “Towards supercontinuum cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 369–373 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rempe, G.

Rohwetter, P.

K. Stelmaszczyk, M. Fechner, P. Rohwetter, M. Queißer, A. Czyzewski, T. Stacewicz, and L. Wöste, “Towards supercontinuum cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 369–373 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Romanini, D.

I. Ventrillard-Courtillot, E. Sciamma O’Brien, S. Kassi, G. Méjean, and D. Romanini, “Incoherent broad-band cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy for simultaneous trace measurements of NO2 and NO3 with a LED source,” Appl. Phys. B 101, 661–669 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Ventrillard-Courtillot, T. Gonthiez, C. Clerici, and D. Romanini, “Multispecies breath analysis faster than a single respiratory cycle by optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064026 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Méjean, S. Kassi, and D. Romanini, “Measurement of reactive atmospheric species by ultraviolet cavity-enhanced spectroscopy with a mode-locked femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1231–1233 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Morville, S. Kassi, M. Chenevier, and D. Romanini, “Fast, low-noise, mode-by-mode, cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy by diode-laser self-locking,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 1027–1038 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Gherman and D. Romanini, “Modelocked cavity–enhanced absorption spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 10, 1033–1042 (2002).
[PubMed]

Ruth, A. A.

S. E. Fiedler, A. Hese, and A. A. Ruth, “Incoherent broad-band cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy of liquids,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 023107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schwettman, H. A.

E. R. Crosson, P. Haar, G. A. Marcus, H. A. Schwettman, B. A. Paldus, T. G. Spence, and R. N. Zare, “Pulse-stacked cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 4–10 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sciamma O’Brien, E.

I. Ventrillard-Courtillot, E. Sciamma O’Brien, S. Kassi, G. Méjean, and D. Romanini, “Incoherent broad-band cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy for simultaneous trace measurements of NO2 and NO3 with a LED source,” Appl. Phys. B 101, 661–669 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Spence, T. G.

E. R. Crosson, P. Haar, G. A. Marcus, H. A. Schwettman, B. A. Paldus, T. G. Spence, and R. N. Zare, “Pulse-stacked cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 4–10 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stacewicz, T.

K. Stelmaszczyk, M. Fechner, P. Rohwetter, M. Queißer, A. Czyzewski, T. Stacewicz, and L. Wöste, “Towards supercontinuum cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 369–373 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stelmaszczyk, K.

K. Stelmaszczyk, M. Fechner, P. Rohwetter, M. Queißer, A. Czyzewski, T. Stacewicz, and L. Wöste, “Towards supercontinuum cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 369–373 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, R. J.

Ventrillard-Courtillot, I.

I. Ventrillard-Courtillot, E. Sciamma O’Brien, S. Kassi, G. Méjean, and D. Romanini, “Incoherent broad-band cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy for simultaneous trace measurements of NO2 and NO3 with a LED source,” Appl. Phys. B 101, 661–669 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Ventrillard-Courtillot, T. Gonthiez, C. Clerici, and D. Romanini, “Multispecies breath analysis faster than a single respiratory cycle by optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064026 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Watt, R. S.

Wöste, L.

K. Stelmaszczyk, M. Fechner, P. Rohwetter, M. Queißer, A. Czyzewski, T. Stacewicz, and L. Wöste, “Towards supercontinuum cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 369–373 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, T.

T. Wu, W. Zhao, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, “Incoherent broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy for in situ measurements of NO2 with a blue light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 85–94 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X. S.

Ye, J.

Zalicki, P.

P. Zalicki and R. N. Zare, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy for quantitative absorption measurements,” J. Chem. Phys. 102, 2708–2717 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zare, R. N.

E. R. Crosson, P. Haar, G. A. Marcus, H. A. Schwettman, B. A. Paldus, T. G. Spence, and R. N. Zare, “Pulse-stacked cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 4–10 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Zalicki and R. N. Zare, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy for quantitative absorption measurements,” J. Chem. Phys. 102, 2708–2717 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

T. Wu, W. Zhao, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, “Incoherent broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy for in situ measurements of NO2 with a blue light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 85–94 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, W.

T. Wu, W. Zhao, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, “Incoherent broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy for in situ measurements of NO2 with a blue light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 85–94 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (4)

T. Wu, W. Zhao, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, “Incoherent broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy for in situ measurements of NO2 with a blue light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 85–94 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Ventrillard-Courtillot, E. Sciamma O’Brien, S. Kassi, G. Méjean, and D. Romanini, “Incoherent broad-band cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy for simultaneous trace measurements of NO2 and NO3 with a LED source,” Appl. Phys. B 101, 661–669 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Morville, S. Kassi, M. Chenevier, and D. Romanini, “Fast, low-noise, mode-by-mode, cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy by diode-laser self-locking,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 1027–1038 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Stelmaszczyk, M. Fechner, P. Rohwetter, M. Queißer, A. Czyzewski, T. Stacewicz, and L. Wöste, “Towards supercontinuum cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 94, 369–373 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. M. Ball, J. M. Langridge, and R. L. Jones, “Broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy using light emitting diodes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 398, 68–74 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy: experimental schemes and applications,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565–607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

I. Ventrillard-Courtillot, T. Gonthiez, C. Clerici, and D. Romanini, “Multispecies breath analysis faster than a single respiratory cycle by optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064026 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

P. Zalicki and R. N. Zare, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy for quantitative absorption measurements,” J. Chem. Phys. 102, 2708–2717 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (3)

S. E. Fiedler, A. Hese, and A. A. Ruth, “Incoherent broad-band cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy of liquids,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 023107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. O’Keefe and D. A. G. Deacon, “Cavity ring-down optical spectrometer for absorption measurements using pulsed laser sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544–2551 (1988).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Crosson, P. Haar, G. A. Marcus, H. A. Schwettman, B. A. Paldus, T. G. Spence, and R. N. Zare, “Pulse-stacked cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 4–10 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

S. Ball and R. Jones, “Broadband Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy,” in Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy , G. Berden and R. Engeln, eds. (Wiley, 2010), pp. 57–88.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) The CDS setup: light source, collimation lens (CL), polarizer (P), routing mirrors (M), cavity mirrors (CM1-CM4), acousto-optic modulator (AOM) with driver (AOM driver), beam stop (BS), spectrometer and computer. The beam from the light source (dotted, red) is directed to the cavity dumper and coupled into the cavity mode (solid, blue), the undiffracted part hits the beam stop. After coupling out of the cavity, the light follows a different path (dashed, green) to the spectrometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the electronics: Frequency generators (FG1, FG2), voltage controlled oscillators (VCO1, VCO2), pulse generators (PG1, PG2), HF switches (S1-3), HF combiner (C), power amplifier (PA) and acousto-optical device (AOM). The straight lines mark the route of the HF signal, the dashed lines are the control connections for the pulse sequence.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Graph (a) and (c), respectively, show the HF1 and HF2 signal intensity over time, (b) and (d) show the optical intracavity power, respectively, without and with HF2 applied. The time interval between the end of the load phase (t 1, see Eq. (5)) and the start of the dump phase (t 2) defines the duration of the ring-down phase. Measuring the dumped power for different delay times dt gives the decay curve of the resonator for one wavelength.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Calculation of the power level at the detector for standard coherent (red, dashed) and incoherent (black, dotted) mirror coupling as well as active (blue) AOM coupling (CDS). The curve for the actively AOM-coupled CDS corresponds to the present four-mirror cavity with mirror reflectivities R = 0.9998 and a coupling efficiency of the AOM η = 0.3 (transmission of the AOM of 0.998). The curves for passive mirror coupling are calculated for a four-mirror cavity of the same finesse as in the CDS setup.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) (Color online) Absorption coefficient resulting from the analysis of the decay of each wavelength channel on a spectrometer (nominal resolution 0.27nm). The solid (blue) line shows the simulation results for 21% O2 in pure nitrogen under standard temperature and pressure. The dashed line and circles (black) mark the experimental data of the corresponding measurement performed in ambient air. The baseline was measured by purging the resonator with pure nitrogen and has been substracted from the data. (b) The simulated power level inside the resonator after the load phase. The O2 absorption is already visible, as it influences the intra cavity power level during the load phase.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a)(Color online) Measurement of the cavity rountrip loss after inserting an uncoated pellicle beam splitter (Newport PBS-2). (b) The simulated power level inside the resonator after the load phase. The O2 absorption is visible in both graphs, although the roundtrip loss exceeds 4% at the O2 absorption.

Equations (5)

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dI dt = c d [ I 0 η I ( η + L ) ] ,
I load ( t ) = I 0 η η + L { 1 exp [ ( η + L ) c ( t t 0 ) d ] } ,
I decay ( t ) = I load ( t 1 ) exp [ L ct d ] .
α = L L 0 d = 1 c τ 1 c τ 0 .
P ν ( t 2 ) = t 2 I 0 η η + L { 1 exp [ ( η + L ) c ( t 1 t 0 ) d ] } exp [ L c ( t t 1 ) d ] d t .

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