Abstract

Generation of single-order laser harmonics in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and the application to the time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of I2 are demonstrated. The EUV pulses at 80 nm were generated from Kr as the 5th order harmonics of intense 400 nm laser pulses and then separated from other harmonic orders by a thin indium foil. The pump-probe photoelectron spectroscopy of I2 in the B 3Π(0u +) and B” 1Π(1u) states excited by visible laser pulses at 490 nm showed a rapid increase in the yield of atomic iodine (~400 fs), reflecting the dissociation dynamics evolving simultaneously in the two excited states.

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. N. A. Papadogiannis, L. A. A. Nikolopoulos, D. Charalambidis, G. D. Tsakiris, P. Tzallas, and K. Witte, “Two-photon ionization of he through a superposition of higher harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(13), 133902 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. T. Horio, T. Fuji, Y. Suzuki, and T. Suzuki, “Probing ultrafast internal conversion through conical intersection via time-energy map of photoelectron angular anisotropy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(30), 10392–10393 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. A. Hishikawa, A. Matsuda, M. Fushitani, and E. J. Takahashi, “Visualizing recurrently migrating hydrogen in acetylene dication by intense ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(25), 258302 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. Tellinghuisen, “Transition strengths in the visible-infrared absorption spectrum of I2,” J. Chem. Phys. 76(10), 4736–4744 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  26. Y. Hikosaka, M. Fushitani, A. Matsuda, C.-M. Tseng, A. Hishikawa, E. Shigemasa, M. Nagasono, K. Tono, T. Togashi, H. Ohashi, H. Kimura, Y. Senba, M. Yabashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Multiphoton double ionization of Ar in intense extreme ultraviolet laser fields studied by shot-by-shot photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 133001 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. B. Cornford, D. C. Frost, C. A. McDowell, J. L. Ragle, and I. A. Stenhouse, “Photoelectron spectra of the halogens,” J. Chem. Phys. 54(6), 2651–2657 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  28. W. A. de Jong, L. Visscher, and W. C. Nieuwpoort, “Relativistic and correlated calculations on the ground, excited, and ionized states of iodine,” J. Chem. Phys. 107(21), 9046–9058 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  29. T. Kanai, X. Zhou, T. Sekikawa, S. Watanabe, and T. Togashi, “Generation of subterawatt sub-10-fs blue pulses at 1-5 kHz by broadband frequency doubling,” Opt. Lett. 28(16), 1484–1486 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, and A. Steiger, “Solution of the Schrödinger equation by a spectral method,” J. Comput. Phys. 47(3), 412–433 (1982).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (3)

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Skantzakis, P. Tzallas, J. E. Kruse, C. Kalpouzos, O. Faucher, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Tracking autoionizing-wave-packet dynamics at the 1-fs temporal scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(4), 043902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Hikosaka, M. Fushitani, A. Matsuda, C.-M. Tseng, A. Hishikawa, E. Shigemasa, M. Nagasono, K. Tono, T. Togashi, H. Ohashi, H. Kimura, Y. Senba, M. Yabashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Multiphoton double ionization of Ar in intense extreme ultraviolet laser fields studied by shot-by-shot photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 133001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

M. Fushitani, A. Matsuda, E. J. Takahashi, and A. Hishikawa, “Time-resolved reaction imaging by intense few-cycle laser pulses and laser high-order harmonics,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 185, 012009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Horio, T. Fuji, Y. Suzuki, and T. Suzuki, “Probing ultrafast internal conversion through conical intersection via time-energy map of photoelectron angular anisotropy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(30), 10392–10393 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Wernet, M. Odelius, K. Godehusen, J. Gaudin, O. Schwarzkopf, and W. Eberhardt, “Real-time evolution of the valence electronic structure in a dissociating molecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(1), 013001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Peralta Conde, J. Kruse, O. Faucher, P. Tzallas, E. P. Benis, and D. Charalambidis, “Realization of time-resolved two-vacuum-ultraviolet-photon ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 79(6), 061405 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gaudin, S. Rehbein, P. Guttmann, S. Godé, G. Schneider, P. Wernet, and W. Eberhardt, “Selection of a single femtosecond high-order harmonic using a zone plate based monochromator,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(3), 033112–033114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Frassetto, P. Villoresi, and L. Poletto, “Beam separator for high-order harmonic radiation in the 3-10 nm spectral region,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25(5), 1104–1114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

A. Hishikawa, A. Matsuda, M. Fushitani, and E. J. Takahashi, “Visualizing recurrently migrating hydrogen in acetylene dication by intense ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(25), 258302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Gagnon, P. Ranitovic, X.-M. Tong, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and A. S. Sandhu, “Soft X-ray-driven femtosecond molecular dynamics,” Science 317(5843), 1374–1378 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, “Attosecond science,” Nat. Phys. 3(6), 381–387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

A. Kosuge, T. Sekikawa, X. Zhou, T. Kanai, S. Adachi, and S. Watanabe, “Frequency-resolved optical gating of isolated attosecond pulses in the extreme ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(26), 263901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

Y. Nabekawa, H. Hasegawa, E. J. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, “Production of doubly charged helium ions by two-photon absorption of an intense sub-10-fs soft x-ray pulse at 42 eV photon energy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(4), 043001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

S. Zamith, V. Blanchet, B. Girard, J. Andersson, S. L. Sorensen, I. Hjelte, O. Bjorneholm, D. Gauyacq, J. Norin, J. Mauritsson, and A. L'Huillier, “The predissociation of highly excited states in acetylene by time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 119(7), 3763–3773 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Kanai, X. Zhou, T. Sekikawa, S. Watanabe, and T. Togashi, “Generation of subterawatt sub-10-fs blue pulses at 1-5 kHz by broadband frequency doubling,” Opt. Lett. 28(16), 1484–1486 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, N. A. Papadogiannis, K. Witte, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Direct observation of attosecond light bunching,” Nature 426(6964), 267–271 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Papadogiannis, L. A. A. Nikolopoulos, D. Charalambidis, G. D. Tsakiris, P. Tzallas, and K. Witte, “Two-photon ionization of he through a superposition of higher harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(13), 133902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419(6909), 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, A. M. Mulhisen, E. R. Grant, X. Yang, V. M. Bierbaum, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast time-resolved soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of dissociating Br2.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(19), 193002 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, “Intense few-cycle laser fields: Frontiers of nonlinear optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 72(2), 545–591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

W. A. de Jong, L. Visscher, and W. C. Nieuwpoort, “Relativistic and correlated calculations on the ground, excited, and ionized states of iodine,” J. Chem. Phys. 107(21), 9046–9058 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

F. R. Powell, J. F. Lindblom, S. F. Powell, and P. W. Vedder, “Thin film filter performance for extreme ultraviolet and x-ray applications,” Opt. Eng. 29(6), 614–624 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

J. Tellinghuisen, “Transition strengths in the visible-infrared absorption spectrum of I2,” J. Chem. Phys. 76(10), 4736–4744 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, and A. Steiger, “Solution of the Schrödinger equation by a spectral method,” J. Comput. Phys. 47(3), 412–433 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

A. B. Cornford, D. C. Frost, C. A. McDowell, J. L. Ragle, and I. A. Stenhouse, “Photoelectron spectra of the halogens,” J. Chem. Phys. 54(6), 2651–2657 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

Adachi, S.

A. Kosuge, T. Sekikawa, X. Zhou, T. Kanai, S. Adachi, and S. Watanabe, “Frequency-resolved optical gating of isolated attosecond pulses in the extreme ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(26), 263901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Andersson, J.

S. Zamith, V. Blanchet, B. Girard, J. Andersson, S. L. Sorensen, I. Hjelte, O. Bjorneholm, D. Gauyacq, J. Norin, J. Mauritsson, and A. L'Huillier, “The predissociation of highly excited states in acetylene by time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 119(7), 3763–3773 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Angel, D. W.

Aquila, A. L.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Attwood, D. T.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azzeer, A. M.

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baltuška, A.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benis, E. P.

A. Peralta Conde, J. Kruse, O. Faucher, P. Tzallas, E. P. Benis, and D. Charalambidis, “Realization of time-resolved two-vacuum-ultraviolet-photon ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 79(6), 061405 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bierbaum, V. M.

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, A. M. Mulhisen, E. R. Grant, X. Yang, V. M. Bierbaum, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast time-resolved soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of dissociating Br2.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(19), 193002 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bjorneholm, O.

S. Zamith, V. Blanchet, B. Girard, J. Andersson, S. L. Sorensen, I. Hjelte, O. Bjorneholm, D. Gauyacq, J. Norin, J. Mauritsson, and A. L'Huillier, “The predissociation of highly excited states in acetylene by time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 119(7), 3763–3773 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Blanchet, V.

S. Zamith, V. Blanchet, B. Girard, J. Andersson, S. L. Sorensen, I. Hjelte, O. Bjorneholm, D. Gauyacq, J. Norin, J. Mauritsson, and A. L'Huillier, “The predissociation of highly excited states in acetylene by time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 119(7), 3763–3773 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Blümel, L.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brabec, T.

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, “Intense few-cycle laser fields: Frontiers of nonlinear optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 72(2), 545–591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cavalieri, A. L.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, Z.

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charalambidis, D.

E. Skantzakis, P. Tzallas, J. E. Kruse, C. Kalpouzos, O. Faucher, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Tracking autoionizing-wave-packet dynamics at the 1-fs temporal scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(4), 043902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Peralta Conde, J. Kruse, O. Faucher, P. Tzallas, E. P. Benis, and D. Charalambidis, “Realization of time-resolved two-vacuum-ultraviolet-photon ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 79(6), 061405 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, N. A. Papadogiannis, K. Witte, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Direct observation of attosecond light bunching,” Nature 426(6964), 267–271 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Papadogiannis, L. A. A. Nikolopoulos, D. Charalambidis, G. D. Tsakiris, P. Tzallas, and K. Witte, “Two-photon ionization of he through a superposition of higher harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(13), 133902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cocke, C. L.

E. Gagnon, P. Ranitovic, X.-M. Tong, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and A. S. Sandhu, “Soft X-ray-driven femtosecond molecular dynamics,” Science 317(5843), 1374–1378 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corkum, P. B.

P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, “Attosecond science,” Nat. Phys. 3(6), 381–387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cornford, A. B.

A. B. Cornford, D. C. Frost, C. A. McDowell, J. L. Ragle, and I. A. Stenhouse, “Photoelectron spectra of the halogens,” J. Chem. Phys. 54(6), 2651–2657 (1971).
[CrossRef]

de Jong, W. A.

W. A. de Jong, L. Visscher, and W. C. Nieuwpoort, “Relativistic and correlated calculations on the ground, excited, and ionized states of iodine,” J. Chem. Phys. 107(21), 9046–9058 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Drescher, M.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419(6909), 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eberhardt, W.

P. Wernet, M. Odelius, K. Godehusen, J. Gaudin, O. Schwarzkopf, and W. Eberhardt, “Real-time evolution of the valence electronic structure in a dissociating molecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(1), 013001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gaudin, S. Rehbein, P. Guttmann, S. Godé, G. Schneider, P. Wernet, and W. Eberhardt, “Selection of a single femtosecond high-order harmonic using a zone plate based monochromator,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(3), 033112–033114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Echenique, P. M.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faucher, O.

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M. Fushitani, A. Matsuda, E. J. Takahashi, and A. Hishikawa, “Time-resolved reaction imaging by intense few-cycle laser pulses and laser high-order harmonics,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 185, 012009 (2009).
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A. Hishikawa, A. Matsuda, M. Fushitani, and E. J. Takahashi, “Visualizing recurrently migrating hydrogen in acetylene dication by intense ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(25), 258302 (2007).
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E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
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Ishikawa, T.

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H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 103906 (2008).
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M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419(6909), 803–807 (2002).
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M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419(6909), 803–807 (2002).
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E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
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A. Kosuge, T. Sekikawa, X. Zhou, T. Kanai, S. Adachi, and S. Watanabe, “Frequency-resolved optical gating of isolated attosecond pulses in the extreme ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(26), 263901 (2006).
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E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
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M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419(6909), 803–807 (2002).
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E. Skantzakis, P. Tzallas, J. E. Kruse, C. Kalpouzos, O. Faucher, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Tracking autoionizing-wave-packet dynamics at the 1-fs temporal scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(4), 043902 (2010).
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E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
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S. Zamith, V. Blanchet, B. Girard, J. Andersson, S. L. Sorensen, I. Hjelte, O. Bjorneholm, D. Gauyacq, J. Norin, J. Mauritsson, and A. L'Huillier, “The predissociation of highly excited states in acetylene by time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 119(7), 3763–3773 (2003).
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H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 103906 (2008).
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E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
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H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 103906 (2008).
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Y. Hikosaka, M. Fushitani, A. Matsuda, C.-M. Tseng, A. Hishikawa, E. Shigemasa, M. Nagasono, K. Tono, T. Togashi, H. Ohashi, H. Kimura, Y. Senba, M. Yabashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Multiphoton double ionization of Ar in intense extreme ultraviolet laser fields studied by shot-by-shot photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 133001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Fushitani, A. Matsuda, E. J. Takahashi, and A. Hishikawa, “Time-resolved reaction imaging by intense few-cycle laser pulses and laser high-order harmonics,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 185, 012009 (2009).
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A. Hishikawa, A. Matsuda, M. Fushitani, and E. J. Takahashi, “Visualizing recurrently migrating hydrogen in acetylene dication by intense ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(25), 258302 (2007).
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Mauritsson, J.

S. Zamith, V. Blanchet, B. Girard, J. Andersson, S. L. Sorensen, I. Hjelte, O. Bjorneholm, D. Gauyacq, J. Norin, J. Mauritsson, and A. L'Huillier, “The predissociation of highly excited states in acetylene by time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 119(7), 3763–3773 (2003).
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A. B. Cornford, D. C. Frost, C. A. McDowell, J. L. Ragle, and I. A. Stenhouse, “Photoelectron spectra of the halogens,” J. Chem. Phys. 54(6), 2651–2657 (1971).
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Y. Nabekawa, H. Hasegawa, E. J. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, “Production of doubly charged helium ions by two-photon absorption of an intense sub-10-fs soft x-ray pulse at 42 eV photon energy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(4), 043001 (2005).
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Moon, E.

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 103906 (2008).
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L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, A. M. Mulhisen, E. R. Grant, X. Yang, V. M. Bierbaum, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast time-resolved soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of dissociating Br2.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(19), 193002 (2001).
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A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
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E. Gagnon, P. Ranitovic, X.-M. Tong, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and A. S. Sandhu, “Soft X-ray-driven femtosecond molecular dynamics,” Science 317(5843), 1374–1378 (2007).
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Y. Nabekawa, H. Hasegawa, E. J. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, “Production of doubly charged helium ions by two-photon absorption of an intense sub-10-fs soft x-ray pulse at 42 eV photon energy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(4), 043001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Y. Hikosaka, M. Fushitani, A. Matsuda, C.-M. Tseng, A. Hishikawa, E. Shigemasa, M. Nagasono, K. Tono, T. Togashi, H. Ohashi, H. Kimura, Y. Senba, M. Yabashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Multiphoton double ionization of Ar in intense extreme ultraviolet laser fields studied by shot-by-shot photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 133001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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W. A. de Jong, L. Visscher, and W. C. Nieuwpoort, “Relativistic and correlated calculations on the ground, excited, and ionized states of iodine,” J. Chem. Phys. 107(21), 9046–9058 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nikolopoulos, L. A. A.

N. A. Papadogiannis, L. A. A. Nikolopoulos, D. Charalambidis, G. D. Tsakiris, P. Tzallas, and K. Witte, “Two-photon ionization of he through a superposition of higher harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(13), 133902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Norin, J.

S. Zamith, V. Blanchet, B. Girard, J. Andersson, S. L. Sorensen, I. Hjelte, O. Bjorneholm, D. Gauyacq, J. Norin, J. Mauritsson, and A. L'Huillier, “The predissociation of highly excited states in acetylene by time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 119(7), 3763–3773 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nugent-Glandorf, L.

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, A. M. Mulhisen, E. R. Grant, X. Yang, V. M. Bierbaum, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast time-resolved soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of dissociating Br2.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(19), 193002 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Odelius, M.

P. Wernet, M. Odelius, K. Godehusen, J. Gaudin, O. Schwarzkopf, and W. Eberhardt, “Real-time evolution of the valence electronic structure in a dissociating molecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(1), 013001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohashi, H.

Y. Hikosaka, M. Fushitani, A. Matsuda, C.-M. Tseng, A. Hishikawa, E. Shigemasa, M. Nagasono, K. Tono, T. Togashi, H. Ohashi, H. Kimura, Y. Senba, M. Yabashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Multiphoton double ionization of Ar in intense extreme ultraviolet laser fields studied by shot-by-shot photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 133001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Papadogiannis, N. A.

N. A. Papadogiannis, L. A. A. Nikolopoulos, D. Charalambidis, G. D. Tsakiris, P. Tzallas, and K. Witte, “Two-photon ionization of he through a superposition of higher harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(13), 133902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, N. A. Papadogiannis, K. Witte, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Direct observation of attosecond light bunching,” Nature 426(6964), 267–271 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peralta Conde, A.

A. Peralta Conde, J. Kruse, O. Faucher, P. Tzallas, E. P. Benis, and D. Charalambidis, “Realization of time-resolved two-vacuum-ultraviolet-photon ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 79(6), 061405 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pfeifer, T.

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poletto, L.

Powell, F. R.

F. R. Powell, J. F. Lindblom, S. F. Powell, and P. W. Vedder, “Thin film filter performance for extreme ultraviolet and x-ray applications,” Opt. Eng. 29(6), 614–624 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Powell, S. F.

F. R. Powell, J. F. Lindblom, S. F. Powell, and P. W. Vedder, “Thin film filter performance for extreme ultraviolet and x-ray applications,” Opt. Eng. 29(6), 614–624 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ragle, J. L.

A. B. Cornford, D. C. Frost, C. A. McDowell, J. L. Ragle, and I. A. Stenhouse, “Photoelectron spectra of the halogens,” J. Chem. Phys. 54(6), 2651–2657 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Ranitovic, P.

E. Gagnon, P. Ranitovic, X.-M. Tong, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and A. S. Sandhu, “Soft X-ray-driven femtosecond molecular dynamics,” Science 317(5843), 1374–1378 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rehbein, S.

J. Gaudin, S. Rehbein, P. Guttmann, S. Godé, G. Schneider, P. Wernet, and W. Eberhardt, “Selection of a single femtosecond high-order harmonic using a zone plate based monochromator,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(3), 033112–033114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rohringer, N.

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samuels, D. A.

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, A. M. Mulhisen, E. R. Grant, X. Yang, V. M. Bierbaum, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast time-resolved soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of dissociating Br2.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(19), 193002 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sandhu, A. S.

E. Gagnon, P. Ranitovic, X.-M. Tong, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and A. S. Sandhu, “Soft X-ray-driven femtosecond molecular dynamics,” Science 317(5843), 1374–1378 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Santra, R.

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scheer, M.

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, A. M. Mulhisen, E. R. Grant, X. Yang, V. M. Bierbaum, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast time-resolved soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of dissociating Br2.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(19), 193002 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, B.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schneider, G.

J. Gaudin, S. Rehbein, P. Guttmann, S. Godé, G. Schneider, P. Wernet, and W. Eberhardt, “Selection of a single femtosecond high-order harmonic using a zone plate based monochromator,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(3), 033112–033114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schultze, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwarzkopf, O.

P. Wernet, M. Odelius, K. Godehusen, J. Gaudin, O. Schwarzkopf, and W. Eberhardt, “Real-time evolution of the valence electronic structure in a dissociating molecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(1), 013001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scrinzi, A.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419(6909), 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sekikawa, T.

A. Kosuge, T. Sekikawa, X. Zhou, T. Kanai, S. Adachi, and S. Watanabe, “Frequency-resolved optical gating of isolated attosecond pulses in the extreme ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(26), 263901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Kanai, X. Zhou, T. Sekikawa, S. Watanabe, and T. Togashi, “Generation of subterawatt sub-10-fs blue pulses at 1-5 kHz by broadband frequency doubling,” Opt. Lett. 28(16), 1484–1486 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Senba, Y.

Y. Hikosaka, M. Fushitani, A. Matsuda, C.-M. Tseng, A. Hishikawa, E. Shigemasa, M. Nagasono, K. Tono, T. Togashi, H. Ohashi, H. Kimura, Y. Senba, M. Yabashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Multiphoton double ionization of Ar in intense extreme ultraviolet laser fields studied by shot-by-shot photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 133001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 103906 (2008).
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Y. Hikosaka, M. Fushitani, A. Matsuda, C.-M. Tseng, A. Hishikawa, E. Shigemasa, M. Nagasono, K. Tono, T. Togashi, H. Ohashi, H. Kimura, Y. Senba, M. Yabashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Multiphoton double ionization of Ar in intense extreme ultraviolet laser fields studied by shot-by-shot photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 133001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Skantzakis, E.

E. Skantzakis, P. Tzallas, J. E. Kruse, C. Kalpouzos, O. Faucher, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Tracking autoionizing-wave-packet dynamics at the 1-fs temporal scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(4), 043902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sorensen, S. L.

S. Zamith, V. Blanchet, B. Girard, J. Andersson, S. L. Sorensen, I. Hjelte, O. Bjorneholm, D. Gauyacq, J. Norin, J. Mauritsson, and A. L'Huillier, “The predissociation of highly excited states in acetylene by time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 119(7), 3763–3773 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, and A. Steiger, “Solution of the Schrödinger equation by a spectral method,” J. Comput. Phys. 47(3), 412–433 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Stenhouse, I. A.

A. B. Cornford, D. C. Frost, C. A. McDowell, J. L. Ragle, and I. A. Stenhouse, “Photoelectron spectra of the halogens,” J. Chem. Phys. 54(6), 2651–2657 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, T.

T. Horio, T. Fuji, Y. Suzuki, and T. Suzuki, “Probing ultrafast internal conversion through conical intersection via time-energy map of photoelectron angular anisotropy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(30), 10392–10393 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suzuki, Y.

T. Horio, T. Fuji, Y. Suzuki, and T. Suzuki, “Probing ultrafast internal conversion through conical intersection via time-energy map of photoelectron angular anisotropy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(30), 10392–10393 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takahashi, E. J.

M. Fushitani, A. Matsuda, E. J. Takahashi, and A. Hishikawa, “Time-resolved reaction imaging by intense few-cycle laser pulses and laser high-order harmonics,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 185, 012009 (2009).
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A. Hishikawa, A. Matsuda, M. Fushitani, and E. J. Takahashi, “Visualizing recurrently migrating hydrogen in acetylene dication by intense ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(25), 258302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Nabekawa, H. Hasegawa, E. J. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, “Production of doubly charged helium ions by two-photon absorption of an intense sub-10-fs soft x-ray pulse at 42 eV photon energy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(4), 043001 (2005).
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J. Tellinghuisen, “Transition strengths in the visible-infrared absorption spectrum of I2,” J. Chem. Phys. 76(10), 4736–4744 (1982).
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Y. Hikosaka, M. Fushitani, A. Matsuda, C.-M. Tseng, A. Hishikawa, E. Shigemasa, M. Nagasono, K. Tono, T. Togashi, H. Ohashi, H. Kimura, Y. Senba, M. Yabashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Multiphoton double ionization of Ar in intense extreme ultraviolet laser fields studied by shot-by-shot photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 133001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Kanai, X. Zhou, T. Sekikawa, S. Watanabe, and T. Togashi, “Generation of subterawatt sub-10-fs blue pulses at 1-5 kHz by broadband frequency doubling,” Opt. Lett. 28(16), 1484–1486 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tong, X.-M.

E. Gagnon, P. Ranitovic, X.-M. Tong, C. L. Cocke, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and A. S. Sandhu, “Soft X-ray-driven femtosecond molecular dynamics,” Science 317(5843), 1374–1378 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tono, K.

Y. Hikosaka, M. Fushitani, A. Matsuda, C.-M. Tseng, A. Hishikawa, E. Shigemasa, M. Nagasono, K. Tono, T. Togashi, H. Ohashi, H. Kimura, Y. Senba, M. Yabashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Multiphoton double ionization of Ar in intense extreme ultraviolet laser fields studied by shot-by-shot photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 133001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tousey, R.

Tsakiris, G. D.

E. Skantzakis, P. Tzallas, J. E. Kruse, C. Kalpouzos, O. Faucher, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Tracking autoionizing-wave-packet dynamics at the 1-fs temporal scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(4), 043902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Papadogiannis, L. A. A. Nikolopoulos, D. Charalambidis, G. D. Tsakiris, P. Tzallas, and K. Witte, “Two-photon ionization of he through a superposition of higher harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(13), 133902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, N. A. Papadogiannis, K. Witte, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Direct observation of attosecond light bunching,” Nature 426(6964), 267–271 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tseng, C.-M.

Y. Hikosaka, M. Fushitani, A. Matsuda, C.-M. Tseng, A. Hishikawa, E. Shigemasa, M. Nagasono, K. Tono, T. Togashi, H. Ohashi, H. Kimura, Y. Senba, M. Yabashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Multiphoton double ionization of Ar in intense extreme ultraviolet laser fields studied by shot-by-shot photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 133001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tzallas, P.

E. Skantzakis, P. Tzallas, J. E. Kruse, C. Kalpouzos, O. Faucher, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Tracking autoionizing-wave-packet dynamics at the 1-fs temporal scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(4), 043902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Peralta Conde, J. Kruse, O. Faucher, P. Tzallas, E. P. Benis, and D. Charalambidis, “Realization of time-resolved two-vacuum-ultraviolet-photon ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 79(6), 061405 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, N. A. Papadogiannis, K. Witte, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Direct observation of attosecond light bunching,” Nature 426(6964), 267–271 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Papadogiannis, L. A. A. Nikolopoulos, D. Charalambidis, G. D. Tsakiris, P. Tzallas, and K. Witte, “Two-photon ionization of he through a superposition of higher harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(13), 133902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uiberacker, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419(6909), 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uphues, T.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vedder, P. W.

F. R. Powell, J. F. Lindblom, S. F. Powell, and P. W. Vedder, “Thin film filter performance for extreme ultraviolet and x-ray applications,” Opt. Eng. 29(6), 614–624 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Villoresi, P.

Visscher, L.

W. A. de Jong, L. Visscher, and W. C. Nieuwpoort, “Relativistic and correlated calculations on the ground, excited, and ionized states of iodine,” J. Chem. Phys. 107(21), 9046–9058 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, S.

A. Kosuge, T. Sekikawa, X. Zhou, T. Kanai, S. Adachi, and S. Watanabe, “Frequency-resolved optical gating of isolated attosecond pulses in the extreme ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(26), 263901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Kanai, X. Zhou, T. Sekikawa, S. Watanabe, and T. Togashi, “Generation of subterawatt sub-10-fs blue pulses at 1-5 kHz by broadband frequency doubling,” Opt. Lett. 28(16), 1484–1486 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wernet, P.

P. Wernet, M. Odelius, K. Godehusen, J. Gaudin, O. Schwarzkopf, and W. Eberhardt, “Real-time evolution of the valence electronic structure in a dissociating molecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(1), 013001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gaudin, S. Rehbein, P. Guttmann, S. Godé, G. Schneider, P. Wernet, and W. Eberhardt, “Selection of a single femtosecond high-order harmonic using a zone plate based monochromator,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(3), 033112–033114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Westerwalbesloh, T.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419(6909), 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wirth, A.

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Witte, K.

P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, N. A. Papadogiannis, K. Witte, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Direct observation of attosecond light bunching,” Nature 426(6964), 267–271 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Papadogiannis, L. A. A. Nikolopoulos, D. Charalambidis, G. D. Tsakiris, P. Tzallas, and K. Witte, “Two-photon ionization of he through a superposition of higher harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(13), 133902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yabashi, M.

Y. Hikosaka, M. Fushitani, A. Matsuda, C.-M. Tseng, A. Hishikawa, E. Shigemasa, M. Nagasono, K. Tono, T. Togashi, H. Ohashi, H. Kimura, Y. Senba, M. Yabashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Multiphoton double ionization of Ar in intense extreme ultraviolet laser fields studied by shot-by-shot photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 133001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yakovlev, V.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, and F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419(6909), 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V. S.

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, X.

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, A. M. Mulhisen, E. R. Grant, X. Yang, V. M. Bierbaum, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast time-resolved soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of dissociating Br2.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(19), 193002 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zamith, S.

S. Zamith, V. Blanchet, B. Girard, J. Andersson, S. L. Sorensen, I. Hjelte, O. Bjorneholm, D. Gauyacq, J. Norin, J. Mauritsson, and A. L'Huillier, “The predissociation of highly excited states in acetylene by time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 119(7), 3763–3773 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zherebtsov, S.

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, X.

A. Kosuge, T. Sekikawa, X. Zhou, T. Kanai, S. Adachi, and S. Watanabe, “Frequency-resolved optical gating of isolated attosecond pulses in the extreme ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(26), 263901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Kanai, X. Zhou, T. Sekikawa, S. Watanabe, and T. Togashi, “Generation of subterawatt sub-10-fs blue pulses at 1-5 kHz by broadband frequency doubling,” Opt. Lett. 28(16), 1484–1486 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

T. Horio, T. Fuji, Y. Suzuki, and T. Suzuki, “Probing ultrafast internal conversion through conical intersection via time-energy map of photoelectron angular anisotropy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(30), 10392–10393 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Gaudin, S. Rehbein, P. Guttmann, S. Godé, G. Schneider, P. Wernet, and W. Eberhardt, “Selection of a single femtosecond high-order harmonic using a zone plate based monochromator,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(3), 033112–033114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (4)

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Transmittance of an indium filter with a thickness of 0.1 µm and reflectivity of a gold (Au) mirror for the angle of incidence of 10 degrees, in the photon energy region of 8~23 eV. It should be noted that the peak transmission of the indium foil is substantially lower than an expected value of ~40% [18], because of the degradation of the foil by the exposure to air. The energies of laser high-order harmonics are indicated by stick bars for driving laser pulses at 400 nm (blue, lower) and 800 nm (red, upper). Photoelectron spectra of I2 molecules by laser high-order harmonic pulses without (b) and with (c) the indium filter. The photoelectron peaks are assigned to the ground (2Πg) and excited (2Πu, 2Σg +) states of I2 + by the 5th order harmonics (H5) of the UV (400 nm) pulse as well as by the 7th order harmonics (H7). The sidebands associated with the 3rd (H3) and H5, H3 + UV and H5 + UV respectively, are also identified.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Photoelectron spectrum of the X 2Πg spin-orbit doublet of I2 + at the zero time delay (Δt = 0 fs) between visible (490 nm) and EUV (80 nm) pulses. The corresponding sidebands (SB) by the visible pulse (2.53 eV) are observed at 8.7 and 8.0 eV. The broad continuum observed as a background in the electron energy region below 7 eV in Fig. 1(c) is ascribed to ionization to electronically excited states of I2 + [27,28]. (b) Cross-correlation traces between the EUV and visible pulses, obtained from the SB intensities of the X2Π3/2g and X2Π1/2g peaks recorded as a function of Δt (2Π3/2g: open squares and dotted curve, 2Π1/2g: solid squares and solid curve). The full width at half maximum is estimated to be 151 fs in average from a least-square fitting to a Gaussian function.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The photoelectron spectrum of I2 recorded at a pump-probe time delay of Δt = 880 fs (solid, black). The corresponding spectrum recorded without the pump pulse (dotted, black). The difference spectrum of the pump-probe and probe only spectra (red). The difference spectrum at Δt = −240 fs (blue). (b) Intensity of the atomic iodine peak at 5.1 eV in the difference spectra plotted as a function of the pump-probe time delay Δt (square, blue). The net values obtained after the subtraction of the sideband intensity of the 2Σg + peak (diamond, black) are also plotted (circle, red). The results of wavepacket simulations for the B 3Π(0 u +) and B” 1Π(1u) states and their sum are also shown by black, gray and red curves, respectively. The individual curves for these states obtained by scaling results in early or late saturation (broken curves). (c) Selected potential energy curves of I2 and I2 + molecules [28]. The solid arrows indicate the pump (490 nm) and probe (80 nm) pulses introduced with a time delay of Δt. The nuclear wavepacket at Δt = 120 fs is shown for each excited state. The shaded area in green for R ≥ 8.1 au corresponds to the atomic iodine signal in the time-resolved photoelectron spectra in Fig. 3(b).

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