Abstract

We report for the first time, the impact of cross phase modulation in WDM optical transport networks employing dynamic 28 Gbaud PM-mQAM transponders (m = 4, 16, 64, 256). We demonstrate that if the order of QAM is adjusted to maximize the capacity of a given route, there may be a significant degradation in the transmission performance of existing traffic for a given dynamic network architecture. We further report that such degradations are correlated to the accumulated peak-to-average power ratio of the added traffic along a given path, and that managing this ratio through pre-distortion reduces the impact of adjusting the constellation size of neighboring channels.

© 2011 OSA

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Rafique, J. Zhao, and A. D. Ellis, “Performance improvement by fibre nonlinearity compensation in 112 Gb/s PM M-ary QAM,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OFC ’11 (accepted for publication).
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  5. J. Yu, X. Zhou, Y.-K. Huang, S. Gupta, M.-F. Huang, T. Wang, and P. Magill, “112.8-Gb/s PM-RZ 64QAM optical signal generation and transmission on a 12.5GHz WDM grid,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OFC ’10 (2010), paper OThM1.
  6. S. Okamoto, T. Omiya, K. Kasai, M. Yoshida, and M. Nakazawa, “256 QAM (64 Gbit/s) Coherent optical transmission over 160 km with an optical bandwidth of 5.4 GHz,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OFC ’10 (2010), paper OThD5.
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  15. W. Wei, Z. Lei, and Q. Dayou, “Wavelength-based sub-carrier multiplexing and grooming for optical networks bandwidth virtualization,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OFC ’08 (2008), paper PDP35.
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  19. L. E. Nelson, A. H. Gnauck, R. I. Jopson, and A. R. Chraplyvy, “Cross-phase modulation resonances in wavelength-division-multiplexed lightwave transmission,” European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC 1998 (1998), pp. 309–310.

2010 (6)

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

Buhl, L. L.

Chen, X.

Doerr, C. R.

Du, L. B.

Gnauck, A. H.

Goldfarb, G.

Hoffmann, S.

Ip, E.

Kim, I.

Li, G.

Li, X.

Lord, A.

Lowery, A. J.

Magarini, M.

Mateo, E.

Meusburger, C.

Mukherjee, B.

Nag, A.

Noé, R.

Pfau, T.

Schupke, D. A.

Tkach, R.

R. Tkach, “Scaling optical communications for the next decade and beyond,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 14(4), 3–9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tornatore, M.

Winzer, P. J.

Yaman, F.

Bell Labs Tech. J. (1)

R. Tkach, “Scaling optical communications for the next decade and beyond,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 14(4), 3–9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

Opt. Express (2)

Other (11)

D. Rafique, J. Zhao, and A. D. Ellis, “Impact of dispersion map management on the performance of back-propagation for nonlinear WDM transmissions,” OptoElectronics and Communications Conference, OECC ’10 (2010), paper 9B2–4.

S. Oda, T. Tanimura, T. Hoshida, C. Ohshima, H. Nakashima, Z. Tao, and J. C. Rasmussen, “112 Gb/s DP-QPSK transmission using a novel nonlinear compensator in digital coherent receiver,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference’09 (2009), paper OThR6.

D. Rafique, J. Zhao, and A. D. Ellis, “Performance improvement by fibre nonlinearity compensation in 112 Gb/s PM M-ary QAM,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OFC ’11 (accepted for publication).

S. Makovejs, D. S. Millar, V. Mikhailov, G. Gavioli, R. I. Killey, S. J. Savory, and P. Bayvel, “Experimental investigation of PDMQAM16 transmission at 112 Gbit/s over 2400 km,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OFC ’10 (2010), paper OMJ6.

J. Yu, X. Zhou, Y.-K. Huang, S. Gupta, M.-F. Huang, T. Wang, and P. Magill, “112.8-Gb/s PM-RZ 64QAM optical signal generation and transmission on a 12.5GHz WDM grid,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OFC ’10 (2010), paper OThM1.

S. Okamoto, T. Omiya, K. Kasai, M. Yoshida, and M. Nakazawa, “256 QAM (64 Gbit/s) Coherent optical transmission over 160 km with an optical bandwidth of 5.4 GHz,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OFC ’10 (2010), paper OThD5.

T. Wuth, M. W. Chbat, and V. F. Kamalov, “Multi-rate (100G/40G/10G) Transport over deployed optical networks,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OFC 2008 (2008), paper NTuB3.

W. Wei, Z. Lei, and Q. Dayou, “Wavelength-based sub-carrier multiplexing and grooming for optical networks bandwidth virtualization,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OFC ’08 (2008), paper PDP35.

R. Peter, and C. Brandon, “Evolution to colorless and directionless ROADM architectures,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OFC ’08 (2008), paper NWE2.

Y. Weizhen, T. Zhenning, L. Lei, T. Hoshida, and J. C. Rasmussen, “A simplified model for XPM in coherent PSK systems,” OptoElectronics and Communications Conference, OECC ’10 (2010) paper 9B2–2.

L. E. Nelson, A. H. Gnauck, R. I. Jopson, and A. R. Chraplyvy, “Cross-phase modulation resonances in wavelength-division-multiplexed lightwave transmission,” European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC 1998 (1998), pp. 309–310.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simulation setup for 28 Gbaud PM-mQAM transmission. M: Number of spans between ROADM nodes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Qeff as a function of number of ROADMs (and distance between ROADM nodes) for 28 Gbaud PM-mQAM showing performance of central PM-4QAM (solid), and neighbouring PM-mQAM (open). a) with single-channel DBP, b) with EDC. Square: 4QAM, circle: 16QAM, up triangle: 64QAM, star: 256QAM. Up arrows indicate that no errors were detected, implying that the Qeff was likely to be above 13 dB.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Variation in PAPR, for 4QAM (black), 16QAM (red), 64QAM (green) and 256QAM (blue) for a loss-less linear fibre with 20 ps/nm/km dispersion.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Qeff of the PM-4QAM through channel for 28 Gbaud PM-mQAM add/drop traffic after 9,600 km as a function of a figure of merit (FOM) defined in the text for various add drop configurations. Solid: with single-channel DBP, open: with EDC.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Qeff of the PM-4QAM through channel with 30 ROADM sites, when the neighbouring PM-64QAM channel is linearly pre-distorted (dispersion only). Solid: with single-channel DBP, open: with EDC.

Equations (1)

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F O M P M m Q A M ( m ) = ( R O A D M N ) × [ I max ( m ) / I a l l ( m ) ¯ ]

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