Abstract

This paper proposes an algorithm to register OCT fundus images (OFIs) with color fundus photographs (CFPs). This makes it possible to correlate retinal features across the different imaging modalities. Blood vessel ridges are taken as features for registration. A specially defined distance, incorporating information of normal direction of blood vessel ridge pixels, is designed to calculate the distance between each pair of pixels to be matched in the pair image. Based on this distance a similarity function between the pair image is defined. Brute force search is used for a coarse registration and then an Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm for a more accurate registration. The registration algorithm was tested on a sample set containing images of both normal eyes and eyes with pathologies. Three transformation models (similarity, affine and quadratic models) were tested on all image pairs respectively. The experimental results showed that the registration algorithm worked well. The average root mean square errors for the affine model are 31 µm (normal) and 59 µm (eyes with disease). The proposed algorithm can be easily adapted to registration for other modality retinal images.

© 2010 OSA

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2009 (1)

B. J. Lujan, P. J. Rosenfeld, G. Gregori, F. H. Wang, R. W. Knighton, W. J. Feuer, and C. A. Puliafito, “Spectral domain optical coherence tomographic imaging of geographic atrophy,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 40(2), 96–101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

B. J. Lujan, F. H. Wang, G. Gregori, P. J. Rosenfeld, R. W. Knighton, C. A. Puliafito, R. P. Danis, L. D. Hubbard, R. T. Chang, D. L. Budenz, M. I. Seider, and O. Knight, “Calibration of fundus images using spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 39(4Suppl), S15–S20 (2008).
[PubMed]

M. Stopa, B. A. Bower, E. Davies, J. A. Izatt, and C. A. Toth, “Correlation of pathologic features in spectral domain optical coherence tomography with conventional retinal studies,” Retina 28(2), 298–308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Li, R. W. Knighton, G. Gregori, and R. J. Lujan, “Retinal Image Registration Algorithm Based on Vessel Ridge Detection,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 4258 (2008).

H. Narasimha-Iyer, B. Lujan, J. Oakley, S. Meyer, and S. S. Dastmalchi, “Registration of Cirrus HD-OCT Images With Fundus Photographs, Fluorescein Angiographs and Fundus Autofluorescence Images,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 1831 (2008).

2007 (1)

Y. Li, N. Hutchings, and J. G. Flanagan, “Automated Detection of the Retinal Blood Vessels and Fovea for Scanning Laser Tomography Images,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 2605 (2007).

2006 (2)

M. S. Mabrouk, N. H. Solouma, and Y. M. Kadah, “Survey of retinal image segmentation and registration,” Graph. Vis. Image Process. J. 6, 1–11 (2006).

T. Chanwimaluang, G. L. Fan, and S. R. Fransen, “Hybrid retinal image registration,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 10(1), 129–142 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

G. K. Matsopoulos, P. A. Asvestas, N. A. Mouravliansky, and K. K. Delibasis, “Multimodal registration of retinal images using self organizing maps,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 23(12), 1557–1563 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Tsai, C. V. Stewart, H. L. Tanenbaum, and B. Roysam, “Model-based method for improving the accuracy and repeatability of estimating vascular bifurcations and crossovers from retinal fundus images,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 8(2), 122–130 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

C. V. Stewart, C. L. Tsai, and B. Roysam, “The dual-bootstrap iterative closest point algorithm with application to retinal image registration,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 22(11), 1379–1394 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Zitova and J. Flusser, “Image registration methods: a survey,” Image Vis. Comput. 21(11), 977–1000 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Shen, C. V. Stewart, B. Roysam, G. Lin, and H. L. Tanenbaum, “Frame-rate spatial referencing based on invariant indexing and alignment with application to online retinal image registration,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 25(3), 379–384 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Laliberté, L. Gagnon, and Y. Sheng, “Registration and fusion of retinal images--an evaluation study,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 22(5), 661–673 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

A. Can, C. V. Stewart, B. Roysam, and H. L. Tanenbaum, “A feature-based, robust, hierarchical algorithm for registering pairs of images of the curved human retina,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 24(3), 347–364 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

F. Zana and J. C. Klein, “A multimodal registration algorithm of eye fundus images using vessels detection and Hough transform,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 18(5), 419–428 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Lester and S. R. Arridge, “A survey of hierarchical non-linear medical image registration,” Pattern Recognit. 32(1), 129–149 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Ritter, R. Owens, J. Cooper, R. H. Eikelboom, and P. P. van Saarloos, “Registration of stereo and temporal images of the retina,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 18(5), 404–418 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

P. Thévenaz, U. E. Ruttimann, and M. Unser, “A pyramid approach to subpixel registration based on intensity,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 7(1), 27–41 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Maintz and M. A. Viergever, “A survey of medical image registration,” Med. Image Anal. 2(1), 1–36 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

D. P. Huttenlocher, G. A. Klanderman, and W. J. Rucklidge, “Comparing Images Using the Hausdorff Distance,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 15(9), 850–863 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

P. J. Besl and N. D. Mckay, “A Method for Registration of 3-D Shapes,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 14(2), 239–256 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Arridge, S. R.

H. Lester and S. R. Arridge, “A survey of hierarchical non-linear medical image registration,” Pattern Recognit. 32(1), 129–149 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Asvestas, P. A.

G. K. Matsopoulos, P. A. Asvestas, N. A. Mouravliansky, and K. K. Delibasis, “Multimodal registration of retinal images using self organizing maps,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 23(12), 1557–1563 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Besl, P. J.

P. J. Besl and N. D. Mckay, “A Method for Registration of 3-D Shapes,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 14(2), 239–256 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bower, B. A.

M. Stopa, B. A. Bower, E. Davies, J. A. Izatt, and C. A. Toth, “Correlation of pathologic features in spectral domain optical coherence tomography with conventional retinal studies,” Retina 28(2), 298–308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Budenz, D. L.

B. J. Lujan, F. H. Wang, G. Gregori, P. J. Rosenfeld, R. W. Knighton, C. A. Puliafito, R. P. Danis, L. D. Hubbard, R. T. Chang, D. L. Budenz, M. I. Seider, and O. Knight, “Calibration of fundus images using spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 39(4Suppl), S15–S20 (2008).
[PubMed]

Can, A.

A. Can, C. V. Stewart, B. Roysam, and H. L. Tanenbaum, “A feature-based, robust, hierarchical algorithm for registering pairs of images of the curved human retina,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 24(3), 347–364 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. T.

B. J. Lujan, F. H. Wang, G. Gregori, P. J. Rosenfeld, R. W. Knighton, C. A. Puliafito, R. P. Danis, L. D. Hubbard, R. T. Chang, D. L. Budenz, M. I. Seider, and O. Knight, “Calibration of fundus images using spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 39(4Suppl), S15–S20 (2008).
[PubMed]

Chanwimaluang, T.

T. Chanwimaluang, G. L. Fan, and S. R. Fransen, “Hybrid retinal image registration,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 10(1), 129–142 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cooper, J.

N. Ritter, R. Owens, J. Cooper, R. H. Eikelboom, and P. P. van Saarloos, “Registration of stereo and temporal images of the retina,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 18(5), 404–418 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Danis, R. P.

B. J. Lujan, F. H. Wang, G. Gregori, P. J. Rosenfeld, R. W. Knighton, C. A. Puliafito, R. P. Danis, L. D. Hubbard, R. T. Chang, D. L. Budenz, M. I. Seider, and O. Knight, “Calibration of fundus images using spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 39(4Suppl), S15–S20 (2008).
[PubMed]

Dastmalchi, S. S.

H. Narasimha-Iyer, B. Lujan, J. Oakley, S. Meyer, and S. S. Dastmalchi, “Registration of Cirrus HD-OCT Images With Fundus Photographs, Fluorescein Angiographs and Fundus Autofluorescence Images,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 1831 (2008).

Davies, E.

M. Stopa, B. A. Bower, E. Davies, J. A. Izatt, and C. A. Toth, “Correlation of pathologic features in spectral domain optical coherence tomography with conventional retinal studies,” Retina 28(2), 298–308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delibasis, K. K.

G. K. Matsopoulos, P. A. Asvestas, N. A. Mouravliansky, and K. K. Delibasis, “Multimodal registration of retinal images using self organizing maps,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 23(12), 1557–1563 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eikelboom, R. H.

N. Ritter, R. Owens, J. Cooper, R. H. Eikelboom, and P. P. van Saarloos, “Registration of stereo and temporal images of the retina,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 18(5), 404–418 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, G. L.

T. Chanwimaluang, G. L. Fan, and S. R. Fransen, “Hybrid retinal image registration,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 10(1), 129–142 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feuer, W. J.

B. J. Lujan, P. J. Rosenfeld, G. Gregori, F. H. Wang, R. W. Knighton, W. J. Feuer, and C. A. Puliafito, “Spectral domain optical coherence tomographic imaging of geographic atrophy,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 40(2), 96–101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flanagan, J. G.

Y. Li, N. Hutchings, and J. G. Flanagan, “Automated Detection of the Retinal Blood Vessels and Fovea for Scanning Laser Tomography Images,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 2605 (2007).

Flusser, J.

B. Zitova and J. Flusser, “Image registration methods: a survey,” Image Vis. Comput. 21(11), 977–1000 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fransen, S. R.

T. Chanwimaluang, G. L. Fan, and S. R. Fransen, “Hybrid retinal image registration,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 10(1), 129–142 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gagnon, L.

F. Laliberté, L. Gagnon, and Y. Sheng, “Registration and fusion of retinal images--an evaluation study,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 22(5), 661–673 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregori, G.

B. J. Lujan, P. J. Rosenfeld, G. Gregori, F. H. Wang, R. W. Knighton, W. J. Feuer, and C. A. Puliafito, “Spectral domain optical coherence tomographic imaging of geographic atrophy,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 40(2), 96–101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Lujan, F. H. Wang, G. Gregori, P. J. Rosenfeld, R. W. Knighton, C. A. Puliafito, R. P. Danis, L. D. Hubbard, R. T. Chang, D. L. Budenz, M. I. Seider, and O. Knight, “Calibration of fundus images using spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 39(4Suppl), S15–S20 (2008).
[PubMed]

Y. Li, R. W. Knighton, G. Gregori, and R. J. Lujan, “Retinal Image Registration Algorithm Based on Vessel Ridge Detection,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 4258 (2008).

S. L. Jiao, R. Knighton, X. R. Huang, G. Gregori, and C. A. Puliafito, “Simultaneous acquisition of sectional and fundus ophthalmic images with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 13(2), 444–452 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, X. R.

Hubbard, L. D.

B. J. Lujan, F. H. Wang, G. Gregori, P. J. Rosenfeld, R. W. Knighton, C. A. Puliafito, R. P. Danis, L. D. Hubbard, R. T. Chang, D. L. Budenz, M. I. Seider, and O. Knight, “Calibration of fundus images using spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 39(4Suppl), S15–S20 (2008).
[PubMed]

Hutchings, N.

Y. Li, N. Hutchings, and J. G. Flanagan, “Automated Detection of the Retinal Blood Vessels and Fovea for Scanning Laser Tomography Images,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 2605 (2007).

Huttenlocher, D. P.

D. P. Huttenlocher, G. A. Klanderman, and W. J. Rucklidge, “Comparing Images Using the Hausdorff Distance,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 15(9), 850–863 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Izatt, J. A.

M. Stopa, B. A. Bower, E. Davies, J. A. Izatt, and C. A. Toth, “Correlation of pathologic features in spectral domain optical coherence tomography with conventional retinal studies,” Retina 28(2), 298–308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiao, S. L.

Kadah, Y. M.

M. S. Mabrouk, N. H. Solouma, and Y. M. Kadah, “Survey of retinal image segmentation and registration,” Graph. Vis. Image Process. J. 6, 1–11 (2006).

Klanderman, G. A.

D. P. Huttenlocher, G. A. Klanderman, and W. J. Rucklidge, “Comparing Images Using the Hausdorff Distance,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 15(9), 850–863 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Klein, J. C.

F. Zana and J. C. Klein, “A multimodal registration algorithm of eye fundus images using vessels detection and Hough transform,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 18(5), 419–428 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knight, O.

B. J. Lujan, F. H. Wang, G. Gregori, P. J. Rosenfeld, R. W. Knighton, C. A. Puliafito, R. P. Danis, L. D. Hubbard, R. T. Chang, D. L. Budenz, M. I. Seider, and O. Knight, “Calibration of fundus images using spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 39(4Suppl), S15–S20 (2008).
[PubMed]

Knighton, R.

Knighton, R. W.

B. J. Lujan, P. J. Rosenfeld, G. Gregori, F. H. Wang, R. W. Knighton, W. J. Feuer, and C. A. Puliafito, “Spectral domain optical coherence tomographic imaging of geographic atrophy,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 40(2), 96–101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Lujan, F. H. Wang, G. Gregori, P. J. Rosenfeld, R. W. Knighton, C. A. Puliafito, R. P. Danis, L. D. Hubbard, R. T. Chang, D. L. Budenz, M. I. Seider, and O. Knight, “Calibration of fundus images using spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 39(4Suppl), S15–S20 (2008).
[PubMed]

Y. Li, R. W. Knighton, G. Gregori, and R. J. Lujan, “Retinal Image Registration Algorithm Based on Vessel Ridge Detection,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 4258 (2008).

Laliberté, F.

F. Laliberté, L. Gagnon, and Y. Sheng, “Registration and fusion of retinal images--an evaluation study,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 22(5), 661–673 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lester, H.

H. Lester and S. R. Arridge, “A survey of hierarchical non-linear medical image registration,” Pattern Recognit. 32(1), 129–149 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, R. W. Knighton, G. Gregori, and R. J. Lujan, “Retinal Image Registration Algorithm Based on Vessel Ridge Detection,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 4258 (2008).

Y. Li, N. Hutchings, and J. G. Flanagan, “Automated Detection of the Retinal Blood Vessels and Fovea for Scanning Laser Tomography Images,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 2605 (2007).

Lin, G.

H. Shen, C. V. Stewart, B. Roysam, G. Lin, and H. L. Tanenbaum, “Frame-rate spatial referencing based on invariant indexing and alignment with application to online retinal image registration,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 25(3), 379–384 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lujan, B.

H. Narasimha-Iyer, B. Lujan, J. Oakley, S. Meyer, and S. S. Dastmalchi, “Registration of Cirrus HD-OCT Images With Fundus Photographs, Fluorescein Angiographs and Fundus Autofluorescence Images,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 1831 (2008).

Lujan, B. J.

B. J. Lujan, P. J. Rosenfeld, G. Gregori, F. H. Wang, R. W. Knighton, W. J. Feuer, and C. A. Puliafito, “Spectral domain optical coherence tomographic imaging of geographic atrophy,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 40(2), 96–101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Lujan, F. H. Wang, G. Gregori, P. J. Rosenfeld, R. W. Knighton, C. A. Puliafito, R. P. Danis, L. D. Hubbard, R. T. Chang, D. L. Budenz, M. I. Seider, and O. Knight, “Calibration of fundus images using spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 39(4Suppl), S15–S20 (2008).
[PubMed]

Lujan, R. J.

Y. Li, R. W. Knighton, G. Gregori, and R. J. Lujan, “Retinal Image Registration Algorithm Based on Vessel Ridge Detection,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 4258 (2008).

Mabrouk, M. S.

M. S. Mabrouk, N. H. Solouma, and Y. M. Kadah, “Survey of retinal image segmentation and registration,” Graph. Vis. Image Process. J. 6, 1–11 (2006).

Maintz, J. B.

J. B. Maintz and M. A. Viergever, “A survey of medical image registration,” Med. Image Anal. 2(1), 1–36 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsopoulos, G. K.

G. K. Matsopoulos, P. A. Asvestas, N. A. Mouravliansky, and K. K. Delibasis, “Multimodal registration of retinal images using self organizing maps,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 23(12), 1557–1563 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mckay, N. D.

P. J. Besl and N. D. Mckay, “A Method for Registration of 3-D Shapes,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 14(2), 239–256 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, S.

H. Narasimha-Iyer, B. Lujan, J. Oakley, S. Meyer, and S. S. Dastmalchi, “Registration of Cirrus HD-OCT Images With Fundus Photographs, Fluorescein Angiographs and Fundus Autofluorescence Images,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 1831 (2008).

Mouravliansky, N. A.

G. K. Matsopoulos, P. A. Asvestas, N. A. Mouravliansky, and K. K. Delibasis, “Multimodal registration of retinal images using self organizing maps,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 23(12), 1557–1563 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Narasimha-Iyer, H.

H. Narasimha-Iyer, B. Lujan, J. Oakley, S. Meyer, and S. S. Dastmalchi, “Registration of Cirrus HD-OCT Images With Fundus Photographs, Fluorescein Angiographs and Fundus Autofluorescence Images,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 1831 (2008).

Oakley, J.

H. Narasimha-Iyer, B. Lujan, J. Oakley, S. Meyer, and S. S. Dastmalchi, “Registration of Cirrus HD-OCT Images With Fundus Photographs, Fluorescein Angiographs and Fundus Autofluorescence Images,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 1831 (2008).

Owens, R.

N. Ritter, R. Owens, J. Cooper, R. H. Eikelboom, and P. P. van Saarloos, “Registration of stereo and temporal images of the retina,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 18(5), 404–418 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

B. J. Lujan, P. J. Rosenfeld, G. Gregori, F. H. Wang, R. W. Knighton, W. J. Feuer, and C. A. Puliafito, “Spectral domain optical coherence tomographic imaging of geographic atrophy,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 40(2), 96–101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Lujan, F. H. Wang, G. Gregori, P. J. Rosenfeld, R. W. Knighton, C. A. Puliafito, R. P. Danis, L. D. Hubbard, R. T. Chang, D. L. Budenz, M. I. Seider, and O. Knight, “Calibration of fundus images using spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 39(4Suppl), S15–S20 (2008).
[PubMed]

S. L. Jiao, R. Knighton, X. R. Huang, G. Gregori, and C. A. Puliafito, “Simultaneous acquisition of sectional and fundus ophthalmic images with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 13(2), 444–452 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ritter, N.

N. Ritter, R. Owens, J. Cooper, R. H. Eikelboom, and P. P. van Saarloos, “Registration of stereo and temporal images of the retina,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 18(5), 404–418 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosenfeld, P. J.

B. J. Lujan, P. J. Rosenfeld, G. Gregori, F. H. Wang, R. W. Knighton, W. J. Feuer, and C. A. Puliafito, “Spectral domain optical coherence tomographic imaging of geographic atrophy,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 40(2), 96–101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Lujan, F. H. Wang, G. Gregori, P. J. Rosenfeld, R. W. Knighton, C. A. Puliafito, R. P. Danis, L. D. Hubbard, R. T. Chang, D. L. Budenz, M. I. Seider, and O. Knight, “Calibration of fundus images using spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 39(4Suppl), S15–S20 (2008).
[PubMed]

Roysam, B.

C. L. Tsai, C. V. Stewart, H. L. Tanenbaum, and B. Roysam, “Model-based method for improving the accuracy and repeatability of estimating vascular bifurcations and crossovers from retinal fundus images,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 8(2), 122–130 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. V. Stewart, C. L. Tsai, and B. Roysam, “The dual-bootstrap iterative closest point algorithm with application to retinal image registration,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 22(11), 1379–1394 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Shen, C. V. Stewart, B. Roysam, G. Lin, and H. L. Tanenbaum, “Frame-rate spatial referencing based on invariant indexing and alignment with application to online retinal image registration,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 25(3), 379–384 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Can, C. V. Stewart, B. Roysam, and H. L. Tanenbaum, “A feature-based, robust, hierarchical algorithm for registering pairs of images of the curved human retina,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 24(3), 347–364 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rucklidge, W. J.

D. P. Huttenlocher, G. A. Klanderman, and W. J. Rucklidge, “Comparing Images Using the Hausdorff Distance,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 15(9), 850–863 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ruttimann, U. E.

P. Thévenaz, U. E. Ruttimann, and M. Unser, “A pyramid approach to subpixel registration based on intensity,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 7(1), 27–41 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seider, M. I.

B. J. Lujan, F. H. Wang, G. Gregori, P. J. Rosenfeld, R. W. Knighton, C. A. Puliafito, R. P. Danis, L. D. Hubbard, R. T. Chang, D. L. Budenz, M. I. Seider, and O. Knight, “Calibration of fundus images using spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 39(4Suppl), S15–S20 (2008).
[PubMed]

Shen, H.

H. Shen, C. V. Stewart, B. Roysam, G. Lin, and H. L. Tanenbaum, “Frame-rate spatial referencing based on invariant indexing and alignment with application to online retinal image registration,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 25(3), 379–384 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, Y.

F. Laliberté, L. Gagnon, and Y. Sheng, “Registration and fusion of retinal images--an evaluation study,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 22(5), 661–673 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solouma, N. H.

M. S. Mabrouk, N. H. Solouma, and Y. M. Kadah, “Survey of retinal image segmentation and registration,” Graph. Vis. Image Process. J. 6, 1–11 (2006).

Stewart, C. V.

C. L. Tsai, C. V. Stewart, H. L. Tanenbaum, and B. Roysam, “Model-based method for improving the accuracy and repeatability of estimating vascular bifurcations and crossovers from retinal fundus images,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 8(2), 122–130 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. V. Stewart, C. L. Tsai, and B. Roysam, “The dual-bootstrap iterative closest point algorithm with application to retinal image registration,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 22(11), 1379–1394 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Shen, C. V. Stewart, B. Roysam, G. Lin, and H. L. Tanenbaum, “Frame-rate spatial referencing based on invariant indexing and alignment with application to online retinal image registration,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 25(3), 379–384 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Can, C. V. Stewart, B. Roysam, and H. L. Tanenbaum, “A feature-based, robust, hierarchical algorithm for registering pairs of images of the curved human retina,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 24(3), 347–364 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stopa, M.

M. Stopa, B. A. Bower, E. Davies, J. A. Izatt, and C. A. Toth, “Correlation of pathologic features in spectral domain optical coherence tomography with conventional retinal studies,” Retina 28(2), 298–308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanenbaum, H. L.

C. L. Tsai, C. V. Stewart, H. L. Tanenbaum, and B. Roysam, “Model-based method for improving the accuracy and repeatability of estimating vascular bifurcations and crossovers from retinal fundus images,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 8(2), 122–130 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Shen, C. V. Stewart, B. Roysam, G. Lin, and H. L. Tanenbaum, “Frame-rate spatial referencing based on invariant indexing and alignment with application to online retinal image registration,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 25(3), 379–384 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Can, C. V. Stewart, B. Roysam, and H. L. Tanenbaum, “A feature-based, robust, hierarchical algorithm for registering pairs of images of the curved human retina,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 24(3), 347–364 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thévenaz, P.

P. Thévenaz, U. E. Ruttimann, and M. Unser, “A pyramid approach to subpixel registration based on intensity,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 7(1), 27–41 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toth, C. A.

M. Stopa, B. A. Bower, E. Davies, J. A. Izatt, and C. A. Toth, “Correlation of pathologic features in spectral domain optical coherence tomography with conventional retinal studies,” Retina 28(2), 298–308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, C. L.

C. L. Tsai, C. V. Stewart, H. L. Tanenbaum, and B. Roysam, “Model-based method for improving the accuracy and repeatability of estimating vascular bifurcations and crossovers from retinal fundus images,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 8(2), 122–130 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. V. Stewart, C. L. Tsai, and B. Roysam, “The dual-bootstrap iterative closest point algorithm with application to retinal image registration,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 22(11), 1379–1394 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Unser, M.

P. Thévenaz, U. E. Ruttimann, and M. Unser, “A pyramid approach to subpixel registration based on intensity,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 7(1), 27–41 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Saarloos, P. P.

N. Ritter, R. Owens, J. Cooper, R. H. Eikelboom, and P. P. van Saarloos, “Registration of stereo and temporal images of the retina,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 18(5), 404–418 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Viergever, M. A.

J. B. Maintz and M. A. Viergever, “A survey of medical image registration,” Med. Image Anal. 2(1), 1–36 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, F. H.

B. J. Lujan, P. J. Rosenfeld, G. Gregori, F. H. Wang, R. W. Knighton, W. J. Feuer, and C. A. Puliafito, “Spectral domain optical coherence tomographic imaging of geographic atrophy,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 40(2), 96–101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Lujan, F. H. Wang, G. Gregori, P. J. Rosenfeld, R. W. Knighton, C. A. Puliafito, R. P. Danis, L. D. Hubbard, R. T. Chang, D. L. Budenz, M. I. Seider, and O. Knight, “Calibration of fundus images using spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 39(4Suppl), S15–S20 (2008).
[PubMed]

Zana, F.

F. Zana and J. C. Klein, “A multimodal registration algorithm of eye fundus images using vessels detection and Hough transform,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 18(5), 419–428 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zitova, B.

B. Zitova and J. Flusser, “Image registration methods: a survey,” Image Vis. Comput. 21(11), 977–1000 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Graph. Vis. Image Process. J. (1)

M. S. Mabrouk, N. H. Solouma, and Y. M. Kadah, “Survey of retinal image segmentation and registration,” Graph. Vis. Image Process. J. 6, 1–11 (2006).

IEEE Trans. Image Process. (1)

P. Thévenaz, U. E. Ruttimann, and M. Unser, “A pyramid approach to subpixel registration based on intensity,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 7(1), 27–41 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. (2)

C. L. Tsai, C. V. Stewart, H. L. Tanenbaum, and B. Roysam, “Model-based method for improving the accuracy and repeatability of estimating vascular bifurcations and crossovers from retinal fundus images,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 8(2), 122–130 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Chanwimaluang, G. L. Fan, and S. R. Fransen, “Hybrid retinal image registration,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 10(1), 129–142 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (5)

F. Zana and J. C. Klein, “A multimodal registration algorithm of eye fundus images using vessels detection and Hough transform,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 18(5), 419–428 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Laliberté, L. Gagnon, and Y. Sheng, “Registration and fusion of retinal images--an evaluation study,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 22(5), 661–673 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. K. Matsopoulos, P. A. Asvestas, N. A. Mouravliansky, and K. K. Delibasis, “Multimodal registration of retinal images using self organizing maps,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 23(12), 1557–1563 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. V. Stewart, C. L. Tsai, and B. Roysam, “The dual-bootstrap iterative closest point algorithm with application to retinal image registration,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 22(11), 1379–1394 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ritter, R. Owens, J. Cooper, R. H. Eikelboom, and P. P. van Saarloos, “Registration of stereo and temporal images of the retina,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 18(5), 404–418 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. (4)

A. Can, C. V. Stewart, B. Roysam, and H. L. Tanenbaum, “A feature-based, robust, hierarchical algorithm for registering pairs of images of the curved human retina,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 24(3), 347–364 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Shen, C. V. Stewart, B. Roysam, G. Lin, and H. L. Tanenbaum, “Frame-rate spatial referencing based on invariant indexing and alignment with application to online retinal image registration,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 25(3), 379–384 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Besl and N. D. Mckay, “A Method for Registration of 3-D Shapes,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 14(2), 239–256 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Huttenlocher, G. A. Klanderman, and W. J. Rucklidge, “Comparing Images Using the Hausdorff Distance,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 15(9), 850–863 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Image Vis. Comput. (1)

B. Zitova and J. Flusser, “Image registration methods: a survey,” Image Vis. Comput. 21(11), 977–1000 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (3)

Y. Li, R. W. Knighton, G. Gregori, and R. J. Lujan, “Retinal Image Registration Algorithm Based on Vessel Ridge Detection,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 4258 (2008).

H. Narasimha-Iyer, B. Lujan, J. Oakley, S. Meyer, and S. S. Dastmalchi, “Registration of Cirrus HD-OCT Images With Fundus Photographs, Fluorescein Angiographs and Fundus Autofluorescence Images,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 1831 (2008).

Y. Li, N. Hutchings, and J. G. Flanagan, “Automated Detection of the Retinal Blood Vessels and Fovea for Scanning Laser Tomography Images,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 2605 (2007).

Med. Image Anal. (1)

J. B. Maintz and M. A. Viergever, “A survey of medical image registration,” Med. Image Anal. 2(1), 1–36 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging (2)

B. J. Lujan, P. J. Rosenfeld, G. Gregori, F. H. Wang, R. W. Knighton, W. J. Feuer, and C. A. Puliafito, “Spectral domain optical coherence tomographic imaging of geographic atrophy,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 40(2), 96–101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Lujan, F. H. Wang, G. Gregori, P. J. Rosenfeld, R. W. Knighton, C. A. Puliafito, R. P. Danis, L. D. Hubbard, R. T. Chang, D. L. Budenz, M. I. Seider, and O. Knight, “Calibration of fundus images using spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 39(4Suppl), S15–S20 (2008).
[PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Pattern Recognit. (1)

H. Lester and S. R. Arridge, “A survey of hierarchical non-linear medical image registration,” Pattern Recognit. 32(1), 129–149 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Retina (1)

M. Stopa, B. A. Bower, E. Davies, J. A. Izatt, and C. A. Toth, “Correlation of pathologic features in spectral domain optical coherence tomography with conventional retinal studies,” Retina 28(2), 298–308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

M. Skokan, A. Skoupy, and J. Jan, “Registration of multimodal images of retina,” in Proceedings of the Second Joint EMBS/BMES Conference, (IEEE, New York, 2002), pp. 1094–1096.

Y. Li, N. Hutchings, R. W. Knighton, G. Gregori, R. J. Lujan, and J. G. Flanagan, “Ridge-branch-based blood vessel detection algorithm for multimodal retinal images,” in Proceedings of SPIE, (2009), pp. 72594K.

S. Rusinkiewicz, and M. Levoy, “Efficient variants of the ICP algorithm,” in Third International Conference on 3-D Digital Imaging and Modeling, (2001), pp. 145–152.

L. Gagnon, M. Lalonde, M. Beaulieu, and M.-C. Boucher, “Procedure to detect anatomical structures in optical fundus images,” in Proceedings of SPIE Medical Imaging, (2001).

Z. Hu, M. Niemeijer, and D. Abramoff Michael, Lee Kyungmoo, and Mona K.Garvin, “Registration of multimodal images of retina,” in Proceedings of MICCAI, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 2010), pp. 33–40.

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