Abstract

We demonstrate terahertz (THz) imaging and spectroscopy of a 15 × 15-mm2 single-layer graphene film on Si using broadband THz pulses. The THz images clearly map out the THz carrier dynamics of the graphene-on-Si sample, allowing us to measure sheet conductivity with sub-mm resolution without fabricating electrodes. The THz carrier dynamics are dominated by intraband transitions and the THz-induced electron motion is characterized by a flat spectral response. A theoretical analysis based on the Fresnel coefficients for a metallic thin film shows that the local sheet conductivity varies across the sample from σs = 1.7 × 10−3 to 2.4 × 10−3 Ω−1 (sheet resistance, ρs = 420 - 590 Ω/sq).

© 2011 OSA

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2010 (2)

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. Ri Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lee, S. Bae, H. Jang, S. Jang, S.-E. Zhu, S. H. Sim, Y. I. Song, B. H. Hong, and J.-H. Ahn, “Wafer-Scale Synthesis and Transfer of Graphene Films,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 490–493 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (9)

A. H. Castro Neto, N. M. R. Peres, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “The electronic properties of graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 109–162 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Choi, F. Borondics, D. A. Siegel, S. Y. Zhou, M. C. Martin, A. Lanzara, and R. A. Kaindl, “Broadband electromagnetic response and ultrafast dynamics of few-layer epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 172102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Geim, “Graphene: Status and Prospect,” Science 324(5934), 1530–1534 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Brumfiel, “Graphene gets ready for the big time,” Nature 458(7237), 390–391 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Dragoman and D. Dragoman, “Graphene-based quantum electronics,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 33(6), 165–214 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-M. Lin, K. A. Jenkins, A. Valdes-Garcia, J. P. Small, D. B. Farmer, and P. Avouris, “Operation of Graphene Transistors at Gigahertz Frequencies,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 422–426 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, D. Nezich, J. Kong, and T. Palacios, “Graphene frequency multipliers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(5), 547–549 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

N. L. Rangel and J. M. Seminario, “Graphene terahertz generators for molecular circuits and sensors,” J. Phys. Chem. A 112(51), 13699–13705 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, X. Wang, L. Zhang, S. Lee, and H. Dai, “Chemically Derived, Ultrasmooth Graphene Nanoribbon Semiconductors,” Science 319(5867), 1229–1232 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Ponomarenko, F. Schedin, M. I. Katsnelson, R. Yang, E. W. Hill, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “Chaotic Dirac Billiard in Graphene Quantum Dots,” Science 320(5874), 356–358 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C.-H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the Optical Conductivity of Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(19), 196405 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

S. Pisana, M. Lazzeri, C. Casiraghi, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, A. C. Ferrari, and F. Mauri, “Breakdown of the adiabatic Born–Oppenheimer approximation in graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 198–201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y.-W. Tan, Y. Zhang, K. Bolotin, Y. Zhao, S. Adam, E. H. Hwang, S. Das Sarma, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, “Measurement of Scattering Rate and Minimum Conductivity in Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(24), 246803 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Ryzhii, “Terahertz plasma waves in gated graphene heterostructures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(35), L923–L925 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Berger, Z. Song, X. Li, X. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. Li, J. Hass, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, “Electronic confinement and Coherence in Patterned Epitaxial Graphene,” Science 312(5777), 1191–1196 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

Y. Zhang, J. W. Tan, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, “Experimental observation of the quantum Hall effect and Berry’s phase in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 201–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, “A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro‐optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(16), 2321–2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Adam, S.

Y.-W. Tan, Y. Zhang, K. Bolotin, Y. Zhao, S. Adam, E. H. Hwang, S. Das Sarma, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, “Measurement of Scattering Rate and Minimum Conductivity in Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(24), 246803 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, J.-H.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. Ri Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lee, S. Bae, H. Jang, S. Jang, S.-E. Zhu, S. H. Sim, Y. I. Song, B. H. Hong, and J.-H. Ahn, “Wafer-Scale Synthesis and Transfer of Graphene Films,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 490–493 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef]

An, J.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Avouris, P.

Y.-M. Lin, K. A. Jenkins, A. Valdes-Garcia, J. P. Small, D. B. Farmer, and P. Avouris, “Operation of Graphene Transistors at Gigahertz Frequencies,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 422–426 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bae, S.

Y. Lee, S. Bae, H. Jang, S. Jang, S.-E. Zhu, S. H. Sim, Y. I. Song, B. H. Hong, and J.-H. Ahn, “Wafer-Scale Synthesis and Transfer of Graphene Films,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 490–493 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. Ri Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Balakrishnan, J.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. Ri Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Banerjee, S. K.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Berger, C.

C. Berger, Z. Song, X. Li, X. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. Li, J. Hass, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, “Electronic confinement and Coherence in Patterned Epitaxial Graphene,” Science 312(5777), 1191–1196 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bolotin, K.

Y.-W. Tan, Y. Zhang, K. Bolotin, Y. Zhao, S. Adam, E. H. Hwang, S. Das Sarma, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, “Measurement of Scattering Rate and Minimum Conductivity in Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(24), 246803 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Borondics, F.

H. Choi, F. Borondics, D. A. Siegel, S. Y. Zhou, M. C. Martin, A. Lanzara, and R. A. Kaindl, “Broadband electromagnetic response and ultrafast dynamics of few-layer epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 172102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brown, N.

C. Berger, Z. Song, X. Li, X. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. Li, J. Hass, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, “Electronic confinement and Coherence in Patterned Epitaxial Graphene,” Science 312(5777), 1191–1196 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brumfiel, G.

G. Brumfiel, “Graphene gets ready for the big time,” Nature 458(7237), 390–391 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cai, W.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Casiraghi, C.

S. Pisana, M. Lazzeri, C. Casiraghi, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, A. C. Ferrari, and F. Mauri, “Breakdown of the adiabatic Born–Oppenheimer approximation in graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 198–201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Castro Neto, A. H.

A. H. Castro Neto, N. M. R. Peres, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “The electronic properties of graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 109–162 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H.

H. Choi, F. Borondics, D. A. Siegel, S. Y. Zhou, M. C. Martin, A. Lanzara, and R. A. Kaindl, “Broadband electromagnetic response and ultrafast dynamics of few-layer epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 172102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J.-Y.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Colombo, L.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Conrad, E. H.

C. Berger, Z. Song, X. Li, X. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. Li, J. Hass, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, “Electronic confinement and Coherence in Patterned Epitaxial Graphene,” Science 312(5777), 1191–1196 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dai, H.

X. Li, X. Wang, L. Zhang, S. Lee, and H. Dai, “Chemically Derived, Ultrasmooth Graphene Nanoribbon Semiconductors,” Science 319(5867), 1229–1232 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Das Sarma, S.

Y.-W. Tan, Y. Zhang, K. Bolotin, Y. Zhao, S. Adam, E. H. Hwang, S. Das Sarma, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, “Measurement of Scattering Rate and Minimum Conductivity in Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(24), 246803 (2007).
[CrossRef]

de Heer, W. A.

C. Berger, Z. Song, X. Li, X. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. Li, J. Hass, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, “Electronic confinement and Coherence in Patterned Epitaxial Graphene,” Science 312(5777), 1191–1196 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dragoman, D.

M. Dragoman and D. Dragoman, “Graphene-based quantum electronics,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 33(6), 165–214 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dragoman, M.

M. Dragoman and D. Dragoman, “Graphene-based quantum electronics,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 33(6), 165–214 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Farmer, D. B.

Y.-M. Lin, K. A. Jenkins, A. Valdes-Garcia, J. P. Small, D. B. Farmer, and P. Avouris, “Operation of Graphene Transistors at Gigahertz Frequencies,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 422–426 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, A. C.

S. Pisana, M. Lazzeri, C. Casiraghi, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, A. C. Ferrari, and F. Mauri, “Breakdown of the adiabatic Born–Oppenheimer approximation in graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 198–201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

First, P. N.

C. Berger, Z. Song, X. Li, X. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. Li, J. Hass, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, “Electronic confinement and Coherence in Patterned Epitaxial Graphene,” Science 312(5777), 1191–1196 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Geim, A. K.

A. H. Castro Neto, N. M. R. Peres, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “The electronic properties of graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 109–162 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Ponomarenko, F. Schedin, M. I. Katsnelson, R. Yang, E. W. Hill, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “Chaotic Dirac Billiard in Graphene Quantum Dots,” Science 320(5874), 356–358 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Pisana, M. Lazzeri, C. Casiraghi, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, A. C. Ferrari, and F. Mauri, “Breakdown of the adiabatic Born–Oppenheimer approximation in graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 198–201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Geim, K.

K. Geim, “Graphene: Status and Prospect,” Science 324(5934), 1530–1534 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hass, J.

C. Berger, Z. Song, X. Li, X. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. Li, J. Hass, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, “Electronic confinement and Coherence in Patterned Epitaxial Graphene,” Science 312(5777), 1191–1196 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Heinz, T. F.

K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C.-H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the Optical Conductivity of Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(19), 196405 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, “A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro‐optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(16), 2321–2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hill, E. W.

L. A. Ponomarenko, F. Schedin, M. I. Katsnelson, R. Yang, E. W. Hill, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “Chaotic Dirac Billiard in Graphene Quantum Dots,” Science 320(5874), 356–358 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hong, B. H.

Y. Lee, S. Bae, H. Jang, S. Jang, S.-E. Zhu, S. H. Sim, Y. I. Song, B. H. Hong, and J.-H. Ahn, “Wafer-Scale Synthesis and Transfer of Graphene Films,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 490–493 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. Ri Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, E. H.

Y.-W. Tan, Y. Zhang, K. Bolotin, Y. Zhao, S. Adam, E. H. Hwang, S. Das Sarma, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, “Measurement of Scattering Rate and Minimum Conductivity in Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(24), 246803 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Iijima, S.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. Ri Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jang, H.

Y. Lee, S. Bae, H. Jang, S. Jang, S.-E. Zhu, S. H. Sim, Y. I. Song, B. H. Hong, and J.-H. Ahn, “Wafer-Scale Synthesis and Transfer of Graphene Films,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 490–493 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jang, S.

Y. Lee, S. Bae, H. Jang, S. Jang, S.-E. Zhu, S. H. Sim, Y. I. Song, B. H. Hong, and J.-H. Ahn, “Wafer-Scale Synthesis and Transfer of Graphene Films,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 490–493 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jenkins, K. A.

Y.-M. Lin, K. A. Jenkins, A. Valdes-Garcia, J. P. Small, D. B. Farmer, and P. Avouris, “Operation of Graphene Transistors at Gigahertz Frequencies,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 422–426 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, D.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jung, I.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kaindl, R. A.

H. Choi, F. Borondics, D. A. Siegel, S. Y. Zhou, M. C. Martin, A. Lanzara, and R. A. Kaindl, “Broadband electromagnetic response and ultrafast dynamics of few-layer epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 172102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Katsnelson, M. I.

L. A. Ponomarenko, F. Schedin, M. I. Katsnelson, R. Yang, E. W. Hill, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “Chaotic Dirac Billiard in Graphene Quantum Dots,” Science 320(5874), 356–358 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. Ri Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. M.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. S.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. Ri Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, P.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-W. Tan, Y. Zhang, K. Bolotin, Y. Zhao, S. Adam, E. H. Hwang, S. Das Sarma, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, “Measurement of Scattering Rate and Minimum Conductivity in Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(24), 246803 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, J. W. Tan, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, “Experimental observation of the quantum Hall effect and Berry’s phase in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 201–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.-J.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. Ri Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kong, J.

H. Wang, D. Nezich, J. Kong, and T. Palacios, “Graphene frequency multipliers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(5), 547–549 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lanzara, A.

H. Choi, F. Borondics, D. A. Siegel, S. Y. Zhou, M. C. Martin, A. Lanzara, and R. A. Kaindl, “Broadband electromagnetic response and ultrafast dynamics of few-layer epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 172102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lazzeri, M.

S. Pisana, M. Lazzeri, C. Casiraghi, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, A. C. Ferrari, and F. Mauri, “Breakdown of the adiabatic Born–Oppenheimer approximation in graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 198–201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

X. Li, X. Wang, L. Zhang, S. Lee, and H. Dai, “Chemically Derived, Ultrasmooth Graphene Nanoribbon Semiconductors,” Science 319(5867), 1229–1232 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. Y.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. Ri Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lee, S. Bae, H. Jang, S. Jang, S.-E. Zhu, S. H. Sim, Y. I. Song, B. H. Hong, and J.-H. Ahn, “Wafer-Scale Synthesis and Transfer of Graphene Films,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 490–493 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lei, T.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. Ri Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, T.

C. Berger, Z. Song, X. Li, X. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. Li, J. Hass, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, “Electronic confinement and Coherence in Patterned Epitaxial Graphene,” Science 312(5777), 1191–1196 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, X. Wang, L. Zhang, S. Lee, and H. Dai, “Chemically Derived, Ultrasmooth Graphene Nanoribbon Semiconductors,” Science 319(5867), 1229–1232 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Berger, Z. Song, X. Li, X. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. Li, J. Hass, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, “Electronic confinement and Coherence in Patterned Epitaxial Graphene,” Science 312(5777), 1191–1196 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.-M.

Y.-M. Lin, K. A. Jenkins, A. Valdes-Garcia, J. P. Small, D. B. Farmer, and P. Avouris, “Operation of Graphene Transistors at Gigahertz Frequencies,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 422–426 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lui, C.-H.

K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C.-H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the Optical Conductivity of Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(19), 196405 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mak, K. F.

K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C.-H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the Optical Conductivity of Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(19), 196405 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Marchenkov, A. N.

C. Berger, Z. Song, X. Li, X. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. Li, J. Hass, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, “Electronic confinement and Coherence in Patterned Epitaxial Graphene,” Science 312(5777), 1191–1196 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Martin, M. C.

H. Choi, F. Borondics, D. A. Siegel, S. Y. Zhou, M. C. Martin, A. Lanzara, and R. A. Kaindl, “Broadband electromagnetic response and ultrafast dynamics of few-layer epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 172102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mauri, F.

S. Pisana, M. Lazzeri, C. Casiraghi, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, A. C. Ferrari, and F. Mauri, “Breakdown of the adiabatic Born–Oppenheimer approximation in graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 198–201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mayou, D.

C. Berger, Z. Song, X. Li, X. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. Li, J. Hass, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, “Electronic confinement and Coherence in Patterned Epitaxial Graphene,” Science 312(5777), 1191–1196 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, J. C.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Misewich, J. A.

K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C.-H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the Optical Conductivity of Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(19), 196405 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nah, J.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nahata, A.

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, “A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro‐optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(16), 2321–2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Naud, C.

C. Berger, Z. Song, X. Li, X. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. Li, J. Hass, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, “Electronic confinement and Coherence in Patterned Epitaxial Graphene,” Science 312(5777), 1191–1196 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nezich, D.

H. Wang, D. Nezich, J. Kong, and T. Palacios, “Graphene frequency multipliers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(5), 547–549 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Novoselov, K. S.

A. H. Castro Neto, N. M. R. Peres, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “The electronic properties of graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 109–162 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Ponomarenko, F. Schedin, M. I. Katsnelson, R. Yang, E. W. Hill, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “Chaotic Dirac Billiard in Graphene Quantum Dots,” Science 320(5874), 356–358 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Pisana, M. Lazzeri, C. Casiraghi, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, A. C. Ferrari, and F. Mauri, “Breakdown of the adiabatic Born–Oppenheimer approximation in graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 198–201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Özyilmaz, B.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. Ri Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Palacios, T.

H. Wang, D. Nezich, J. Kong, and T. Palacios, “Graphene frequency multipliers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(5), 547–549 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.-S.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. Ri Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Peres, N. M. R.

A. H. Castro Neto, N. M. R. Peres, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “The electronic properties of graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 109–162 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Piner, R.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pisana, S.

S. Pisana, M. Lazzeri, C. Casiraghi, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, A. C. Ferrari, and F. Mauri, “Breakdown of the adiabatic Born–Oppenheimer approximation in graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 198–201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Piscanec, S.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ponomarenko, L. A.

L. A. Ponomarenko, F. Schedin, M. I. Katsnelson, R. Yang, E. W. Hill, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “Chaotic Dirac Billiard in Graphene Quantum Dots,” Science 320(5874), 356–358 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rangel, N. L.

N. L. Rangel and J. M. Seminario, “Graphene terahertz generators for molecular circuits and sensors,” J. Phys. Chem. A 112(51), 13699–13705 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ri Kim, H.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. Ri Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Roth, S.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ruoff, R. S.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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V. Ryzhii, “Terahertz plasma waves in gated graphene heterostructures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(35), L923–L925 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Scardaci, V.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schedin, F.

L. A. Ponomarenko, F. Schedin, M. I. Katsnelson, R. Yang, E. W. Hill, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “Chaotic Dirac Billiard in Graphene Quantum Dots,” Science 320(5874), 356–358 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Seminario, J. M.

N. L. Rangel and J. M. Seminario, “Graphene terahertz generators for molecular circuits and sensors,” J. Phys. Chem. A 112(51), 13699–13705 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sfeir, M. Y.

K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C.-H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the Optical Conductivity of Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(19), 196405 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, D. A.

H. Choi, F. Borondics, D. A. Siegel, S. Y. Zhou, M. C. Martin, A. Lanzara, and R. A. Kaindl, “Broadband electromagnetic response and ultrafast dynamics of few-layer epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 172102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sim, S. H.

Y. Lee, S. Bae, H. Jang, S. Jang, S.-E. Zhu, S. H. Sim, Y. I. Song, B. H. Hong, and J.-H. Ahn, “Wafer-Scale Synthesis and Transfer of Graphene Films,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 490–493 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Small, J. P.

Y.-M. Lin, K. A. Jenkins, A. Valdes-Garcia, J. P. Small, D. B. Farmer, and P. Avouris, “Operation of Graphene Transistors at Gigahertz Frequencies,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 422–426 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. I.

Y. Lee, S. Bae, H. Jang, S. Jang, S.-E. Zhu, S. H. Sim, Y. I. Song, B. H. Hong, and J.-H. Ahn, “Wafer-Scale Synthesis and Transfer of Graphene Films,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 490–493 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. Ri Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Song, Z.

C. Berger, Z. Song, X. Li, X. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. Li, J. Hass, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, “Electronic confinement and Coherence in Patterned Epitaxial Graphene,” Science 312(5777), 1191–1196 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stormer, H. L.

Y.-W. Tan, Y. Zhang, K. Bolotin, Y. Zhao, S. Adam, E. H. Hwang, S. Das Sarma, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, “Measurement of Scattering Rate and Minimum Conductivity in Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(24), 246803 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, J. W. Tan, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, “Experimental observation of the quantum Hall effect and Berry’s phase in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 201–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tan, J. W.

Y. Zhang, J. W. Tan, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, “Experimental observation of the quantum Hall effect and Berry’s phase in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 201–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tan, Y.-W.

Y.-W. Tan, Y. Zhang, K. Bolotin, Y. Zhao, S. Adam, E. H. Hwang, S. Das Sarma, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, “Measurement of Scattering Rate and Minimum Conductivity in Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(24), 246803 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tutuc, E.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Valdes-Garcia, A.

Y.-M. Lin, K. A. Jenkins, A. Valdes-Garcia, J. P. Small, D. B. Farmer, and P. Avouris, “Operation of Graphene Transistors at Gigahertz Frequencies,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 422–426 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Velamakanni, A.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

H. Wang, D. Nezich, J. Kong, and T. Palacios, “Graphene frequency multipliers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(5), 547–549 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

X. Li, X. Wang, L. Zhang, S. Lee, and H. Dai, “Chemically Derived, Ultrasmooth Graphene Nanoribbon Semiconductors,” Science 319(5867), 1229–1232 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Weling, A. S.

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C. Berger, Z. Song, X. Li, X. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. Li, J. Hass, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, “Electronic confinement and Coherence in Patterned Epitaxial Graphene,” Science 312(5777), 1191–1196 (2006).
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Wu, Y.

K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C.-H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the Optical Conductivity of Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(19), 196405 (2008).
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Xu, X.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. Ri Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
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X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
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L. A. Ponomarenko, F. Schedin, M. I. Katsnelson, R. Yang, E. W. Hill, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “Chaotic Dirac Billiard in Graphene Quantum Dots,” Science 320(5874), 356–358 (2008).
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X. Li, X. Wang, L. Zhang, S. Lee, and H. Dai, “Chemically Derived, Ultrasmooth Graphene Nanoribbon Semiconductors,” Science 319(5867), 1229–1232 (2008).
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Y.-W. Tan, Y. Zhang, K. Bolotin, Y. Zhao, S. Adam, E. H. Hwang, S. Das Sarma, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, “Measurement of Scattering Rate and Minimum Conductivity in Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(24), 246803 (2007).
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Y. Zhang, J. W. Tan, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, “Experimental observation of the quantum Hall effect and Berry’s phase in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 201–204 (2005).
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K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
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Y.-W. Tan, Y. Zhang, K. Bolotin, Y. Zhao, S. Adam, E. H. Hwang, S. Das Sarma, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, “Measurement of Scattering Rate and Minimum Conductivity in Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(24), 246803 (2007).
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S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. Ri Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
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H. Choi, F. Borondics, D. A. Siegel, S. Y. Zhou, M. C. Martin, A. Lanzara, and R. A. Kaindl, “Broadband electromagnetic response and ultrafast dynamics of few-layer epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 172102 (2009).
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Y. Lee, S. Bae, H. Jang, S. Jang, S.-E. Zhu, S. H. Sim, Y. I. Song, B. H. Hong, and J.-H. Ahn, “Wafer-Scale Synthesis and Transfer of Graphene Films,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 490–493 (2010).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

H. Choi, F. Borondics, D. A. Siegel, S. Y. Zhou, M. C. Martin, A. Lanzara, and R. A. Kaindl, “Broadband electromagnetic response and ultrafast dynamics of few-layer epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 172102 (2009).
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IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

H. Wang, D. Nezich, J. Kong, and T. Palacios, “Graphene frequency multipliers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(5), 547–549 (2009).
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N. L. Rangel and J. M. Seminario, “Graphene terahertz generators for molecular circuits and sensors,” J. Phys. Chem. A 112(51), 13699–13705 (2008).
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V. Ryzhii, “Terahertz plasma waves in gated graphene heterostructures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(35), L923–L925 (2006).
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Y. Lee, S. Bae, H. Jang, S. Jang, S.-E. Zhu, S. H. Sim, Y. I. Song, B. H. Hong, and J.-H. Ahn, “Wafer-Scale Synthesis and Transfer of Graphene Films,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 490–493 (2010).
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Y.-M. Lin, K. A. Jenkins, A. Valdes-Garcia, J. P. Small, D. B. Farmer, and P. Avouris, “Operation of Graphene Transistors at Gigahertz Frequencies,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 422–426 (2009).
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S. Pisana, M. Lazzeri, C. Casiraghi, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, A. C. Ferrari, and F. Mauri, “Breakdown of the adiabatic Born–Oppenheimer approximation in graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 198–201 (2007).
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K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
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S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. Ri Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
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Nature (3)

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
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Y. Zhang, J. W. Tan, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, “Experimental observation of the quantum Hall effect and Berry’s phase in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 201–204 (2005).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C.-H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the Optical Conductivity of Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(19), 196405 (2008).
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Y.-W. Tan, Y. Zhang, K. Bolotin, Y. Zhao, S. Adam, E. H. Hwang, S. Das Sarma, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, “Measurement of Scattering Rate and Minimum Conductivity in Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(24), 246803 (2007).
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K. Geim, “Graphene: Status and Prospect,” Science 324(5934), 1530–1534 (2009).
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X. Li, X. Wang, L. Zhang, S. Lee, and H. Dai, “Chemically Derived, Ultrasmooth Graphene Nanoribbon Semiconductors,” Science 319(5867), 1229–1232 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Ponomarenko, F. Schedin, M. I. Katsnelson, R. Yang, E. W. Hill, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “Chaotic Dirac Billiard in Graphene Quantum Dots,” Science 320(5874), 356–358 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Berger, Z. Song, X. Li, X. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. Li, J. Hass, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, “Electronic confinement and Coherence in Patterned Epitaxial Graphene,” Science 312(5777), 1191–1196 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. Horng, C.-F. Chen, B. Geng, C. Girit, Y. Zhang, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, M. Martin, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Drude Conductivity of Dirac Fermions in Graphene,” arXiv:1007.4623v1.

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