Abstract

We systematically study the morphological and optical characteristics of the large-area micro/nanostructures produced by femtosecond laser irradiation on GaAs, Si, and brass. The experimental results demonstrate that along with the increase of laser fluence, significant changes in the surface morphology can be observed, and the most prominent phenomenon is the enlarging of the feature size of formed structures. Interestingly, by the fourier analysis of the treated areas, a peculiar phenomenon can be revealed: as laser fluence increases, the spatial frequencies of the structures change following a specific law – the allowed main frequencies are discrete, and appear to be a sequence of 2f, f, f/2, f/4, and f/8 (f is the fundamental frequency corresponding to the near-subwavelength ripples). In our opinion, the new frequency components of f/2, f/4, and f/8 originate in the 2-order, 4-order, and 8-order grating coupling. The law can offer us new insights for the evolving mechanisms of a variety of laser-induced micro/nanostructures in different scales. Furthermore, the optical characteristics of the treated surface are strongly dependent on the morphological characteristics that are mainly determined by laser fluence, such as the feature size of the micro/nanostructures, the topology of the surface morphology, the surface roughness, and the irregular degree of the formed structures. In general, as laser fluence increases in a moderate range, the specular reflectance of the structured surface would be significantly reduced. However, if laser fluence is excessive, the anti-specular-reflection effect would be much weakened. In ideal laser fluence, the micro/nanostructures produced by the near-infrared laser can achieve an ultra-low specular reflectance in the visible and near-infrared spectral region, which exhibits an attracting application prospect in the field of utilizing solar energy.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  28. F. Keilmann and Y. H. Bai, “Periodic surface structures frozen into CO2 laser-melted quartz,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 29(1), 9–18 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  31. J. Bonse, M. Munz, and H. Sturm, “Structure Formation on the Surface of Indium Phosphide Irradiated by Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(1), 013538 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  32. J. Wang and C. Guo, “Formation of extraordinarily uniform periodic structures on metals induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023511 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, “On the role of surface plasmon polaritons in the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures upon irradiation of silicon by femtosecond-laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 104910 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

Y. Han and S. Qu, “Uniform self-organized grating fabricated by single femtosecond laser on dense flint (ZF6) glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 98(1), 167–170 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Jia, T. Q. Jia, Y. Zhang, P. X. Xiong, D. H. Feng, Z. R. Sun, J. R. Qiu, and Z. Z. Xu, “Periodic nanoripples in the surface and subsurface layers in ZnO irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1248–1250 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

A. Y. Vorobyev, V. S. Makin, and C. L. Guo, “Brighter light sources from black metal: significant increase in emission efficiency of incandescent light sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(23), 234301 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures revisited: A comparative study on ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(3), 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “Mechanisms of ultrafast laser-induced deep-subwavelength gratings on graphite and diamond,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125436 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Martsinovsky, G. D. Shandybina, Yu. S. Dement’eva, R. V. Dyukin, S. V. Zabotnov, L. A. Golovan’, and P. K. Kashkarov, “Generation of surface electromagnetic waves in semiconductors under the action of femtosecond laser pulses,” Semiconductors 43(10), 1298–1304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident laser,” ACS Nano 3(12), 4062–4070 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, “On the role of surface plasmon polaritons in the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures upon irradiation of silicon by femtosecond-laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 104910 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Golosov, V. I. Emel’yanov, A. A. Ionin, Yu. R. Kolobov, S. I. Kudryashov, A. E. Ligachev, Yu. N. Novoselov, L. V. Seleznev, and D. V. Sinitsyn, “Femtosecond laser writing of subwave one-dimensional quasiperiodic nanostructures on a titanium Surface,” JETP Lett. 90(2), 107–110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Sakabe, M. Hashida, S. Tokita, S. Namba, and K. Okamuro, “Mechanism for self-formation of periodic grating structures on a metal surface by a femtosecond laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 033409 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “Large area uniform nanostructures fabricated by direct femtosecond laser ablation,” Opt. Express 16(23), 19354–19365 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yang, J. Yang, C. Liang, and H. Wang, “Ultra-broadband enhanced absorption of metal surfaces structured by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11259–11265 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Colorizing metals with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 041914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Tomita, Y. Fukumori, K. Kinoshita, S. Matsuo, and S. Hashimoto, “Observation of laser-induced surface waves on flat silicon surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

E. M. Hsu, T. H. R. Crawford, H. F. Tiedje, and H. K. Haugen, “Periodic surface structures on gallium phosphide after irradiation with 150 fs-7 ns laser pulses at 800 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 111102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Tomita, K. Kinoshita, S. Matsuo, and S. Hashimoto, “Effect of surface roughening on femtosecond laser-induced ripple structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 153115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, T. Q. Jia, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “A uniform 290 nm periodic square structure on ZnO fabricated by two-beam femtosecond laser ablation,” Nanotechnology 18(50), 505301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Varlamova, F. Costache, J. Reif, and M. Bestehorn, “Self-organized pattern formation upon femtosecond laser ablation by circular polarized light,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(13), 4702–4706 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang and C. Guo, “Formation of extraordinarily uniform periodic structures on metals induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Huang, J. E. Carey, M. Liu, X. Guo, E. Mazur, and J. C. Campbell, “Microstructured silicon photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(3), 033506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Enhanced absorptance of gold following multipulse femtosecond laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. B 72(19), 195422 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, A. M. Munz, and H. Sturm, “Structure formation on the surface of indium phosphide irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(1), 013538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72(12), 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, M. Munz, and H. Sturm, “Structure Formation on the Surface of Indium Phosphide Irradiated by Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(1), 013538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

A. J. Pedraza, Y. F. Guan, J. D. Fowlkes, and D. A. Smith, “Nanostructures produced by ultraviolet laser irradiation of silicon. I. rippled structures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(6), 2823–2835 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Costache, S. Kouteva-Arguirova, and J. Reif, “Sub–damage–threshold femtosecond laser ablation from crystalline Si: surface nanostructures and phase transformation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 79(4-6), 1429 (2004).

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser-induced formation of submicrometer spikes on silicon in water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5694–5696 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(25), 4462–4464 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on diamond film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1703–1705 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

J. Reif, F. Costache, M. Henyk, and S. V. Pandelov, “Ripples revisited: nonclassical morphology at the bottom of femtosecond laser ablation craters in transparent dielectrics,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197–198, 891–895 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, S. Baudach, J. Krüger, W. Kautek, and M. Lenzner, “Femtosecond laser ablation of silicon–modification thresholds and morphology,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 74(1), 19–25 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

T.-H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser-induced formation of spikes on silicon,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 70(4), 383–385 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, H. Sturm, D. Schmidt, and W. Kautek, “Chemical, morphological and accumulation phenomena in ultrashort-pulse laser ablation of TiN in air,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 71(6), 657–665 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

T.-H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, S. Deliwala, and E. Mazur, “Microstructuring of silicon with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1673–1675 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1983

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. van Driel, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure, I. theory,” Phys. Rev. B 27(2), 1141–1154 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

F. Keilmann and Y. H. Bai, “Periodic surface structures frozen into CO2 laser-melted quartz,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 29(1), 9–18 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1965

M. Birnbaum, “Semiconductor surface damage produced by ruby lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 36(11), 3688 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Bai, Y. H.

F. Keilmann and Y. H. Bai, “Periodic surface structures frozen into CO2 laser-melted quartz,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 29(1), 9–18 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Baudach, S.

J. Bonse, S. Baudach, J. Krüger, W. Kautek, and M. Lenzner, “Femtosecond laser ablation of silicon–modification thresholds and morphology,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 74(1), 19–25 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bestehorn, M.

O. Varlamova, F. Costache, J. Reif, and M. Bestehorn, “Self-organized pattern formation upon femtosecond laser ablation by circular polarized light,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(13), 4702–4706 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bhardwaj, V. R.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birnbaum, M.

M. Birnbaum, “Semiconductor surface damage produced by ruby lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 36(11), 3688 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Bonse, J.

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures revisited: A comparative study on ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(3), 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, “On the role of surface plasmon polaritons in the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures upon irradiation of silicon by femtosecond-laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 104910 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, M. Munz, and H. Sturm, “Structure Formation on the Surface of Indium Phosphide Irradiated by Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(1), 013538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, A. M. Munz, and H. Sturm, “Structure formation on the surface of indium phosphide irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(1), 013538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, S. Baudach, J. Krüger, W. Kautek, and M. Lenzner, “Femtosecond laser ablation of silicon–modification thresholds and morphology,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 74(1), 19–25 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, H. Sturm, D. Schmidt, and W. Kautek, “Chemical, morphological and accumulation phenomena in ultrashort-pulse laser ablation of TiN in air,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 71(6), 657–665 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Borowiec, A.

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(25), 4462–4464 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J. C.

Z. Huang, J. E. Carey, M. Liu, X. Guo, E. Mazur, and J. C. Campbell, “Microstructured silicon photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(3), 033506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Carey, J. E.

Z. Huang, J. E. Carey, M. Liu, X. Guo, E. Mazur, and J. C. Campbell, “Microstructured silicon photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(3), 033506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser-induced formation of submicrometer spikes on silicon in water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5694–5696 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. X.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72(12), 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on diamond film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1703–1705 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “Mechanisms of ultrafast laser-induced deep-subwavelength gratings on graphite and diamond,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125436 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident laser,” ACS Nano 3(12), 4062–4070 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “Large area uniform nanostructures fabricated by direct femtosecond laser ablation,” Opt. Express 16(23), 19354–19365 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, T. Q. Jia, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “A uniform 290 nm periodic square structure on ZnO fabricated by two-beam femtosecond laser ablation,” Nanotechnology 18(50), 505301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Costache, F.

O. Varlamova, F. Costache, J. Reif, and M. Bestehorn, “Self-organized pattern formation upon femtosecond laser ablation by circular polarized light,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(13), 4702–4706 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Costache, S. Kouteva-Arguirova, and J. Reif, “Sub–damage–threshold femtosecond laser ablation from crystalline Si: surface nanostructures and phase transformation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 79(4-6), 1429 (2004).

J. Reif, F. Costache, M. Henyk, and S. V. Pandelov, “Ripples revisited: nonclassical morphology at the bottom of femtosecond laser ablation craters in transparent dielectrics,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197–198, 891–895 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, T. H. R.

E. M. Hsu, T. H. R. Crawford, H. F. Tiedje, and H. K. Haugen, “Periodic surface structures on gallium phosphide after irradiation with 150 fs-7 ns laser pulses at 800 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 111102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Crouch, C. H.

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser-induced formation of submicrometer spikes on silicon in water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5694–5696 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Das, S. K.

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures revisited: A comparative study on ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(3), 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Deliwala, S.

T.-H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, S. Deliwala, and E. Mazur, “Microstructuring of silicon with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1673–1675 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dement’eva, Yu. S.

G. A. Martsinovsky, G. D. Shandybina, Yu. S. Dement’eva, R. V. Dyukin, S. V. Zabotnov, L. A. Golovan’, and P. K. Kashkarov, “Generation of surface electromagnetic waves in semiconductors under the action of femtosecond laser pulses,” Semiconductors 43(10), 1298–1304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dufft, D.

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures revisited: A comparative study on ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(3), 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dyukin, R. V.

G. A. Martsinovsky, G. D. Shandybina, Yu. S. Dement’eva, R. V. Dyukin, S. V. Zabotnov, L. A. Golovan’, and P. K. Kashkarov, “Generation of surface electromagnetic waves in semiconductors under the action of femtosecond laser pulses,” Semiconductors 43(10), 1298–1304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Emel’yanov, V. I.

E. V. Golosov, V. I. Emel’yanov, A. A. Ionin, Yu. R. Kolobov, S. I. Kudryashov, A. E. Ligachev, Yu. N. Novoselov, L. V. Seleznev, and D. V. Sinitsyn, “Femtosecond laser writing of subwave one-dimensional quasiperiodic nanostructures on a titanium Surface,” JETP Lett. 90(2), 107–110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fang, R.

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on diamond film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1703–1705 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Feng, D. H.

Finlay, R. J.

T.-H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser-induced formation of spikes on silicon,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 70(4), 383–385 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T.-H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, S. Deliwala, and E. Mazur, “Microstructuring of silicon with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1673–1675 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fowlkes, J. D.

A. J. Pedraza, Y. F. Guan, J. D. Fowlkes, and D. A. Smith, “Nanostructures produced by ultraviolet laser irradiation of silicon. I. rippled structures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(6), 2823–2835 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fukumori, Y.

T. Tomita, Y. Fukumori, K. Kinoshita, S. Matsuo, and S. Hashimoto, “Observation of laser-induced surface waves on flat silicon surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Golosov, E. V.

E. V. Golosov, V. I. Emel’yanov, A. A. Ionin, Yu. R. Kolobov, S. I. Kudryashov, A. E. Ligachev, Yu. N. Novoselov, L. V. Seleznev, and D. V. Sinitsyn, “Femtosecond laser writing of subwave one-dimensional quasiperiodic nanostructures on a titanium Surface,” JETP Lett. 90(2), 107–110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Golovan’, L. A.

G. A. Martsinovsky, G. D. Shandybina, Yu. S. Dement’eva, R. V. Dyukin, S. V. Zabotnov, L. A. Golovan’, and P. K. Kashkarov, “Generation of surface electromagnetic waves in semiconductors under the action of femtosecond laser pulses,” Semiconductors 43(10), 1298–1304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Grunwald, R.

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures revisited: A comparative study on ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(3), 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Guan, Y. F.

A. J. Pedraza, Y. F. Guan, J. D. Fowlkes, and D. A. Smith, “Nanostructures produced by ultraviolet laser irradiation of silicon. I. rippled structures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(6), 2823–2835 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guo, C.

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Colorizing metals with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 041914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang and C. Guo, “Formation of extraordinarily uniform periodic structures on metals induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Enhanced absorptance of gold following multipulse femtosecond laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. B 72(19), 195422 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Guo, C. L.

A. Y. Vorobyev, V. S. Makin, and C. L. Guo, “Brighter light sources from black metal: significant increase in emission efficiency of incandescent light sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(23), 234301 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, X.

Z. Huang, J. E. Carey, M. Liu, X. Guo, E. Mazur, and J. C. Campbell, “Microstructured silicon photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(3), 033506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Han, Y.

Y. Han and S. Qu, “Uniform self-organized grating fabricated by single femtosecond laser on dense flint (ZF6) glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 98(1), 167–170 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hashida, M.

S. Sakabe, M. Hashida, S. Tokita, S. Namba, and K. Okamuro, “Mechanism for self-formation of periodic grating structures on a metal surface by a femtosecond laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 033409 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, S.

T. Tomita, Y. Fukumori, K. Kinoshita, S. Matsuo, and S. Hashimoto, “Observation of laser-induced surface waves on flat silicon surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Tomita, K. Kinoshita, S. Matsuo, and S. Hashimoto, “Effect of surface roughening on femtosecond laser-induced ripple structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 153115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Haugen, H. K.

E. M. Hsu, T. H. R. Crawford, H. F. Tiedje, and H. K. Haugen, “Periodic surface structures on gallium phosphide after irradiation with 150 fs-7 ns laser pulses at 800 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 111102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(25), 4462–4464 (2003).
[CrossRef]

He, X. K.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72(12), 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Henyk, M.

J. Reif, F. Costache, M. Henyk, and S. V. Pandelov, “Ripples revisited: nonclassical morphology at the bottom of femtosecond laser ablation craters in transparent dielectrics,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197–198, 891–895 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Her, T.-H.

T.-H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser-induced formation of spikes on silicon,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 70(4), 383–385 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T.-H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, S. Deliwala, and E. Mazur, “Microstructuring of silicon with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1673–1675 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hnatovsky, C.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, E. M.

E. M. Hsu, T. H. R. Crawford, H. F. Tiedje, and H. K. Haugen, “Periodic surface structures on gallium phosphide after irradiation with 150 fs-7 ns laser pulses at 800 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 111102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M.

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident laser,” ACS Nano 3(12), 4062–4070 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “Mechanisms of ultrafast laser-induced deep-subwavelength gratings on graphite and diamond,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125436 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “Large area uniform nanostructures fabricated by direct femtosecond laser ablation,” Opt. Express 16(23), 19354–19365 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, T. Q. Jia, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “A uniform 290 nm periodic square structure on ZnO fabricated by two-beam femtosecond laser ablation,” Nanotechnology 18(50), 505301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72(12), 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Z.

Z. Huang, J. E. Carey, M. Liu, X. Guo, E. Mazur, and J. C. Campbell, “Microstructured silicon photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(3), 033506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ionin, A. A.

E. V. Golosov, V. I. Emel’yanov, A. A. Ionin, Yu. R. Kolobov, S. I. Kudryashov, A. E. Ligachev, Yu. N. Novoselov, L. V. Seleznev, and D. V. Sinitsyn, “Femtosecond laser writing of subwave one-dimensional quasiperiodic nanostructures on a titanium Surface,” JETP Lett. 90(2), 107–110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jia, T. Q.

X. Jia, T. Q. Jia, Y. Zhang, P. X. Xiong, D. H. Feng, Z. R. Sun, J. R. Qiu, and Z. Z. Xu, “Periodic nanoripples in the surface and subsurface layers in ZnO irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1248–1250 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, T. Q. Jia, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “A uniform 290 nm periodic square structure on ZnO fabricated by two-beam femtosecond laser ablation,” Nanotechnology 18(50), 505301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72(12), 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jia, X.

Kashkarov, P. K.

G. A. Martsinovsky, G. D. Shandybina, Yu. S. Dement’eva, R. V. Dyukin, S. V. Zabotnov, L. A. Golovan’, and P. K. Kashkarov, “Generation of surface electromagnetic waves in semiconductors under the action of femtosecond laser pulses,” Semiconductors 43(10), 1298–1304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kautek, W.

J. Bonse, S. Baudach, J. Krüger, W. Kautek, and M. Lenzner, “Femtosecond laser ablation of silicon–modification thresholds and morphology,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 74(1), 19–25 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, H. Sturm, D. Schmidt, and W. Kautek, “Chemical, morphological and accumulation phenomena in ultrashort-pulse laser ablation of TiN in air,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 71(6), 657–665 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kazansky, P. G.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keilmann, F.

F. Keilmann and Y. H. Bai, “Periodic surface structures frozen into CO2 laser-melted quartz,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 29(1), 9–18 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kinoshita, K.

T. Tomita, Y. Fukumori, K. Kinoshita, S. Matsuo, and S. Hashimoto, “Observation of laser-induced surface waves on flat silicon surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Tomita, K. Kinoshita, S. Matsuo, and S. Hashimoto, “Effect of surface roughening on femtosecond laser-induced ripple structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 153115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kolobov, Yu. R.

E. V. Golosov, V. I. Emel’yanov, A. A. Ionin, Yu. R. Kolobov, S. I. Kudryashov, A. E. Ligachev, Yu. N. Novoselov, L. V. Seleznev, and D. V. Sinitsyn, “Femtosecond laser writing of subwave one-dimensional quasiperiodic nanostructures on a titanium Surface,” JETP Lett. 90(2), 107–110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kouteva-Arguirova, S.

F. Costache, S. Kouteva-Arguirova, and J. Reif, “Sub–damage–threshold femtosecond laser ablation from crystalline Si: surface nanostructures and phase transformation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 79(4-6), 1429 (2004).

Krüger, J.

J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, “On the role of surface plasmon polaritons in the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures upon irradiation of silicon by femtosecond-laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 104910 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, S. Baudach, J. Krüger, W. Kautek, and M. Lenzner, “Femtosecond laser ablation of silicon–modification thresholds and morphology,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 74(1), 19–25 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kudryashov, S. I.

E. V. Golosov, V. I. Emel’yanov, A. A. Ionin, Yu. R. Kolobov, S. I. Kudryashov, A. E. Ligachev, Yu. N. Novoselov, L. V. Seleznev, and D. V. Sinitsyn, “Femtosecond laser writing of subwave one-dimensional quasiperiodic nanostructures on a titanium Surface,” JETP Lett. 90(2), 107–110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuroda, H.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72(12), 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lenzner, M.

J. Bonse, S. Baudach, J. Krüger, W. Kautek, and M. Lenzner, “Femtosecond laser ablation of silicon–modification thresholds and morphology,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 74(1), 19–25 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, R. X.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72(12), 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liang, C.

Liao, Y.

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on diamond film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1703–1705 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ligachev, A. E.

E. V. Golosov, V. I. Emel’yanov, A. A. Ionin, Yu. R. Kolobov, S. I. Kudryashov, A. E. Ligachev, Yu. N. Novoselov, L. V. Seleznev, and D. V. Sinitsyn, “Femtosecond laser writing of subwave one-dimensional quasiperiodic nanostructures on a titanium Surface,” JETP Lett. 90(2), 107–110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, M.

Z. Huang, J. E. Carey, M. Liu, X. Guo, E. Mazur, and J. C. Campbell, “Microstructured silicon photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(3), 033506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Y.

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on diamond film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1703–1705 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Makin, V. S.

A. Y. Vorobyev, V. S. Makin, and C. L. Guo, “Brighter light sources from black metal: significant increase in emission efficiency of incandescent light sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(23), 234301 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martsinovsky, G. A.

G. A. Martsinovsky, G. D. Shandybina, Yu. S. Dement’eva, R. V. Dyukin, S. V. Zabotnov, L. A. Golovan’, and P. K. Kashkarov, “Generation of surface electromagnetic waves in semiconductors under the action of femtosecond laser pulses,” Semiconductors 43(10), 1298–1304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Matsuo, S.

T. Tomita, Y. Fukumori, K. Kinoshita, S. Matsuo, and S. Hashimoto, “Observation of laser-induced surface waves on flat silicon surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Tomita, K. Kinoshita, S. Matsuo, and S. Hashimoto, “Effect of surface roughening on femtosecond laser-induced ripple structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 153115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

Z. Huang, J. E. Carey, M. Liu, X. Guo, E. Mazur, and J. C. Campbell, “Microstructured silicon photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(3), 033506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser-induced formation of submicrometer spikes on silicon in water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5694–5696 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T.-H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser-induced formation of spikes on silicon,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 70(4), 383–385 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T.-H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, S. Deliwala, and E. Mazur, “Microstructuring of silicon with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1673–1675 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Munz, A. M.

J. Bonse, A. M. Munz, and H. Sturm, “Structure formation on the surface of indium phosphide irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(1), 013538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Munz, M.

J. Bonse, M. Munz, and H. Sturm, “Structure Formation on the Surface of Indium Phosphide Irradiated by Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(1), 013538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Namba, S.

S. Sakabe, M. Hashida, S. Tokita, S. Namba, and K. Okamuro, “Mechanism for self-formation of periodic grating structures on a metal surface by a femtosecond laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 033409 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Novoselov, Yu. N.

E. V. Golosov, V. I. Emel’yanov, A. A. Ionin, Yu. R. Kolobov, S. I. Kudryashov, A. E. Ligachev, Yu. N. Novoselov, L. V. Seleznev, and D. V. Sinitsyn, “Femtosecond laser writing of subwave one-dimensional quasiperiodic nanostructures on a titanium Surface,” JETP Lett. 90(2), 107–110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Okamuro, K.

S. Sakabe, M. Hashida, S. Tokita, S. Namba, and K. Okamuro, “Mechanism for self-formation of periodic grating structures on a metal surface by a femtosecond laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 033409 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pandelov, S. V.

J. Reif, F. Costache, M. Henyk, and S. V. Pandelov, “Ripples revisited: nonclassical morphology at the bottom of femtosecond laser ablation craters in transparent dielectrics,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197–198, 891–895 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pedraza, A. J.

A. J. Pedraza, Y. F. Guan, J. D. Fowlkes, and D. A. Smith, “Nanostructures produced by ultraviolet laser irradiation of silicon. I. rippled structures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(6), 2823–2835 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Preston, J. S.

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. van Driel, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure, I. theory,” Phys. Rev. B 27(2), 1141–1154 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qiu, J. R.

X. Jia, T. Q. Jia, Y. Zhang, P. X. Xiong, D. H. Feng, Z. R. Sun, J. R. Qiu, and Z. Z. Xu, “Periodic nanoripples in the surface and subsurface layers in ZnO irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1248–1250 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72(12), 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Qu, S.

Y. Han and S. Qu, “Uniform self-organized grating fabricated by single femtosecond laser on dense flint (ZF6) glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 98(1), 167–170 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rajeev, P. P.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rayner, D. M.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reif, J.

O. Varlamova, F. Costache, J. Reif, and M. Bestehorn, “Self-organized pattern formation upon femtosecond laser ablation by circular polarized light,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(13), 4702–4706 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Costache, S. Kouteva-Arguirova, and J. Reif, “Sub–damage–threshold femtosecond laser ablation from crystalline Si: surface nanostructures and phase transformation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 79(4-6), 1429 (2004).

J. Reif, F. Costache, M. Henyk, and S. V. Pandelov, “Ripples revisited: nonclassical morphology at the bottom of femtosecond laser ablation craters in transparent dielectrics,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197–198, 891–895 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rosenfeld, A.

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures revisited: A comparative study on ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(3), 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, “On the role of surface plasmon polaritons in the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures upon irradiation of silicon by femtosecond-laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 104910 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sakabe, S.

S. Sakabe, M. Hashida, S. Tokita, S. Namba, and K. Okamuro, “Mechanism for self-formation of periodic grating structures on a metal surface by a femtosecond laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 033409 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, D.

J. Bonse, H. Sturm, D. Schmidt, and W. Kautek, “Chemical, morphological and accumulation phenomena in ultrashort-pulse laser ablation of TiN in air,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 71(6), 657–665 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Seleznev, L. V.

E. V. Golosov, V. I. Emel’yanov, A. A. Ionin, Yu. R. Kolobov, S. I. Kudryashov, A. E. Ligachev, Yu. N. Novoselov, L. V. Seleznev, and D. V. Sinitsyn, “Femtosecond laser writing of subwave one-dimensional quasiperiodic nanostructures on a titanium Surface,” JETP Lett. 90(2), 107–110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shandybina, G. D.

G. A. Martsinovsky, G. D. Shandybina, Yu. S. Dement’eva, R. V. Dyukin, S. V. Zabotnov, L. A. Golovan’, and P. K. Kashkarov, “Generation of surface electromagnetic waves in semiconductors under the action of femtosecond laser pulses,” Semiconductors 43(10), 1298–1304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shen, M. Y.

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser-induced formation of submicrometer spikes on silicon in water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5694–5696 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shimotsuma, Y.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simova, E.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sinitsyn, D. V.

E. V. Golosov, V. I. Emel’yanov, A. A. Ionin, Yu. R. Kolobov, S. I. Kudryashov, A. E. Ligachev, Yu. N. Novoselov, L. V. Seleznev, and D. V. Sinitsyn, “Femtosecond laser writing of subwave one-dimensional quasiperiodic nanostructures on a titanium Surface,” JETP Lett. 90(2), 107–110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. van Driel, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure, I. theory,” Phys. Rev. B 27(2), 1141–1154 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. A.

A. J. Pedraza, Y. F. Guan, J. D. Fowlkes, and D. A. Smith, “Nanostructures produced by ultraviolet laser irradiation of silicon. I. rippled structures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(6), 2823–2835 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sturm, H.

J. Bonse, M. Munz, and H. Sturm, “Structure Formation on the Surface of Indium Phosphide Irradiated by Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(1), 013538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, A. M. Munz, and H. Sturm, “Structure formation on the surface of indium phosphide irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(1), 013538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, H. Sturm, D. Schmidt, and W. Kautek, “Chemical, morphological and accumulation phenomena in ultrashort-pulse laser ablation of TiN in air,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 71(6), 657–665 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Z. R.

Taylor, R. S.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tiedje, H. F.

E. M. Hsu, T. H. R. Crawford, H. F. Tiedje, and H. K. Haugen, “Periodic surface structures on gallium phosphide after irradiation with 150 fs-7 ns laser pulses at 800 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 111102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tokita, S.

S. Sakabe, M. Hashida, S. Tokita, S. Namba, and K. Okamuro, “Mechanism for self-formation of periodic grating structures on a metal surface by a femtosecond laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 033409 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tomita, T.

T. Tomita, Y. Fukumori, K. Kinoshita, S. Matsuo, and S. Hashimoto, “Observation of laser-induced surface waves on flat silicon surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Tomita, K. Kinoshita, S. Matsuo, and S. Hashimoto, “Effect of surface roughening on femtosecond laser-induced ripple structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 153115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van Driel, H. M.

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. van Driel, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure, I. theory,” Phys. Rev. B 27(2), 1141–1154 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Varlamova, O.

O. Varlamova, F. Costache, J. Reif, and M. Bestehorn, “Self-organized pattern formation upon femtosecond laser ablation by circular polarized light,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(13), 4702–4706 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vorobyev, A. Y.

A. Y. Vorobyev, V. S. Makin, and C. L. Guo, “Brighter light sources from black metal: significant increase in emission efficiency of incandescent light sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(23), 234301 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Colorizing metals with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 041914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Enhanced absorptance of gold following multipulse femtosecond laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. B 72(19), 195422 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

Wang, J.

J. Wang and C. Guo, “Formation of extraordinarily uniform periodic structures on metals induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K.

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on diamond film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1703–1705 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.

T.-H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser-induced formation of spikes on silicon,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 70(4), 383–385 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T.-H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, S. Deliwala, and E. Mazur, “Microstructuring of silicon with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1673–1675 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on diamond film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1703–1705 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, P. X.

Xu, N. S.

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “Mechanisms of ultrafast laser-induced deep-subwavelength gratings on graphite and diamond,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125436 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident laser,” ACS Nano 3(12), 4062–4070 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “Large area uniform nanostructures fabricated by direct femtosecond laser ablation,” Opt. Express 16(23), 19354–19365 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, T. Q. Jia, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “A uniform 290 nm periodic square structure on ZnO fabricated by two-beam femtosecond laser ablation,” Nanotechnology 18(50), 505301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z. Z.

X. Jia, T. Q. Jia, Y. Zhang, P. X. Xiong, D. H. Feng, Z. R. Sun, J. R. Qiu, and Z. Z. Xu, “Periodic nanoripples in the surface and subsurface layers in ZnO irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1248–1250 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident laser,” ACS Nano 3(12), 4062–4070 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “Mechanisms of ultrafast laser-induced deep-subwavelength gratings on graphite and diamond,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125436 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “Large area uniform nanostructures fabricated by direct femtosecond laser ablation,” Opt. Express 16(23), 19354–19365 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, T. Q. Jia, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “A uniform 290 nm periodic square structure on ZnO fabricated by two-beam femtosecond laser ablation,” Nanotechnology 18(50), 505301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72(12), 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

Yang, Y.

Young, J. F.

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. van Driel, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure, I. theory,” Phys. Rev. B 27(2), 1141–1154 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Q.

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on diamond film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1703–1705 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zabotnov, S. V.

G. A. Martsinovsky, G. D. Shandybina, Yu. S. Dement’eva, R. V. Dyukin, S. V. Zabotnov, L. A. Golovan’, and P. K. Kashkarov, “Generation of surface electromagnetic waves in semiconductors under the action of femtosecond laser pulses,” Semiconductors 43(10), 1298–1304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72(12), 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, F. L.

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident laser,” ACS Nano 3(12), 4062–4070 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “Mechanisms of ultrafast laser-induced deep-subwavelength gratings on graphite and diamond,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125436 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “Large area uniform nanostructures fabricated by direct femtosecond laser ablation,” Opt. Express 16(23), 19354–19365 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, T. Q. Jia, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “A uniform 290 nm periodic square structure on ZnO fabricated by two-beam femtosecond laser ablation,” Nanotechnology 18(50), 505301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72(12), 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident laser,” ACS Nano 3(12), 4062–4070 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

T.-H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, S. Deliwala, and E. Mazur, “Microstructuring of silicon with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1673–1675 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser-induced formation of submicrometer spikes on silicon in water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5694–5696 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Huang, J. E. Carey, M. Liu, X. Guo, E. Mazur, and J. C. Campbell, “Microstructured silicon photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(3), 033506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Colorizing metals with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 041914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Hsu, T. H. R. Crawford, H. F. Tiedje, and H. K. Haugen, “Periodic surface structures on gallium phosphide after irradiation with 150 fs-7 ns laser pulses at 800 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 111102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Tomita, K. Kinoshita, S. Matsuo, and S. Hashimoto, “Effect of surface roughening on femtosecond laser-induced ripple structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 153115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(25), 4462–4464 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on diamond film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1703–1705 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Tomita, Y. Fukumori, K. Kinoshita, S. Matsuo, and S. Hashimoto, “Observation of laser-induced surface waves on flat silicon surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.

F. Keilmann and Y. H. Bai, “Periodic surface structures frozen into CO2 laser-melted quartz,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 29(1), 9–18 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, H. Sturm, D. Schmidt, and W. Kautek, “Chemical, morphological and accumulation phenomena in ultrashort-pulse laser ablation of TiN in air,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 71(6), 657–665 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Costache, S. Kouteva-Arguirova, and J. Reif, “Sub–damage–threshold femtosecond laser ablation from crystalline Si: surface nanostructures and phase transformation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 79(4-6), 1429 (2004).

T.-H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser-induced formation of spikes on silicon,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 70(4), 383–385 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, S. Baudach, J. Krüger, W. Kautek, and M. Lenzner, “Femtosecond laser ablation of silicon–modification thresholds and morphology,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 74(1), 19–25 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Han and S. Qu, “Uniform self-organized grating fabricated by single femtosecond laser on dense flint (ZF6) glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 98(1), 167–170 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci.

J. Reif, F. Costache, M. Henyk, and S. V. Pandelov, “Ripples revisited: nonclassical morphology at the bottom of femtosecond laser ablation craters in transparent dielectrics,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197–198, 891–895 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Varlamova, F. Costache, J. Reif, and M. Bestehorn, “Self-organized pattern formation upon femtosecond laser ablation by circular polarized light,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(13), 4702–4706 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

M. Birnbaum, “Semiconductor surface damage produced by ruby lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 36(11), 3688 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, M. Munz, and H. Sturm, “Structure Formation on the Surface of Indium Phosphide Irradiated by Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(1), 013538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang and C. Guo, “Formation of extraordinarily uniform periodic structures on metals induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures revisited: A comparative study on ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(3), 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, A. M. Munz, and H. Sturm, “Structure formation on the surface of indium phosphide irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(1), 013538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, “On the role of surface plasmon polaritons in the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures upon irradiation of silicon by femtosecond-laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 104910 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

A. J. Pedraza, Y. F. Guan, J. D. Fowlkes, and D. A. Smith, “Nanostructures produced by ultraviolet laser irradiation of silicon. I. rippled structures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(6), 2823–2835 (2004).
[CrossRef]

JETP Lett.

E. V. Golosov, V. I. Emel’yanov, A. A. Ionin, Yu. R. Kolobov, S. I. Kudryashov, A. E. Ligachev, Yu. N. Novoselov, L. V. Seleznev, and D. V. Sinitsyn, “Femtosecond laser writing of subwave one-dimensional quasiperiodic nanostructures on a titanium Surface,” JETP Lett. 90(2), 107–110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, T. Q. Jia, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “A uniform 290 nm periodic square structure on ZnO fabricated by two-beam femtosecond laser ablation,” Nanotechnology 18(50), 505301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

S. Sakabe, M. Hashida, S. Tokita, S. Namba, and K. Okamuro, “Mechanism for self-formation of periodic grating structures on a metal surface by a femtosecond laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 033409 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Enhanced absorptance of gold following multipulse femtosecond laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. B 72(19), 195422 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72(12), 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “Mechanisms of ultrafast laser-induced deep-subwavelength gratings on graphite and diamond,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125436 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. van Driel, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure, I. theory,” Phys. Rev. B 27(2), 1141–1154 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Y. Vorobyev, V. S. Makin, and C. L. Guo, “Brighter light sources from black metal: significant increase in emission efficiency of incandescent light sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(23), 234301 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Semiconductors

G. A. Martsinovsky, G. D. Shandybina, Yu. S. Dement’eva, R. V. Dyukin, S. V. Zabotnov, L. A. Golovan’, and P. K. Kashkarov, “Generation of surface electromagnetic waves in semiconductors under the action of femtosecond laser pulses,” Semiconductors 43(10), 1298–1304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. Perrière, É. Millon, and É. Fogarassy, Recent Advances in Laser Processing of Materials (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2006).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A schematic view of the experimental setup for the spectral method.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The experimental results of the micro/nanostructures on GaAs produced by 1280-nm fs laser of linear polarization with different fluences. The laser fluence for area (a), (b), (c), (d) and (e) is 0.09, 0.11, 0.15, 0.19 and 0.25J/cm2, respectively. From the following processing parameters: the scanning velocity of 125 μm/s, the scanning interval of 8 μm, the pulse repetition frequency of 1 kHz, and the focal spot size of 36 μm, the average number of laser pulses per spot can be calculated to be about 1000 pulses. The sub-figures of left column are the OM images of the 400 × 400-μm2 treated areas taken under the same condition as spectral measurement. The sub-figures of the middle two columns are SEM images of the treated areas with different magnification factors. In (a) the double-headed arrow indicates the direction of laser polarization (in (b) to (e) the polarization directions are the same as in (a)). The sub-figures of the right column are the FFT images of the corresponding SEM images, which transform from the SEM images with small magnification factor except (a) and rescale to have the same spatial frequency scale.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The real space representation of the spatial frequency components of the treated GaAs surfaces in the direction of ripple wave vector.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The relative specular reflectances (Rr ) of the treated areas on GaAs fabricated by 1280-nm fs laser in various fluence conditions as a function of laser wavelength (λ). Here curves a to e correspond to areas (a) to (e) in Fig. 2, respectively. The dashed line represents the reference spectrum of the untreated surface that is always equal to 1.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The experimental results of the micro/nanostructures on Si produced by 1280-nm fs laser of linear polarization with different fluences. The laser fluence for area (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), and (g) is 0.16, 0.20, 0.26, 0.32, 0.40, 0.48, and 0.60 J/cm2, respectively. From the following processing parameters: the scanning velocity of 125 μm/s, the scanning interval of 8 μm, the pulse repetition frequency of 1 kHz, and the focal spot size of 36 μm, the average number of laser pulses per spot can be calculated to be about 1000 pulses. The sub-figures of left column are the OM images of the 400 × 400-μm2 treated areas taken under the same condition as spectral measurement. The sub-figures of the middle two columns are SEM images of the treated areas with different magnification factors. In (a) the double-headed arrow indicates the direction of laser polarization (in (b) to (g) the polarization directions are the same as in (a)). The sub-figures of the right column are the FFT images of the corresponding SEM images, which transform from the SEM images with small magnification factor except (a) and rescale to have the same spatial frequency scale for ease of comparison.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The real space representation of the spatial frequency components of the treated Si surfaces in the direction of ripple wave vector.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The relative specular reflectances (Rr ) of the treated areas on Si fabricated by 1280-nm fs laser in various fluence conditions as a function of laser wavelength (λ). Here curves a to g correspond to areas (a) to (g) of Fig. 5, respectively. The dashed line represents the reference spectrum of the untreated surface that is always equal to 1.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The experimental results of the micro/nanostructures on brass produced by 800-nm fs laser of linear polarization with different fluences. The laser fluence for area (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (g), and (h) is 0.36, 0.45, 0.52, 0.60, 0.68, 0.82, 1.06, and 1.39 J/cm2, respectively. From the following processing parameters: the scanning velocity of 125 μm/s, the scanning interval of 8 μm, the pulse repetition frequency of 1 kHz, and the focal spot size of 45 μm, the average number of laser pulses per spot can be calculated to be about 1600 pulses. The sub-figures of left column are the OM images of the 200 × 200-μm2 treated areas taken under the same condition as spectral measurement. The sub-figures of the middle two columns are SEM images of the treated areas with different magnification factors. In (a) the double-headed arrow indicates the direction of laser polarization (in (b) to (h) the polarization directions are the same as in (a)). The sub-figures of the right column are the FFT images of the corresponding SEM images, which transform from the SEM images with small magnification factor and rescale to have the same spatial frequency scale for ease of comparison. The frequency components in the direction perpendicular to ripple wave vector are shown in the top right corner of the corresponding FFT images (the images have been rotated 90° for ease of comparison, and some of the color scales of the images have been reset in order to highlight the perpendicular frequency components).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

The real space representation of the spatial frequency components of the treated brass surfaces in the direction of ripple wave vector.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

The relative specular reflectances (Rr ) of the treated areas on brass fabricated by 800-nm fs laser in various fluence conditions as a function of laser wavelength (λ). Here curves a to h correspond to areas (a) to (h) of Fig. 8, respectively. The dashed line represents the reference spectrum of the untreated surface that is always equal to 1.

Equations (2)

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R r ( λ ) = I t ( λ ) I i ( λ )
m G = k i k s

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