Abstract

Optical interference filters utilizing tunable refractive index layers are shown to have higher spectral fidelity as compared to conventional filters consisting of non-tunable refractive index layers. To demonstrate this increase in spectral fidelity, we design and compare a variety of optical interference filters employing both tunable and non-tunable refractive index layers. Additionally, a five-layer optical interference filter utilizing tunable refractive index layers is designed and fabricated for use with a Xenon lamp to replicate the Air Mass 0 solar irradiance spectrum and is shown to have excellent spectral fidelity.

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2008 (2)

D. J. Poxson, F. W. Mont, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Quantification of porosity and deposition rate of nanoporous films grown by oblique-angle deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 101914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert, F. W. Mont, S. Chhajed, D. J. Poxson, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Design of multilayer antireflection coatings made from co-sputtered and low-refractive-index materials by genetic algorithm,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5290–5298 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

2002 (1)

C. A. Gueymard, “Proposed reference irradiance spectra for solar energy systems testing,” Sol. Energy 73(6), 443–467 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

X. Wang, H. Masumoto, Y. Someno, and T. Hirai, “Design and experimental approach of optical reflection filters with graded refractive index profiles,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17(1), 206 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1985 (1)

1982 (1)

1970 (1)

1963 (1)

1952 (1)

1947 (2)

Chen, M.

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Chhajed, S.

Dennison, D. M.

Dobrowolski, J. A.

Epstein, L. I.

Gueymard, C. A.

C. A. Gueymard, “Proposed reference irradiance spectra for solar energy systems testing,” Sol. Energy 73(6), 443–467 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hadley, L. N.

Hirai, T.

X. Wang, H. Masumoto, Y. Someno, and T. Hirai, “Design and experimental approach of optical reflection filters with graded refractive index profiles,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17(1), 206 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

M. F. Schubert, F. W. Mont, S. Chhajed, D. J. Poxson, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Design of multilayer antireflection coatings made from co-sputtered and low-refractive-index materials by genetic algorithm,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5290–5298 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Poxson, F. W. Mont, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Quantification of porosity and deposition rate of nanoporous films grown by oblique-angle deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 101914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Lin, S. Y.

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Liu, W.

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Lotz, H. G.

Masumoto, H.

X. Wang, H. Masumoto, Y. Someno, and T. Hirai, “Design and experimental approach of optical reflection filters with graded refractive index profiles,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17(1), 206 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mont, F. W.

D. J. Poxson, F. W. Mont, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Quantification of porosity and deposition rate of nanoporous films grown by oblique-angle deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 101914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert, F. W. Mont, S. Chhajed, D. J. Poxson, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Design of multilayer antireflection coatings made from co-sputtered and low-refractive-index materials by genetic algorithm,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5290–5298 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piotrowski, S. H. C.

Poxson, D. J.

D. J. Poxson, F. W. Mont, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Quantification of porosity and deposition rate of nanoporous films grown by oblique-angle deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 101914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert, F. W. Mont, S. Chhajed, D. J. Poxson, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Design of multilayer antireflection coatings made from co-sputtered and low-refractive-index materials by genetic algorithm,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5290–5298 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schubert, E. F.

M. F. Schubert, F. W. Mont, S. Chhajed, D. J. Poxson, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Design of multilayer antireflection coatings made from co-sputtered and low-refractive-index materials by genetic algorithm,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5290–5298 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Poxson, F. W. Mont, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Quantification of porosity and deposition rate of nanoporous films grown by oblique-angle deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 101914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Schubert, M. F.

M. F. Schubert, F. W. Mont, S. Chhajed, D. J. Poxson, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Design of multilayer antireflection coatings made from co-sputtered and low-refractive-index materials by genetic algorithm,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5290–5298 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Poxson, F. W. Mont, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Quantification of porosity and deposition rate of nanoporous films grown by oblique-angle deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 101914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Smart, J. A.

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Someno, Y.

X. Wang, H. Masumoto, Y. Someno, and T. Hirai, “Design and experimental approach of optical reflection filters with graded refractive index profiles,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17(1), 206 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Southwell, W. H.

Thelen, A.

Wang, X.

X. Wang, H. Masumoto, Y. Someno, and T. Hirai, “Design and experimental approach of optical reflection filters with graded refractive index profiles,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17(1), 206 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Weinstein, W.

Xi, J. Q.

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. J. Poxson, F. W. Mont, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Quantification of porosity and deposition rate of nanoporous films grown by oblique-angle deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 101914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (4)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

X. Wang, H. Masumoto, Y. Someno, and T. Hirai, “Design and experimental approach of optical reflection filters with graded refractive index profiles,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17(1), 206 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Opt. Express (1)

Sol. Energy (1)

C. A. Gueymard, “Proposed reference irradiance spectra for solar energy systems testing,” Sol. Energy 73(6), 443–467 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

Eugene Hecht, Optics (Addison Wesley, 2002), Chap. 9.
[PubMed]

M. Born, Principles of optics (Pergamon, 1980).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a), (b) Correlation coefficient as a function of allowed maximum reflectance for 4- and 5-layer optical interference filters utilizing both tunable and non-tunable refractive index layers. (c) Correlation coefficient as a function of the number of layers for both tunable and non-tunable refractive index layers.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured and calculated reflectance of the 5-layer optical interference filter plotted as a function of wavelength.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM of a 5-layer optical interference structure for use with a Xenon lamp spectrum that utilizes tunable refractive index layers and has an output spectrum with a high correlation to the AM0 solar spectrum.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Measured filtered and un-filtered Xenon-lamp spectra transmitted through the 5-layer optical interference filter utilizing tailored refractive indices is compared to the AM0 solar spectrum. (b) Calculated and measured intensity of Xenon-lamp spectra transmitted through the 5-layer optical interference filter are compared to the AM0 spectrum.

Equations (3)

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r xy = i = 1 N ( x i x ¯ ) ( y i y ¯ ) S x S y .
S x = 1 N i = 1 N ( x i x ¯ ) 2 .
R = [ n h i g h n l o w n h i g h + n l o w ] 2 .

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