Abstract

A simulation method is presented and evaluated for simulating two- and three dimensional wave optical effects in crystalline silicon solar cells. Due to a thickness in the 100 µm range, optical properties of these solar cells typically are simulated, primarily through the use of ray-tracing. Recently, diffractive elements such as gratings or photonic crystals have been investigated for their application in crystalline silicon solar cells, making it necessary to consider two- and three dimensional wave optical effects. The presented approach couples a rigorous wave optical simulation to a semiconductor device simulation. In a first step, characteristic parameters, simulated for a reference setup using the electro-optical method and the standard procedure are compared. Occurring differences provide a measure to quantify the errors of the electro-optical method. These errors are below 0.4% relative. In a second step the electro-optical method is used to simulate a crystalline silicon solar cell with a back side diffractive grating. It is found that the grating enhances to short circuit current density jSC of the solar cell by more than 1 mA/cm2.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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2010 (1)

E. Garnett and P. Yang, “Light trapping in silicon nanowire solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 1082–1087 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

C. Ulbrich, S. Fahr, J. Üpping, M. Peters, T. Kirchartz, C. Rockstuhl, R. Wehrspohn, A. Gombert, F. Lederer, and U. Rau, “Directional selectivity and ultra-light-trapping in solar cells,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 205(12), 2831–2843 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Goetzberger, J. C. Goldschmidt, M. Peters, and P. Löper, “Light trapping, a new approach to spectrum splitting,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(12), 1570–1578 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Tvingstedt, S. Dal Zilio, O. Inganäs, and M. Tormen, “Trapping light with micro lenses in thin film organic photovoltaic cells,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21608–21615 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2002 (1)

M. Green, “Lambertian Light Trapping in Textured Solar Cells and Light-Emitting Diodes: Analytical Solutions,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 10(4), 235–241 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

P. Lalanne and M. P. Jurek, “Computation of the near-field pattern with the coupled-wave method for TM polarization,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1357–1374 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

1983 (1)

P. Sheng, A. N. Bloch, and R. S. Stepleman, “Wavelength-selective absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43(6), 579–581 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled Wave Theory for Thick Hologram Gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).

1966 (1)

1884 (1)

J. H. Poynting, “On the Transfer of Energy in the Electromagnetic Field,” Phil. Trans. 175(0), 343–361 (1884).
[CrossRef]

Bermel, P.

Bloch, A. N.

P. Sheng, A. N. Bloch, and R. S. Stepleman, “Wavelength-selective absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43(6), 579–581 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Burcardt, C. B.

Dal Zilio, S.

Fahr, S.

C. Ulbrich, S. Fahr, J. Üpping, M. Peters, T. Kirchartz, C. Rockstuhl, R. Wehrspohn, A. Gombert, F. Lederer, and U. Rau, “Directional selectivity and ultra-light-trapping in solar cells,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 205(12), 2831–2843 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Garnett, E.

E. Garnett and P. Yang, “Light trapping in silicon nanowire solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 1082–1087 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaylord, T. K.

Goetzberger, A.

A. Goetzberger, J. C. Goldschmidt, M. Peters, and P. Löper, “Light trapping, a new approach to spectrum splitting,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(12), 1570–1578 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Goldschmidt, J. C.

A. Goetzberger, J. C. Goldschmidt, M. Peters, and P. Löper, “Light trapping, a new approach to spectrum splitting,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(12), 1570–1578 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gombert, A.

C. Ulbrich, S. Fahr, J. Üpping, M. Peters, T. Kirchartz, C. Rockstuhl, R. Wehrspohn, A. Gombert, F. Lederer, and U. Rau, “Directional selectivity and ultra-light-trapping in solar cells,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 205(12), 2831–2843 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grann, E. B.

Green, M.

M. Green, “Lambertian Light Trapping in Textured Solar Cells and Light-Emitting Diodes: Analytical Solutions,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 10(4), 235–241 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Heine, C.

Inganäs, O.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Jurek, M. P.

P. Lalanne and M. P. Jurek, “Computation of the near-field pattern with the coupled-wave method for TM polarization,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1357–1374 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

Kirchartz, T.

C. Ulbrich, S. Fahr, J. Üpping, M. Peters, T. Kirchartz, C. Rockstuhl, R. Wehrspohn, A. Gombert, F. Lederer, and U. Rau, “Directional selectivity and ultra-light-trapping in solar cells,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 205(12), 2831–2843 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled Wave Theory for Thick Hologram Gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).

Lalanne, P.

P. Lalanne and M. P. Jurek, “Computation of the near-field pattern with the coupled-wave method for TM polarization,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1357–1374 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lederer, F.

C. Ulbrich, S. Fahr, J. Üpping, M. Peters, T. Kirchartz, C. Rockstuhl, R. Wehrspohn, A. Gombert, F. Lederer, and U. Rau, “Directional selectivity and ultra-light-trapping in solar cells,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 205(12), 2831–2843 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Löper, P.

A. Goetzberger, J. C. Goldschmidt, M. Peters, and P. Löper, “Light trapping, a new approach to spectrum splitting,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(12), 1570–1578 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Luo, C.

Moharam, M. G.

Morf, R. H.

Peters, M.

A. Goetzberger, J. C. Goldschmidt, M. Peters, and P. Löper, “Light trapping, a new approach to spectrum splitting,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(12), 1570–1578 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Ulbrich, S. Fahr, J. Üpping, M. Peters, T. Kirchartz, C. Rockstuhl, R. Wehrspohn, A. Gombert, F. Lederer, and U. Rau, “Directional selectivity and ultra-light-trapping in solar cells,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 205(12), 2831–2843 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pommet, D. A.

Poynting, J. H.

J. H. Poynting, “On the Transfer of Energy in the Electromagnetic Field,” Phil. Trans. 175(0), 343–361 (1884).
[CrossRef]

Rau, U.

C. Ulbrich, S. Fahr, J. Üpping, M. Peters, T. Kirchartz, C. Rockstuhl, R. Wehrspohn, A. Gombert, F. Lederer, and U. Rau, “Directional selectivity and ultra-light-trapping in solar cells,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 205(12), 2831–2843 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rockstuhl, C.

C. Ulbrich, S. Fahr, J. Üpping, M. Peters, T. Kirchartz, C. Rockstuhl, R. Wehrspohn, A. Gombert, F. Lederer, and U. Rau, “Directional selectivity and ultra-light-trapping in solar cells,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 205(12), 2831–2843 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, P.

P. Sheng, A. N. Bloch, and R. S. Stepleman, “Wavelength-selective absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43(6), 579–581 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Stepleman, R. S.

P. Sheng, A. N. Bloch, and R. S. Stepleman, “Wavelength-selective absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43(6), 579–581 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Tormen, M.

Tvingstedt, K.

Ulbrich, C.

C. Ulbrich, S. Fahr, J. Üpping, M. Peters, T. Kirchartz, C. Rockstuhl, R. Wehrspohn, A. Gombert, F. Lederer, and U. Rau, “Directional selectivity and ultra-light-trapping in solar cells,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 205(12), 2831–2843 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Üpping, J.

C. Ulbrich, S. Fahr, J. Üpping, M. Peters, T. Kirchartz, C. Rockstuhl, R. Wehrspohn, A. Gombert, F. Lederer, and U. Rau, “Directional selectivity and ultra-light-trapping in solar cells,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 205(12), 2831–2843 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wehrspohn, R.

C. Ulbrich, S. Fahr, J. Üpping, M. Peters, T. Kirchartz, C. Rockstuhl, R. Wehrspohn, A. Gombert, F. Lederer, and U. Rau, “Directional selectivity and ultra-light-trapping in solar cells,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 205(12), 2831–2843 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P.

E. Garnett and P. Yang, “Light trapping in silicon nanowire solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 1082–1087 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeng, L.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. Sheng, A. N. Bloch, and R. S. Stepleman, “Wavelength-selective absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43(6), 579–581 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled Wave Theory for Thick Hologram Gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

P. Lalanne and M. P. Jurek, “Computation of the near-field pattern with the coupled-wave method for TM polarization,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1357–1374 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nano Lett. (1)

E. Garnett and P. Yang, “Light trapping in silicon nanowire solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 1082–1087 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Phil. Trans. (1)

J. H. Poynting, “On the Transfer of Energy in the Electromagnetic Field,” Phil. Trans. 175(0), 343–361 (1884).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Stat. Solidi A (1)

C. Ulbrich, S. Fahr, J. Üpping, M. Peters, T. Kirchartz, C. Rockstuhl, R. Wehrspohn, A. Gombert, F. Lederer, and U. Rau, “Directional selectivity and ultra-light-trapping in solar cells,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 205(12), 2831–2843 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (1)

M. Green, “Lambertian Light Trapping in Textured Solar Cells and Light-Emitting Diodes: Analytical Solutions,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 10(4), 235–241 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (1)

A. Goetzberger, J. C. Goldschmidt, M. Peters, and P. Löper, “Light trapping, a new approach to spectrum splitting,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(12), 1570–1578 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters 3rd Ed (Institute of Physics Publishing, Bristol and Philadelphia, 2001)

O. Isabella, A. Campa, M. C. Heijna, W. Soppe, R. van Erwen, R. H. Franken, H. Borg, and M. Zeman, “Diffraction Gratings for Light Trapping in Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells” in Proceedings of the 23rd European Photovoltaic Solar energy Conference, (Valencia, Spain, 2008), pp. 2320 – 2324.

M. Niggemann, B. Bläsi, A. Gombert, A. Hinsch, H. Hoppe, P. Lalanne, D. Meissner, and V. Wittwer, “Trapping Light in Organic Plastic Solar Cells with Integrated Diffraction Grating,” presented at the 17th European Photovoltaic Solar energy Conference, Munich, Germany, 22 – 26 oct. 2001.

P. Voisin, M. Peters, H. Hauser, C. Helgert, E. B. Kley, T. Pertsch, B. Bläsi, M. Hermle, and S. W. Glunz, “Nanostructured Back Side Silicon Solar Cells,” in Proceedings of the 24th European European Photovoltaic Solar energy Conference, (Hamburg., Germany, 2009), pp. 1997 - 2000.

S. Janz, M. Peters, D. Suwito, M. Hermle, and S. W. Glunz, “Photonic crystals as rear-side diffusers and reflectors for high efficiency silicon solar cells,” in Proceedings of the 24th European European Photovoltaic Solar energy Conference, (Hamburg., Germany, 2009), pp. 1529 - 1533.

P. Kailuweit, R. Kellenbenz, M. Peters, and F. Dimroth, “Optical modelling of nanostructured III-V multi-junction solar cells”, Proceedings of SPIE Photonics West (page unknown) (2010)

G. Létay, “Modellierung von III-V Solarzellen”, Dissertation, University of Constance (2003) http://www.ub.uni-konstanz.de/kops/volltexte/2003/1118/

M. Peters, “Photonic Concepts for Solar Cells,” Dissertation at the University of Freiburg (2009). http://www.freidok.uni-freiburg.de/volltexte/6768/

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