Abstract

We have developed an inexpensive and scalable method to create wire textures on multi-crystalline Si solar cell surfaces for enhanced light trapping. The wires are created by reactive ion etching, using a monolayer high self-assembled array of polymer microspheres as an etch mask. Chemical functionalization of the microspheres and the Si surface allows the mask to be assembled by simple dispensing, without spin or squeegee based techniques. Surface reflectivities of the resulting wire textured multi-crystalline solar cells were comparable to that of KOH etched single crystal Si (100). Electrically, the solar cells exhibited a 20% gain in the short circuit current compared to planar multicrystalline Si control devices, and a relative increase of 7-16% in the “pseudo” efficiencies when the series resistance contributions are extracted out.

© 2010 OSA

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References

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  1. A. Goetzberger, C. Hebling, and H.-W. Schock, “Photovoltaic materials, history, status and outlook,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 40(1), 1–46 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Hübner, C. Hampe, and A. G. Aberle, “A simple fabrication process for 20% efficient silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 46(1), 67–77 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Panek, M. Lipinski, and J. Dutkiewicz, “Texturization of multicrystalline silicon by wet chemical etching for silicon solar cells,” J. Mater. Sci. 40(6), 1459–1463 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. M. Kayes, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Comparison of the device physics principles of planar and radial p-n junction nanorod solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(11), 114302 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. Ludemann, B. M. Damiani, and A. Rohatgi, “Novel processing of solar cells with porous silicon texturing,” Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 2000. Conference Record of the Twenty-Eighth IEEE.
  7. J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. F. L. Yap and Y. Zhang, “Protein micropatterning using surfaces modified by self-assembled polystyrene microspheres,” Langmuir 21(12), 5233–5236 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. O. Gunawan, K. Wang, B. Fallahazad, Y. Zhang, E. Tutuc, and S. Guha, “High Performance Wire-Array Silicon Solar Cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (accepted) (to be published soon.).
  10. R. A. Sinton, and A. Cuevas, “A quasi-steady-state open circuit voltage method for solar cell characterization,” 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference. 2000: Glasgow, UK. 1152–1155.
  11. D. Pysch, A. Mette, and S. W. Glunz, “A review and comparison of different methods to determine the series resistance of solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(18), 1698–1706 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. J. Kerr, A. Cuevas, and R. A. Sinton, “Generalized analysis of quasi-steady-state and transient decay open circuit voltage measurements,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(1), 399–404 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. A. Green, Solar Cells: Operating Principles, Technology and System Applications. Prentice-Hall: New Jersey, 1982, Chapter 3.

2010

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

D. Pysch, A. Mette, and S. W. Glunz, “A review and comparison of different methods to determine the series resistance of solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(18), 1698–1706 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

F. L. Yap and Y. Zhang, “Protein micropatterning using surfaces modified by self-assembled polystyrene microspheres,” Langmuir 21(12), 5233–5236 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Panek, M. Lipinski, and J. Dutkiewicz, “Texturization of multicrystalline silicon by wet chemical etching for silicon solar cells,” J. Mater. Sci. 40(6), 1459–1463 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Kayes, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Comparison of the device physics principles of planar and radial p-n junction nanorod solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(11), 114302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

A. Goetzberger, C. Hebling, and H.-W. Schock, “Photovoltaic materials, history, status and outlook,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 40(1), 1–46 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

M. J. Kerr, A. Cuevas, and R. A. Sinton, “Generalized analysis of quasi-steady-state and transient decay open circuit voltage measurements,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(1), 399–404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1997

A. Hübner, C. Hampe, and A. G. Aberle, “A simple fabrication process for 20% efficient silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 46(1), 67–77 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Aberle, A. G.

A. Hübner, C. Hampe, and A. G. Aberle, “A simple fabrication process for 20% efficient silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 46(1), 67–77 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. M. Kayes, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Comparison of the device physics principles of planar and radial p-n junction nanorod solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(11), 114302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Boettcher, S. W.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Briggs, R. M.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burkhard, G. F.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Connor, S. T.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cuevas, A.

M. J. Kerr, A. Cuevas, and R. A. Sinton, “Generalized analysis of quasi-steady-state and transient decay open circuit voltage measurements,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(1), 399–404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dutkiewicz, J.

P. Panek, M. Lipinski, and J. Dutkiewicz, “Texturization of multicrystalline silicon by wet chemical etching for silicon solar cells,” J. Mater. Sci. 40(6), 1459–1463 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fallahazad, B.

O. Gunawan, K. Wang, B. Fallahazad, Y. Zhang, E. Tutuc, and S. Guha, “High Performance Wire-Array Silicon Solar Cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (accepted) (to be published soon.).

Fan, S.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glunz, S. W.

D. Pysch, A. Mette, and S. W. Glunz, “A review and comparison of different methods to determine the series resistance of solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(18), 1698–1706 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Goetzberger, A.

A. Goetzberger, C. Hebling, and H.-W. Schock, “Photovoltaic materials, history, status and outlook,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 40(1), 1–46 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Guha, S.

O. Gunawan, K. Wang, B. Fallahazad, Y. Zhang, E. Tutuc, and S. Guha, “High Performance Wire-Array Silicon Solar Cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (accepted) (to be published soon.).

Gunawan, O.

O. Gunawan, K. Wang, B. Fallahazad, Y. Zhang, E. Tutuc, and S. Guha, “High Performance Wire-Array Silicon Solar Cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (accepted) (to be published soon.).

Hampe, C.

A. Hübner, C. Hampe, and A. G. Aberle, “A simple fabrication process for 20% efficient silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 46(1), 67–77 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hebling, C.

A. Goetzberger, C. Hebling, and H.-W. Schock, “Photovoltaic materials, history, status and outlook,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 40(1), 1–46 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C.-M.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hübner, A.

A. Hübner, C. Hampe, and A. G. Aberle, “A simple fabrication process for 20% efficient silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 46(1), 67–77 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kayes, B. M.

B. M. Kayes, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Comparison of the device physics principles of planar and radial p-n junction nanorod solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(11), 114302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kelzenberg, M. D.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kerr, M. J.

M. J. Kerr, A. Cuevas, and R. A. Sinton, “Generalized analysis of quasi-steady-state and transient decay open circuit voltage measurements,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(1), 399–404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, N. S.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. M. Kayes, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Comparison of the device physics principles of planar and radial p-n junction nanorod solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(11), 114302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lipinski, M.

P. Panek, M. Lipinski, and J. Dutkiewicz, “Texturization of multicrystalline silicon by wet chemical etching for silicon solar cells,” J. Mater. Sci. 40(6), 1459–1463 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McGehee, M.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mette, A.

D. Pysch, A. Mette, and S. W. Glunz, “A review and comparison of different methods to determine the series resistance of solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(18), 1698–1706 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Panek, P.

P. Panek, M. Lipinski, and J. Dutkiewicz, “Texturization of multicrystalline silicon by wet chemical etching for silicon solar cells,” J. Mater. Sci. 40(6), 1459–1463 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Petykiewicz, J. A.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Putnam, M. C.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pysch, D.

D. Pysch, A. Mette, and S. W. Glunz, “A review and comparison of different methods to determine the series resistance of solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(18), 1698–1706 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schock, H.-W.

A. Goetzberger, C. Hebling, and H.-W. Schock, “Photovoltaic materials, history, status and outlook,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 40(1), 1–46 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sinton, R. A.

M. J. Kerr, A. Cuevas, and R. A. Sinton, “Generalized analysis of quasi-steady-state and transient decay open circuit voltage measurements,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(1), 399–404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Spurgeon, J. M.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turner-Evans, D. B.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tutuc, E.

O. Gunawan, K. Wang, B. Fallahazad, Y. Zhang, E. Tutuc, and S. Guha, “High Performance Wire-Array Silicon Solar Cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (accepted) (to be published soon.).

Wang, K.

O. Gunawan, K. Wang, B. Fallahazad, Y. Zhang, E. Tutuc, and S. Guha, “High Performance Wire-Array Silicon Solar Cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (accepted) (to be published soon.).

Wang, Q.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Warren, E. L.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Y.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yap, F. L.

F. L. Yap and Y. Zhang, “Protein micropatterning using surfaces modified by self-assembled polystyrene microspheres,” Langmuir 21(12), 5233–5236 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, Z.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

F. L. Yap and Y. Zhang, “Protein micropatterning using surfaces modified by self-assembled polystyrene microspheres,” Langmuir 21(12), 5233–5236 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Gunawan, K. Wang, B. Fallahazad, Y. Zhang, E. Tutuc, and S. Guha, “High Performance Wire-Array Silicon Solar Cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (accepted) (to be published soon.).

Zhu, J.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys.

B. M. Kayes, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Comparison of the device physics principles of planar and radial p-n junction nanorod solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(11), 114302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Kerr, A. Cuevas, and R. A. Sinton, “Generalized analysis of quasi-steady-state and transient decay open circuit voltage measurements,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(1), 399–404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci.

P. Panek, M. Lipinski, and J. Dutkiewicz, “Texturization of multicrystalline silicon by wet chemical etching for silicon solar cells,” J. Mater. Sci. 40(6), 1459–1463 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir

F. L. Yap and Y. Zhang, “Protein micropatterning using surfaces modified by self-assembled polystyrene microspheres,” Langmuir 21(12), 5233–5236 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.

A. Goetzberger, C. Hebling, and H.-W. Schock, “Photovoltaic materials, history, status and outlook,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 40(1), 1–46 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.

O. Gunawan, K. Wang, B. Fallahazad, Y. Zhang, E. Tutuc, and S. Guha, “High Performance Wire-Array Silicon Solar Cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (accepted) (to be published soon.).

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells

A. Hübner, C. Hampe, and A. G. Aberle, “A simple fabrication process for 20% efficient silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 46(1), 67–77 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Pysch, A. Mette, and S. W. Glunz, “A review and comparison of different methods to determine the series resistance of solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(18), 1698–1706 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. A. Green, Solar Cells: Operating Principles, Technology and System Applications. Prentice-Hall: New Jersey, 1982, Chapter 3.

R. Ludemann, B. M. Damiani, and A. Rohatgi, “Novel processing of solar cells with porous silicon texturing,” Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 2000. Conference Record of the Twenty-Eighth IEEE.

R. A. Sinton, and A. Cuevas, “A quasi-steady-state open circuit voltage method for solar cell characterization,” 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference. 2000: Glasgow, UK. 1152–1155.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a)-(d) Microsphere patterning on MC Si substrates. (e) SEM image of patterned monolayer microsphere on MC Si.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) SEM images of top-down wires after RIE. (2) Measured reflectivity of MC Si (Device A), MC Si with wire textured structure (Device B), and standard KOH textured single crystal Si. Dash lines indicate WAR of each sample.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Measured light I-V characteristics of control sample, and devices with wire texture. Insert: device illustration. (b) SEM image of MC Si devices with wire texture.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) EQE, and (b) IQE of MC Si solar cells with/without wire textured structure.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Measured solar cell device parameters

Equations (1)

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V O C = n k T q ln ( I L I 0 + 1 ) ,

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