Abstract

Using rigorous diffraction theory we investigate the scattering properties of various random textures currently used for photon management in thin-film solar cells. We relate the haze and the angularly resolved scattering function of these cells to the enhancement of light absorption. A simple criterion is derived that provides an explanation why certain textures operate more beneficially than others. Using this criterion we propose a generic surface profile that outperforms the available substrates. This work facilitates the understanding of the effect of randomly textured surfaces and provides guidelines towards their optimization.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. Nelson, The Physics of Solar Cells, 1st ed. (Imperial College Press, 2003).
  2. Y. Hamakawa, Thin-Film Solar Cells, 1st ed. (Springer, 2004).
  3. J. Müller, B. Rech, J. Springer, and M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77, 917 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. C. Goldschmidt, M. Peters, A. Bösch, H. Helmers, F. Dimroth, S. W. Glunz, and G. Willeke, “Increasing the efficiency of fluorescent concentrator systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93, 176 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. ?ampa, J. Kr?, and M. Topi?, “Analysis and optimisation of microcrystalline silicon solar cells with periodic sinusoidal textured interfaces by two-dimensional optical simulations,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 083107 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Bermel, C. Luo, L. Zeng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Improving thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell efficiencies with photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 15, 16986 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Photon management by metallic nanodiscs in thin film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 213102 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. Yablonovitch, and G. D. Cody, “Intensity Enhancement in Textured Optical Sheets for Solar Cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. ED-29, 300 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Fischer, S. Dubail, J. A. Anna Selvan, N. Pellaton Vaucher, R. Platz, C. Hof, U. Kroll, J. Meier, P. Torres, H. Keppner, N. Wyrsch, M. Goetz, A. Shah, and K.-D. Ufert, “The Micromorph Solar Cell: Extending a-Si:H Technology towards Thin Film Crystalline Silicon,” Proceedings of the 25th PVSEC, Washington DC, 1053 (1996).
  10. C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, K. Bittkau, T. Beckers, and R. Carius, “The impact of intermediate reflectors on light absorption in tandem solar cells with randomly textured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 211101 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Berginski, J. Hüpkes, M. Schulte, G. Schöpe, H. Stiebig, and B. Rech, “The effect of front ZnO:Al surface texture and optical transparency on efficient light trapping in silicon thin-film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 074903 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Kr?, M. Zeman, O. Kluth, F. Smole, and M. Topi?, “Effect of surface roughness of ZnO:Al films on light scattering in hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 426, 296 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Dominé, P. Buehlmann, J. Bailat, A. Billet, A. Feltrin, and C. Ballif, “Optical management in high-efficiency thin-film silicon micromorph solar cells with a silicon oxide based intermediate reflector,” Phys. Status Solidi 2, 163 (2008) (RRL).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. Jäger, and M. Zeman, “A scattering model for surface-textured thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 171108 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Steinhauser, S. Faÿ, N. Oliveira, E. Vallat-Sauvain, and C. Ballif, “Transition between grain boundary and intragrain scattering transport mechanisms in boron-doped zinc oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 142107 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. Rockstuhl, S. Fahr, F. Lederer, T. Beckers, K. Bittkau, and R. Carius, “Local versus global absorption in thin-film solar cells with randomly textured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 061105 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. O. Vetterl, F. Finger, R. Carius, P. Hapke, L. Houben, O. Kluth, A. Lambertz, A. Mück, B. Rech, and H. Wagner, “Intrinsic microcrystalline silicon: A new material for photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 62, 97 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Farjadpour, D. Roundy, A. Rodriguez, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, and G. Burr, “Improving accuracy by subpixel smoothing in the finite-difference time domain,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2972 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. C. Rockstuhl, S. Fahr, and F. Lederer, “Absorption enhancement in solar cells by localized plasmon polaritons,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 123102 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. P. Pillai, J. Kr?, and M. Zeman, “Optical Modeling of a-Si:H Thin Film Solar Cells with Rough Interfaces,” Proceedings of SAFE 2001, Veldhoven, The Netherlands, 159 (2001).
  21. S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Engineering the randomness for enhanced absorption in solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 171114 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  22. D. Dominé, F.-J. Haug, C. Battaglia, and C. Ballif, “Modeling of light scattering from micro- and nanotextured surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 044504 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

D. Dominé, F.-J. Haug, C. Battaglia, and C. Ballif, “Modeling of light scattering from micro- and nanotextured surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 044504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

J. C. Goldschmidt, M. Peters, A. Bösch, H. Helmers, F. Dimroth, S. W. Glunz, and G. Willeke, “Increasing the efficiency of fluorescent concentrator systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93, 176 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. ?ampa, J. Kr?, and M. Topi?, “Analysis and optimisation of microcrystalline silicon solar cells with periodic sinusoidal textured interfaces by two-dimensional optical simulations,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 083107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Photon management by metallic nanodiscs in thin film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 213102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, K. Bittkau, T. Beckers, and R. Carius, “The impact of intermediate reflectors on light absorption in tandem solar cells with randomly textured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 211101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Jäger, and M. Zeman, “A scattering model for surface-textured thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 171108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

C. Rockstuhl, S. Fahr, F. Lederer, T. Beckers, K. Bittkau, and R. Carius, “Local versus global absorption in thin-film solar cells with randomly textured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 061105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, S. Fahr, and F. Lederer, “Absorption enhancement in solar cells by localized plasmon polaritons,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 123102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Engineering the randomness for enhanced absorption in solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 171114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Dominé, P. Buehlmann, J. Bailat, A. Billet, A. Feltrin, and C. Ballif, “Optical management in high-efficiency thin-film silicon micromorph solar cells with a silicon oxide based intermediate reflector,” Phys. Status Solidi 2, 163 (2008) (RRL).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

J. Müller, B. Rech, J. Springer, and M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77, 917 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Steinhauser, S. Faÿ, N. Oliveira, E. Vallat-Sauvain, and C. Ballif, “Transition between grain boundary and intragrain scattering transport mechanisms in boron-doped zinc oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 142107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Berginski, J. Hüpkes, M. Schulte, G. Schöpe, H. Stiebig, and B. Rech, “The effect of front ZnO:Al surface texture and optical transparency on efficient light trapping in silicon thin-film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 074903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Bermel, C. Luo, L. Zeng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Improving thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell efficiencies with photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 15, 16986 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2003 (1)

J. Kr?, M. Zeman, O. Kluth, F. Smole, and M. Topi?, “Effect of surface roughness of ZnO:Al films on light scattering in hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 426, 296 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

O. Vetterl, F. Finger, R. Carius, P. Hapke, L. Houben, O. Kluth, A. Lambertz, A. Mück, B. Rech, and H. Wagner, “Intrinsic microcrystalline silicon: A new material for photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 62, 97 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

E. Yablonovitch, and G. D. Cody, “Intensity Enhancement in Textured Optical Sheets for Solar Cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. ED-29, 300 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Bailat, J.

D. Dominé, P. Buehlmann, J. Bailat, A. Billet, A. Feltrin, and C. Ballif, “Optical management in high-efficiency thin-film silicon micromorph solar cells with a silicon oxide based intermediate reflector,” Phys. Status Solidi 2, 163 (2008) (RRL).
[CrossRef]

Ballif, C.

D. Dominé, F.-J. Haug, C. Battaglia, and C. Ballif, “Modeling of light scattering from micro- and nanotextured surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 044504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Dominé, P. Buehlmann, J. Bailat, A. Billet, A. Feltrin, and C. Ballif, “Optical management in high-efficiency thin-film silicon micromorph solar cells with a silicon oxide based intermediate reflector,” Phys. Status Solidi 2, 163 (2008) (RRL).
[CrossRef]

J. Steinhauser, S. Faÿ, N. Oliveira, E. Vallat-Sauvain, and C. Ballif, “Transition between grain boundary and intragrain scattering transport mechanisms in boron-doped zinc oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 142107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Battaglia, C.

D. Dominé, F.-J. Haug, C. Battaglia, and C. Ballif, “Modeling of light scattering from micro- and nanotextured surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 044504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Beckers, T.

C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, K. Bittkau, T. Beckers, and R. Carius, “The impact of intermediate reflectors on light absorption in tandem solar cells with randomly textured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 211101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, S. Fahr, F. Lederer, T. Beckers, K. Bittkau, and R. Carius, “Local versus global absorption in thin-film solar cells with randomly textured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 061105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Berginski, M.

M. Berginski, J. Hüpkes, M. Schulte, G. Schöpe, H. Stiebig, and B. Rech, “The effect of front ZnO:Al surface texture and optical transparency on efficient light trapping in silicon thin-film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 074903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bermel, P.

Billet, A.

D. Dominé, P. Buehlmann, J. Bailat, A. Billet, A. Feltrin, and C. Ballif, “Optical management in high-efficiency thin-film silicon micromorph solar cells with a silicon oxide based intermediate reflector,” Phys. Status Solidi 2, 163 (2008) (RRL).
[CrossRef]

Bittkau, K.

C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, K. Bittkau, T. Beckers, and R. Carius, “The impact of intermediate reflectors on light absorption in tandem solar cells with randomly textured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 211101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, S. Fahr, F. Lederer, T. Beckers, K. Bittkau, and R. Carius, “Local versus global absorption in thin-film solar cells with randomly textured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 061105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bösch, A.

J. C. Goldschmidt, M. Peters, A. Bösch, H. Helmers, F. Dimroth, S. W. Glunz, and G. Willeke, “Increasing the efficiency of fluorescent concentrator systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93, 176 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Buehlmann, P.

D. Dominé, P. Buehlmann, J. Bailat, A. Billet, A. Feltrin, and C. Ballif, “Optical management in high-efficiency thin-film silicon micromorph solar cells with a silicon oxide based intermediate reflector,” Phys. Status Solidi 2, 163 (2008) (RRL).
[CrossRef]

Burr, G.

Campa, A.

A. ?ampa, J. Kr?, and M. Topi?, “Analysis and optimisation of microcrystalline silicon solar cells with periodic sinusoidal textured interfaces by two-dimensional optical simulations,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 083107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Carius, R.

C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, K. Bittkau, T. Beckers, and R. Carius, “The impact of intermediate reflectors on light absorption in tandem solar cells with randomly textured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 211101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, S. Fahr, F. Lederer, T. Beckers, K. Bittkau, and R. Carius, “Local versus global absorption in thin-film solar cells with randomly textured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 061105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Vetterl, F. Finger, R. Carius, P. Hapke, L. Houben, O. Kluth, A. Lambertz, A. Mück, B. Rech, and H. Wagner, “Intrinsic microcrystalline silicon: A new material for photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 62, 97 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cody, G. D.

E. Yablonovitch, and G. D. Cody, “Intensity Enhancement in Textured Optical Sheets for Solar Cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. ED-29, 300 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Dimroth, F.

J. C. Goldschmidt, M. Peters, A. Bösch, H. Helmers, F. Dimroth, S. W. Glunz, and G. Willeke, “Increasing the efficiency of fluorescent concentrator systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93, 176 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dominé, D.

D. Dominé, F.-J. Haug, C. Battaglia, and C. Ballif, “Modeling of light scattering from micro- and nanotextured surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 044504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Dominé, P. Buehlmann, J. Bailat, A. Billet, A. Feltrin, and C. Ballif, “Optical management in high-efficiency thin-film silicon micromorph solar cells with a silicon oxide based intermediate reflector,” Phys. Status Solidi 2, 163 (2008) (RRL).
[CrossRef]

Fahr, S.

S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Engineering the randomness for enhanced absorption in solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 171114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, S. Fahr, F. Lederer, T. Beckers, K. Bittkau, and R. Carius, “Local versus global absorption in thin-film solar cells with randomly textured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 061105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, S. Fahr, and F. Lederer, “Absorption enhancement in solar cells by localized plasmon polaritons,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 123102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Farjadpour, A.

Faÿ, S.

J. Steinhauser, S. Faÿ, N. Oliveira, E. Vallat-Sauvain, and C. Ballif, “Transition between grain boundary and intragrain scattering transport mechanisms in boron-doped zinc oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 142107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Feltrin, A.

D. Dominé, P. Buehlmann, J. Bailat, A. Billet, A. Feltrin, and C. Ballif, “Optical management in high-efficiency thin-film silicon micromorph solar cells with a silicon oxide based intermediate reflector,” Phys. Status Solidi 2, 163 (2008) (RRL).
[CrossRef]

Finger, F.

O. Vetterl, F. Finger, R. Carius, P. Hapke, L. Houben, O. Kluth, A. Lambertz, A. Mück, B. Rech, and H. Wagner, “Intrinsic microcrystalline silicon: A new material for photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 62, 97 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Glunz, S. W.

J. C. Goldschmidt, M. Peters, A. Bösch, H. Helmers, F. Dimroth, S. W. Glunz, and G. Willeke, “Increasing the efficiency of fluorescent concentrator systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93, 176 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Goldschmidt, J. C.

J. C. Goldschmidt, M. Peters, A. Bösch, H. Helmers, F. Dimroth, S. W. Glunz, and G. Willeke, “Increasing the efficiency of fluorescent concentrator systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93, 176 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hapke, P.

O. Vetterl, F. Finger, R. Carius, P. Hapke, L. Houben, O. Kluth, A. Lambertz, A. Mück, B. Rech, and H. Wagner, “Intrinsic microcrystalline silicon: A new material for photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 62, 97 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Haug, F.-J.

D. Dominé, F.-J. Haug, C. Battaglia, and C. Ballif, “Modeling of light scattering from micro- and nanotextured surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 044504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Helmers, H.

J. C. Goldschmidt, M. Peters, A. Bösch, H. Helmers, F. Dimroth, S. W. Glunz, and G. Willeke, “Increasing the efficiency of fluorescent concentrator systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93, 176 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Houben, L.

O. Vetterl, F. Finger, R. Carius, P. Hapke, L. Houben, O. Kluth, A. Lambertz, A. Mück, B. Rech, and H. Wagner, “Intrinsic microcrystalline silicon: A new material for photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 62, 97 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hüpkes, J.

M. Berginski, J. Hüpkes, M. Schulte, G. Schöpe, H. Stiebig, and B. Rech, “The effect of front ZnO:Al surface texture and optical transparency on efficient light trapping in silicon thin-film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 074903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ibanescu, M.

Jäger, K.

K. Jäger, and M. Zeman, “A scattering model for surface-textured thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 171108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Johnson, S. G.

Kimerling, L. C.

Kluth, O.

J. Kr?, M. Zeman, O. Kluth, F. Smole, and M. Topi?, “Effect of surface roughness of ZnO:Al films on light scattering in hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 426, 296 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O. Vetterl, F. Finger, R. Carius, P. Hapke, L. Houben, O. Kluth, A. Lambertz, A. Mück, B. Rech, and H. Wagner, “Intrinsic microcrystalline silicon: A new material for photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 62, 97 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Krc, J.

A. ?ampa, J. Kr?, and M. Topi?, “Analysis and optimisation of microcrystalline silicon solar cells with periodic sinusoidal textured interfaces by two-dimensional optical simulations,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 083107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Kr?, M. Zeman, O. Kluth, F. Smole, and M. Topi?, “Effect of surface roughness of ZnO:Al films on light scattering in hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 426, 296 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lambertz, A.

O. Vetterl, F. Finger, R. Carius, P. Hapke, L. Houben, O. Kluth, A. Lambertz, A. Mück, B. Rech, and H. Wagner, “Intrinsic microcrystalline silicon: A new material for photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 62, 97 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lederer, F.

C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, K. Bittkau, T. Beckers, and R. Carius, “The impact of intermediate reflectors on light absorption in tandem solar cells with randomly textured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 211101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Photon management by metallic nanodiscs in thin film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 213102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, S. Fahr, F. Lederer, T. Beckers, K. Bittkau, and R. Carius, “Local versus global absorption in thin-film solar cells with randomly textured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 061105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, S. Fahr, and F. Lederer, “Absorption enhancement in solar cells by localized plasmon polaritons,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 123102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Engineering the randomness for enhanced absorption in solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 171114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Luo, C.

Mück, A.

O. Vetterl, F. Finger, R. Carius, P. Hapke, L. Houben, O. Kluth, A. Lambertz, A. Mück, B. Rech, and H. Wagner, “Intrinsic microcrystalline silicon: A new material for photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 62, 97 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Müller, J.

J. Müller, B. Rech, J. Springer, and M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77, 917 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oliveira, N.

J. Steinhauser, S. Faÿ, N. Oliveira, E. Vallat-Sauvain, and C. Ballif, “Transition between grain boundary and intragrain scattering transport mechanisms in boron-doped zinc oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 142107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Peters, M.

J. C. Goldschmidt, M. Peters, A. Bösch, H. Helmers, F. Dimroth, S. W. Glunz, and G. Willeke, “Increasing the efficiency of fluorescent concentrator systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93, 176 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rech, B.

J. Müller, B. Rech, J. Springer, and M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77, 917 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Berginski, J. Hüpkes, M. Schulte, G. Schöpe, H. Stiebig, and B. Rech, “The effect of front ZnO:Al surface texture and optical transparency on efficient light trapping in silicon thin-film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 074903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Vetterl, F. Finger, R. Carius, P. Hapke, L. Houben, O. Kluth, A. Lambertz, A. Mück, B. Rech, and H. Wagner, “Intrinsic microcrystalline silicon: A new material for photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 62, 97 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rockstuhl, C.

C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, K. Bittkau, T. Beckers, and R. Carius, “The impact of intermediate reflectors on light absorption in tandem solar cells with randomly textured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 211101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Photon management by metallic nanodiscs in thin film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 213102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, S. Fahr, F. Lederer, T. Beckers, K. Bittkau, and R. Carius, “Local versus global absorption in thin-film solar cells with randomly textured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 061105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, S. Fahr, and F. Lederer, “Absorption enhancement in solar cells by localized plasmon polaritons,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 123102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Engineering the randomness for enhanced absorption in solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 171114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, A.

Roundy, D.

Schöpe, G.

M. Berginski, J. Hüpkes, M. Schulte, G. Schöpe, H. Stiebig, and B. Rech, “The effect of front ZnO:Al surface texture and optical transparency on efficient light trapping in silicon thin-film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 074903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schulte, M.

M. Berginski, J. Hüpkes, M. Schulte, G. Schöpe, H. Stiebig, and B. Rech, “The effect of front ZnO:Al surface texture and optical transparency on efficient light trapping in silicon thin-film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 074903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smole, F.

J. Kr?, M. Zeman, O. Kluth, F. Smole, and M. Topi?, “Effect of surface roughness of ZnO:Al films on light scattering in hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 426, 296 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Springer, J.

J. Müller, B. Rech, J. Springer, and M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77, 917 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Steinhauser, J.

J. Steinhauser, S. Faÿ, N. Oliveira, E. Vallat-Sauvain, and C. Ballif, “Transition between grain boundary and intragrain scattering transport mechanisms in boron-doped zinc oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 142107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stiebig, H.

M. Berginski, J. Hüpkes, M. Schulte, G. Schöpe, H. Stiebig, and B. Rech, “The effect of front ZnO:Al surface texture and optical transparency on efficient light trapping in silicon thin-film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 074903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Topic, M.

A. ?ampa, J. Kr?, and M. Topi?, “Analysis and optimisation of microcrystalline silicon solar cells with periodic sinusoidal textured interfaces by two-dimensional optical simulations,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 083107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Kr?, M. Zeman, O. Kluth, F. Smole, and M. Topi?, “Effect of surface roughness of ZnO:Al films on light scattering in hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 426, 296 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vallat-Sauvain, E.

J. Steinhauser, S. Faÿ, N. Oliveira, E. Vallat-Sauvain, and C. Ballif, “Transition between grain boundary and intragrain scattering transport mechanisms in boron-doped zinc oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 142107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vanecek, M.

J. Müller, B. Rech, J. Springer, and M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77, 917 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vetterl, O.

O. Vetterl, F. Finger, R. Carius, P. Hapke, L. Houben, O. Kluth, A. Lambertz, A. Mück, B. Rech, and H. Wagner, “Intrinsic microcrystalline silicon: A new material for photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 62, 97 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, H.

O. Vetterl, F. Finger, R. Carius, P. Hapke, L. Houben, O. Kluth, A. Lambertz, A. Mück, B. Rech, and H. Wagner, “Intrinsic microcrystalline silicon: A new material for photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 62, 97 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Willeke, G.

J. C. Goldschmidt, M. Peters, A. Bösch, H. Helmers, F. Dimroth, S. W. Glunz, and G. Willeke, “Increasing the efficiency of fluorescent concentrator systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93, 176 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

E. Yablonovitch, and G. D. Cody, “Intensity Enhancement in Textured Optical Sheets for Solar Cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. ED-29, 300 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Zeman, M.

K. Jäger, and M. Zeman, “A scattering model for surface-textured thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 171108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Kr?, M. Zeman, O. Kluth, F. Smole, and M. Topi?, “Effect of surface roughness of ZnO:Al films on light scattering in hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 426, 296 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, L.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Photon management by metallic nanodiscs in thin film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 213102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, K. Bittkau, T. Beckers, and R. Carius, “The impact of intermediate reflectors on light absorption in tandem solar cells with randomly textured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 211101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Jäger, and M. Zeman, “A scattering model for surface-textured thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 171108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Steinhauser, S. Faÿ, N. Oliveira, E. Vallat-Sauvain, and C. Ballif, “Transition between grain boundary and intragrain scattering transport mechanisms in boron-doped zinc oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 142107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, S. Fahr, F. Lederer, T. Beckers, K. Bittkau, and R. Carius, “Local versus global absorption in thin-film solar cells with randomly textured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 061105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Engineering the randomness for enhanced absorption in solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 171114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. (1)

E. Yablonovitch, and G. D. Cody, “Intensity Enhancement in Textured Optical Sheets for Solar Cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. ED-29, 300 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

M. Berginski, J. Hüpkes, M. Schulte, G. Schöpe, H. Stiebig, and B. Rech, “The effect of front ZnO:Al surface texture and optical transparency on efficient light trapping in silicon thin-film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 074903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Dominé, F.-J. Haug, C. Battaglia, and C. Ballif, “Modeling of light scattering from micro- and nanotextured surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 044504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. ?ampa, J. Kr?, and M. Topi?, “Analysis and optimisation of microcrystalline silicon solar cells with periodic sinusoidal textured interfaces by two-dimensional optical simulations,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 083107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, S. Fahr, and F. Lederer, “Absorption enhancement in solar cells by localized plasmon polaritons,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 123102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Status Solidi (1)

D. Dominé, P. Buehlmann, J. Bailat, A. Billet, A. Feltrin, and C. Ballif, “Optical management in high-efficiency thin-film silicon micromorph solar cells with a silicon oxide based intermediate reflector,” Phys. Status Solidi 2, 163 (2008) (RRL).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy (1)

J. Müller, B. Rech, J. Springer, and M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77, 917 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (2)

J. C. Goldschmidt, M. Peters, A. Bösch, H. Helmers, F. Dimroth, S. W. Glunz, and G. Willeke, “Increasing the efficiency of fluorescent concentrator systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93, 176 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Vetterl, F. Finger, R. Carius, P. Hapke, L. Houben, O. Kluth, A. Lambertz, A. Mück, B. Rech, and H. Wagner, “Intrinsic microcrystalline silicon: A new material for photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 62, 97 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

J. Kr?, M. Zeman, O. Kluth, F. Smole, and M. Topi?, “Effect of surface roughness of ZnO:Al films on light scattering in hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 426, 296 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

D. Fischer, S. Dubail, J. A. Anna Selvan, N. Pellaton Vaucher, R. Platz, C. Hof, U. Kroll, J. Meier, P. Torres, H. Keppner, N. Wyrsch, M. Goetz, A. Shah, and K.-D. Ufert, “The Micromorph Solar Cell: Extending a-Si:H Technology towards Thin Film Crystalline Silicon,” Proceedings of the 25th PVSEC, Washington DC, 1053 (1996).

J. Nelson, The Physics of Solar Cells, 1st ed. (Imperial College Press, 2003).

Y. Hamakawa, Thin-Film Solar Cells, 1st ed. (Springer, 2004).

H. P. Pillai, J. Kr?, and M. Zeman, “Optical Modeling of a-Si:H Thin Film Solar Cells with Rough Interfaces,” Proceedings of SAFE 2001, Veldhoven, The Netherlands, 159 (2001).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Topology of the various considered randomly textured surfaces. (a) the Jülich substrate, (b) the Neuchâtel substrate, (c) the commercial substrate Asahi-U, and (d) a generic topography as a result of optimization in this work. The sequence of layers of the cell is shown in (e).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Haze for different substrates where the surface separates TCO and a medium whose refractive index n is subject to variation. (b) The ARS function for the different substrates if the adjacent medium has a refractive index of n = 4. Data is rigorously calculated at a wavelength of 633 nm. Lines are only guide to the eyes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absorption enhancement of a thin-film solar cell with different textured surfaces. Results for a wavelength of 633 nm are shown in (a) and for a wavelength of 720 nm in (b). The geometry of the solar cell is described in the main body of the text. Three different thicknesses for the a-Si:H layers were considered and the different quality factors A Int σ A 2 signify different substrates. The link between the quality factor and the substrate is shown in (b). The absorption enhancement at a wavelength of 633 nm is furthermore shown in (c) where it was assumed that the medium of the infinite half space into which the light is scattered is air. The lines in (a)–(c) are only guide to the eyes which connect the different data points. In (d) we finally show the results of the absorption enhancement depending on the merit criterion. The data points were generated by scaling the height of the Neuchâtel profile and evaluating the scattering response against air as the medium of the second infinite half space and its ability to enhance the absorption at 633 nm for a 250 nm a-Si:H thickness for each texture individually .

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

h a z e = lim r [ 0 π 0 2 π S r ( r , θ , ϕ ) d θ d ϕ S r ( r , 0 , 0 ) 0 π 0 2 π S r ( r , θ , ϕ ) d θ d ϕ ]

Metrics