Abstract

High-efficiency multijunction (MJ) solar cells, being very expensive to manufacture, should only be used in combination with solar concentrators in terrestrial applications. An essential cost reduction of electric power produced by photovoltaic (PV) installations with MJ cells, may be expected by the creation of highly-effective, but inexpensive, elements for optical concentration and sun tracking. This article is an overview of the corresponding approach under development at the Ioffe Physical Technical Institute. The approach to R&D of the solar PV modules is based on the concepts of sunlight concentration by small-aperture area Fresnel lenses and “all-glass” module design. The small-aperture area lenses are arranged as a panel with silicone-on-glass structure where the glass plate serves as the front surface of a module. In turn, high-efficiency InGaP/(In)GaAs/Ge cells are arranged on a rear module panel mounted on a glass plate which functions as a heat sink and integrated protective cover for the cells. The developed PV modules and sun trackers are characterized by simple design, and are regarded as the prototypes for further commercialization.

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References

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  1. Zh. I. Alferov, V. M. Andreev, and V. D. Rumyantsev, “III-V heterostructures in photovoltaics” in: Concentrator Photovoltaics, A. Luque, and V. Andreev, ed., Springer Series in Optical Sciences, 130, 25–50 (2007).
  2. V. D. Rumyantsev, “Terrestrial concentrator PV systems,” in Concentrator Photovoltaics, A. Luque, and V. Andreev, ed., Springer Series in Optical Sciences, 130, 151–174 (2007).
  3. V. D. Rumyantsev, V. M. Andreev, A. W. Bett, F. Dimroth, M. Hein, G. Lange, M. Z. Shvarts, and O. V. Sulima, “Progress in development of all-glass terrestrial concentrator modules based on composite Fresnel lenses and III-V solar cells,” in Proceedings of the 28th IEEE PVSC, (Alaska, 2000), pp. 1169–1172.
  4. N. H. Karam, R. A. Sherif, and R. R. King, “Multijunction Concentrator Solar Cells, An Enabler For Low-Cost Concentrating Photovoltaic Systems,” in Concentrator Photovoltaics, A. Luque, and V. Andreev, ed., Springer Series in Optical Sciences, 130, 199–220 (2007).
  5. A. W. Bett, F. Dimroth, and G. Siefer, “Multi-Junction Concentrator Solar Cells,” in Concentrator Photovoltaics, A. Luque, and V. Andreev, ed., Springer Series in Optical Sciences, 130, 67–88, (2007).
  6. Renewable energy world report, “Spectrolab Hits 41.6% PV Cell Efficiency record” (Renewable energy world, 2009). http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2009/08/spectrolab-sets-solar-cell-efficiency-record-at-41-6
  7. E. Lorenzo, and G. Sala, “Hibrid silicone-glass Fresnel lens as concentrator for photovoltaic applications”, in Proc. of the Int. Solar Energy Soc. (vol. 1): Silver Jubilee Congress, Atlanta 1979, Pergamon Press, 536–539.
  8. V. D. Rumyantsev, M. Hein, V. M. Andreev, A. W. Bett, F. Dimroth, G. Lange, G. Letay, M. Z. Shvarts, and O. V. Sulima, “Concentrator array based on GaAs cells and Fresnel lens concentrators”, in Proceedings of the 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, (Glasgow, 2000), p. 2312.
  9. V. D. Rumyantsev, N. A. Sadchikov, A. E. Chalov, E. A. Ionova, D. J. Friedman, and G. Glenn, “Terrestrial concentrator PV modules based on GaInP/GaAs/Ge TJ cells and minilens panels” Proceedings of the IEEE 4th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, May 7–12, 2006, Hawaii, pp. 632–635.
  10. V. D. Rumyantsev, V. M. Andreev, V. R. Larionov, D. A. Malevskiy, and M. Z. Shvarts, “Indoor characterization of multijunction concentrator cells under flash illumination with variable spectrum,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Solar Concentrators for the Generation of Electricity or Hydrogen (ICSC-4), (El Escorial, Spain, 2007), pp. 277–280.
  11. V. M. Andreev, V. A. Grilikhes, and V. D. Rumyantsev, Photovoltaic Conversion of Concentrated Sunlight (John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 1997), Chap. 4.
  12. RUSNANO Press release, “RUSNANO invests in production of new generation high-efficiency solar power plants” (RUSNANO, 2009). http://www.rusnano.com/Post.aspx/Show/24310

Other

Zh. I. Alferov, V. M. Andreev, and V. D. Rumyantsev, “III-V heterostructures in photovoltaics” in: Concentrator Photovoltaics, A. Luque, and V. Andreev, ed., Springer Series in Optical Sciences, 130, 25–50 (2007).

V. D. Rumyantsev, “Terrestrial concentrator PV systems,” in Concentrator Photovoltaics, A. Luque, and V. Andreev, ed., Springer Series in Optical Sciences, 130, 151–174 (2007).

V. D. Rumyantsev, V. M. Andreev, A. W. Bett, F. Dimroth, M. Hein, G. Lange, M. Z. Shvarts, and O. V. Sulima, “Progress in development of all-glass terrestrial concentrator modules based on composite Fresnel lenses and III-V solar cells,” in Proceedings of the 28th IEEE PVSC, (Alaska, 2000), pp. 1169–1172.

N. H. Karam, R. A. Sherif, and R. R. King, “Multijunction Concentrator Solar Cells, An Enabler For Low-Cost Concentrating Photovoltaic Systems,” in Concentrator Photovoltaics, A. Luque, and V. Andreev, ed., Springer Series in Optical Sciences, 130, 199–220 (2007).

A. W. Bett, F. Dimroth, and G. Siefer, “Multi-Junction Concentrator Solar Cells,” in Concentrator Photovoltaics, A. Luque, and V. Andreev, ed., Springer Series in Optical Sciences, 130, 67–88, (2007).

Renewable energy world report, “Spectrolab Hits 41.6% PV Cell Efficiency record” (Renewable energy world, 2009). http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2009/08/spectrolab-sets-solar-cell-efficiency-record-at-41-6

E. Lorenzo, and G. Sala, “Hibrid silicone-glass Fresnel lens as concentrator for photovoltaic applications”, in Proc. of the Int. Solar Energy Soc. (vol. 1): Silver Jubilee Congress, Atlanta 1979, Pergamon Press, 536–539.

V. D. Rumyantsev, M. Hein, V. M. Andreev, A. W. Bett, F. Dimroth, G. Lange, G. Letay, M. Z. Shvarts, and O. V. Sulima, “Concentrator array based on GaAs cells and Fresnel lens concentrators”, in Proceedings of the 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, (Glasgow, 2000), p. 2312.

V. D. Rumyantsev, N. A. Sadchikov, A. E. Chalov, E. A. Ionova, D. J. Friedman, and G. Glenn, “Terrestrial concentrator PV modules based on GaInP/GaAs/Ge TJ cells and minilens panels” Proceedings of the IEEE 4th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, May 7–12, 2006, Hawaii, pp. 632–635.

V. D. Rumyantsev, V. M. Andreev, V. R. Larionov, D. A. Malevskiy, and M. Z. Shvarts, “Indoor characterization of multijunction concentrator cells under flash illumination with variable spectrum,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Solar Concentrators for the Generation of Electricity or Hydrogen (ICSC-4), (El Escorial, Spain, 2007), pp. 277–280.

V. M. Andreev, V. A. Grilikhes, and V. D. Rumyantsev, Photovoltaic Conversion of Concentrated Sunlight (John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 1997), Chap. 4.

RUSNANO Press release, “RUSNANO invests in production of new generation high-efficiency solar power plants” (RUSNANO, 2009). http://www.rusnano.com/Post.aspx/Show/24310

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

On the left- comparison of the “large”- and “small”-aperture area approaches to HCPV module design. On the right- operation of “larger”- and “smaller”-in-area MJ SCs of the same structure under highly concentrated solar illumination of the same concentration ratio.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

On the left- a fragment of the “silicone-on-glass” composite Fresnel lens (front glass thickness is 4 mm, averaged thickness of the silicone microprisms is about 0.2 mm, focal distance is 70 mm). On the right- optical transmittance of a sample with “silicone-on-glass” structure, simulating a composite Fresnel lens, in comparison with that of a conventional acrylic Fresnel lens.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical diagrams of the concentrator sub-modules corresponding to “all-glass” module design.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Stair-step arrangement of the HCPV modules on a solar tracker and interaction of the module frame with light and wind fluxes during a day.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

PV installation with concentrator modules for 1 kWp of output power on the roof of the Ioffe Institute.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

On the left- I-V curves measured on an 8-lens test module outdoors (solid line, Eff. = 24.5%) and indoors by a flash solar tester (dashed line, Eff. = 26.48%). Cell temperature was about 50C outdoors and 25C indoors. On the right- illuminated I-V curve for one of the full-size modules measured outdoors (Eff. = 24.3%).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

On the left- concentrator PV module with triple-junction solar cells (in front) and similar housing with mounted red LEDs (behind), both emitting electroluminescence under forward bias conditions. On the right- layout of the cell qualitative control method with spatial separation of the photoluminescent (PL) and electroluminescent (EL) signals arising in turn at local photoexitation by green light (λ = 532 nm).

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