Abstract

We investigate an optical performance monitor based on Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), for enabling the measurement of the in-band optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) for multiple channels of a wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) signal simultaneously. The principle relies on propagating the signal in a nonlinear waveguide so that each channel pumps SBS to produce a back-scattered Stokes wave of unique carrier wavelength, and with a power that depends on the in-band OSNR of the channel itself. We experimentally demonstrate a highly sensitive OSNR measurement for a 3 × 40 Gb/s signal, with a small sensitivity to the input state of polarization, and a large dynamic range (25 dB) in the Stokes power. Our results also reveal the insensitivity of SBS to both chromatic and polarization-mode dispersions, and the indirect role these effects can play in mitigating the suppression of SBS from the nonlinear Kerr effect.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. Z. Pan, C. Yu, and A. E. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring for the next generation optical communication networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(1), 20–45 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. Chen, S. Zhong, Z. Zhu, W. Chen, and Y.-J. Chen, “Adding OSNR and Wavelength Monitoring Functionalities on a Double-Resolution-AWG-Based Power Monitoring Circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(6), 858–860 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C.-L. Yang and S.-L. Lee, “OSNR monitoring using double-pass filtering and dithered tunable reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(6), 1570–1572 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. H. Lee, D. K. Jung, C. H. Kim, and Y. C. Chung, “OSNR monitoring technique using polarization-nulling method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(1), 88–90 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M.-H. Cheung, L.-K. Chen, and C.-K. Chan, “PMD-insensitive OSNR monitoring based on polarization-nulling with off-center narrow-band filtering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2562–2564 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y.-C. Ku, C.-K. Chan, and L.-K. Chen, “Robust optical signal-to-noise ratio monitoring scheme using a phase-modulator-embedded fiber loop mirror,” Opt. Lett. 32(12), 1752–1754 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. X. Liu, Y.-H. Kao, S. Chandrasekhar, I. Kang, S. Cabot, and L. L. Buhl, “OSNR monitoring method for OOK and DPSK based on optical delay interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(15), 1172–1174 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. T. Ng, J. L. Blows, M. Rochette, J. A. Bolger, I. Littler, and B. J. Eggleton, “In-band OSNR and chromatic dispersion monitoring using a fibre optical parametric amplifier,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5542–5552 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. Adams, M. Rochette, T. T. Ng, and B. J. Eggleton, “All-Optical In-Band OSNR monitoring at 40 Gb/s using a nonlinear optical loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(3), 469–471 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Dinu, D. C. Kilper, and H. R. Stuart, “Optical performance monitoring using data stream intensity autocorrelation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(3), 1194–1202 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. Provost, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, K. Mukasa, M. Takahashi, J. Hiroishi, and M. Tadakuma, “Investigation of four-wavelength regenerator using polarization- and direction-multiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(20), 1676–1678 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. T. Sugie, “Maximum repeaterless transmission of lightwave systems imposed by stimulated Brillouin scattering in fibres,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 27(7), 643–661 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  16. E. Lichtman, R. G. Waarts, and A. A. Friesem, “Stimulated Brillouin Scattering excited by a modulated pump wave in single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(1), 171–174 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. A. Fishman and J. A. Nagel, “Degradations due to Stimulated Brillouin Scattering in multigigabit intensity-modulated fiber-optic systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11(11), 1721–1728 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Ferrario, L. Marazzi, P. Boffi, A. Righetti, and M. Martinelli, “Impact of Rayleigh backscattering on Stimulated Brillouin Scattering threshold evaluation for 10 Gb/s NRZ-OOK signals,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18110–18115 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. V. Yu. Golyshev, E. A. Zhukov, I. É. Samartsev, and D. G. Slepov, “The effect of Self-Phase-Modulation on the Stimulated Mandelstam–Brillouin Scattering in fiber-optic communication lines,” Tech. Phys. 49(7), 872–875 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. Sano, Y. Miyamoto, T. Kataoka, H. Kawakami, and K. Hagimoto, “10Gbit/s, 300km repeaterless transmission with SBS suppression by the use of the RZ format,” Electron. Lett. 30(20), 1694–1695 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Y. Horiuchi, S. Yamamoto, and S. Akiba, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression effects induced by cross-phase modulation in high power WDM repeaterless transmission,” Electron. Lett. 34(4), 390–391 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. S. Lee, H. J. Lee, W. Seo, and S. G. Lee, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression using cross-phase modulation induced by an optical supervisory channel in WDM links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(7), 741–743 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. D. Downie and J. Hurley, “Experimental study of SBS mitigation and transmission improvement from cross-phase modulation in 10.7 Gb/s unrepeatered systems,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9527–9534 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. E. Lichtman, A. A. Friesem, R. G. Waarts, and H. H. Yaffe, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering excited by two pump waves in single-mode fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4(9), 1397–1403 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  25. Y. K. Park, O. Mizuhara, L. D. Tzeng, J.-M. P. Delavaux, T. V. Nguyen, M.-L. Kao, P. D. Yeates, and J. Stone, “A 5 Gb/s repeaterless transmission system using Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5(1), 79–82 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  26. R. Elschner, C.-A. Bunge, B. Huttl, A. G. i Coca, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, C. Schubert, and K. Petermann, “A.G. i Coca, C.L. Schmidt, R. Ludwig, C. Schubert, K. Petermann, “Impact of pump-phase modulation on FWM-based wavelength conversion of D(Q)PSK signals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(3), 666–673 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  27. M. R. Lorenzen, D. Noordegraaf, C. V. Nielsen, O. Odgaard, L. Grüner-Nielsen, and K. Rottwitt, “Suppression of Brillouin scattering in fibre-optical parametric amplifier by applying temperature control and phase modulation,” Electron. Lett. 45(2), 125–126 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  28. K. Shiraki, M. Ohashi, and M. Tateda, “SBS threshold of a fiber with a Brillouin frequency shift distribution,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 50–57 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  29. A. Zadok, E. Zilka, A. Eyal, L. Thévenaz, and M. Tur, “Vector analysis of stimulated Brillouin scattering amplification in standard single-mode fibers,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21692–21707 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. Q. Lin and G. P. Agrawal, “Effects of Polarization-Mode Dispersion on Cross-Phase Modulation in Dispersion-Managed Wavelength-Division-Multiplexed Systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(4), 977–987 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  31. R. Lapp, “Experimental investigation of signal distortions induced by cross-phase modulation combined with dispersion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(12), 1592–1594 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  32. A. Prasad, C.-J. Zha, R.-P. Wang, A. Smith, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Properties of GexAsySe1-x-y glasses for all-optical signal processing,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2804–2815 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

Z. Pan, C. Yu, and A. E. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring for the next generation optical communication networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(1), 20–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

M. R. Lorenzen, D. Noordegraaf, C. V. Nielsen, O. Odgaard, L. Grüner-Nielsen, and K. Rottwitt, “Suppression of Brillouin scattering in fibre-optical parametric amplifier by applying temperature control and phase modulation,” Electron. Lett. 45(2), 125–126 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Ferrario, L. Marazzi, P. Boffi, A. Righetti, and M. Martinelli, “Impact of Rayleigh backscattering on Stimulated Brillouin Scattering threshold evaluation for 10 Gb/s NRZ-OOK signals,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18110–18115 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

A. Prasad, C.-J. Zha, R.-P. Wang, A. Smith, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Properties of GexAsySe1-x-y glasses for all-optical signal processing,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2804–2815 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zadok, E. Zilka, A. Eyal, L. Thévenaz, and M. Tur, “Vector analysis of stimulated Brillouin scattering amplification in standard single-mode fibers,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21692–21707 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Provost, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, K. Mukasa, M. Takahashi, J. Hiroishi, and M. Tadakuma, “Investigation of four-wavelength regenerator using polarization- and direction-multiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(20), 1676–1678 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Elschner, C.-A. Bunge, B. Huttl, A. G. i Coca, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, C. Schubert, and K. Petermann, “A.G. i Coca, C.L. Schmidt, R. Ludwig, C. Schubert, K. Petermann, “Impact of pump-phase modulation on FWM-based wavelength conversion of D(Q)PSK signals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(3), 666–673 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

M. Dinu, D. C. Kilper, and H. R. Stuart, “Optical performance monitoring using data stream intensity autocorrelation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(3), 1194–1202 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Adams, M. Rochette, T. T. Ng, and B. J. Eggleton, “All-Optical In-Band OSNR monitoring at 40 Gb/s using a nonlinear optical loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(3), 469–471 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

Q. Lin and G. P. Agrawal, “Effects of Polarization-Mode Dispersion on Cross-Phase Modulation in Dispersion-Managed Wavelength-Division-Multiplexed Systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(4), 977–987 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C.-L. Yang and S.-L. Lee, “OSNR monitoring using double-pass filtering and dithered tunable reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(6), 1570–1572 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M.-H. Cheung, L.-K. Chen, and C.-K. Chan, “PMD-insensitive OSNR monitoring based on polarization-nulling with off-center narrow-band filtering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2562–2564 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Yu. Golyshev, E. A. Zhukov, I. É. Samartsev, and D. G. Slepov, “The effect of Self-Phase-Modulation on the Stimulated Mandelstam–Brillouin Scattering in fiber-optic communication lines,” Tech. Phys. 49(7), 872–875 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

W. Chen, S. Zhong, Z. Zhu, W. Chen, and Y.-J. Chen, “Adding OSNR and Wavelength Monitoring Functionalities on a Double-Resolution-AWG-Based Power Monitoring Circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(6), 858–860 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Le Floch and P. Cambon, “Theoretical evaluation of the Brillouin threshold and the steady-state Brillouin equations in standard single-mode optical fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20(6), 1132–1137 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

J. H. Lee, D. K. Jung, C. H. Kim, and Y. C. Chung, “OSNR monitoring technique using polarization-nulling method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(1), 88–90 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Lee, H. J. Lee, W. Seo, and S. G. Lee, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression using cross-phase modulation induced by an optical supervisory channel in WDM links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(7), 741–743 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998

Y. Horiuchi, S. Yamamoto, and S. Akiba, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression effects induced by cross-phase modulation in high power WDM repeaterless transmission,” Electron. Lett. 34(4), 390–391 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

R. Lapp, “Experimental investigation of signal distortions induced by cross-phase modulation combined with dispersion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(12), 1592–1594 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

K. Shiraki, M. Ohashi, and M. Tateda, “SBS threshold of a fiber with a Brillouin frequency shift distribution,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 50–57 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

T. Sugie, “Maximum repeaterless transmission of lightwave systems imposed by stimulated Brillouin scattering in fibres,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 27(7), 643–661 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

A. Sano, Y. Miyamoto, T. Kataoka, H. Kawakami, and K. Hagimoto, “10Gbit/s, 300km repeaterless transmission with SBS suppression by the use of the RZ format,” Electron. Lett. 30(20), 1694–1695 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

D. A. Fishman and J. A. Nagel, “Degradations due to Stimulated Brillouin Scattering in multigigabit intensity-modulated fiber-optic systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11(11), 1721–1728 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Park, O. Mizuhara, L. D. Tzeng, J.-M. P. Delavaux, T. V. Nguyen, M.-L. Kao, P. D. Yeates, and J. Stone, “A 5 Gb/s repeaterless transmission system using Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5(1), 79–82 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989

E. Lichtman, R. G. Waarts, and A. A. Friesem, “Stimulated Brillouin Scattering excited by a modulated pump wave in single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(1), 171–174 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987

Adams, R.

R. Adams, M. Rochette, T. T. Ng, and B. J. Eggleton, “All-Optical In-Band OSNR monitoring at 40 Gb/s using a nonlinear optical loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(3), 469–471 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

Akiba, S.

Y. Horiuchi, S. Yamamoto, and S. Akiba, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression effects induced by cross-phase modulation in high power WDM repeaterless transmission,” Electron. Lett. 34(4), 390–391 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Blows, J. L.

Boffi, P.

Bolger, J. A.

Buhl, L. L.

X. Liu, Y.-H. Kao, S. Chandrasekhar, I. Kang, S. Cabot, and L. L. Buhl, “OSNR monitoring method for OOK and DPSK based on optical delay interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(15), 1172–1174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bunge, C.-A.

R. Elschner, C.-A. Bunge, B. Huttl, A. G. i Coca, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, C. Schubert, and K. Petermann, “A.G. i Coca, C.L. Schmidt, R. Ludwig, C. Schubert, K. Petermann, “Impact of pump-phase modulation on FWM-based wavelength conversion of D(Q)PSK signals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(3), 666–673 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cabot, S.

X. Liu, Y.-H. Kao, S. Chandrasekhar, I. Kang, S. Cabot, and L. L. Buhl, “OSNR monitoring method for OOK and DPSK based on optical delay interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(15), 1172–1174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cambon, P.

Chan, C.-K.

Y.-C. Ku, C.-K. Chan, and L.-K. Chen, “Robust optical signal-to-noise ratio monitoring scheme using a phase-modulator-embedded fiber loop mirror,” Opt. Lett. 32(12), 1752–1754 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-H. Cheung, L.-K. Chen, and C.-K. Chan, “PMD-insensitive OSNR monitoring based on polarization-nulling with off-center narrow-band filtering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2562–2564 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chandrasekhar, S.

X. Liu, Y.-H. Kao, S. Chandrasekhar, I. Kang, S. Cabot, and L. L. Buhl, “OSNR monitoring method for OOK and DPSK based on optical delay interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(15), 1172–1174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.-K.

Y.-C. Ku, C.-K. Chan, and L.-K. Chen, “Robust optical signal-to-noise ratio monitoring scheme using a phase-modulator-embedded fiber loop mirror,” Opt. Lett. 32(12), 1752–1754 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-H. Cheung, L.-K. Chen, and C.-K. Chan, “PMD-insensitive OSNR monitoring based on polarization-nulling with off-center narrow-band filtering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2562–2564 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

W. Chen, S. Zhong, Z. Zhu, W. Chen, and Y.-J. Chen, “Adding OSNR and Wavelength Monitoring Functionalities on a Double-Resolution-AWG-Based Power Monitoring Circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(6), 858–860 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Chen, S. Zhong, Z. Zhu, W. Chen, and Y.-J. Chen, “Adding OSNR and Wavelength Monitoring Functionalities on a Double-Resolution-AWG-Based Power Monitoring Circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(6), 858–860 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-J.

W. Chen, S. Zhong, Z. Zhu, W. Chen, and Y.-J. Chen, “Adding OSNR and Wavelength Monitoring Functionalities on a Double-Resolution-AWG-Based Power Monitoring Circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(6), 858–860 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, M.-H.

M.-H. Cheung, L.-K. Chen, and C.-K. Chan, “PMD-insensitive OSNR monitoring based on polarization-nulling with off-center narrow-band filtering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2562–2564 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chung, Y. C.

J. H. Lee, D. K. Jung, C. H. Kim, and Y. C. Chung, “OSNR monitoring technique using polarization-nulling method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(1), 88–90 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Delavaux, J.-M. P.

Y. K. Park, O. Mizuhara, L. D. Tzeng, J.-M. P. Delavaux, T. V. Nguyen, M.-L. Kao, P. D. Yeates, and J. Stone, “A 5 Gb/s repeaterless transmission system using Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5(1), 79–82 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dinu, M.

Downie, J. D.

Eggleton, B. J.

R. Adams, M. Rochette, T. T. Ng, and B. J. Eggleton, “All-Optical In-Band OSNR monitoring at 40 Gb/s using a nonlinear optical loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(3), 469–471 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. T. Ng, J. L. Blows, M. Rochette, J. A. Bolger, I. Littler, and B. J. Eggleton, “In-band OSNR and chromatic dispersion monitoring using a fibre optical parametric amplifier,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5542–5552 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elschner, R.

R. Elschner, C.-A. Bunge, B. Huttl, A. G. i Coca, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, C. Schubert, and K. Petermann, “A.G. i Coca, C.L. Schmidt, R. Ludwig, C. Schubert, K. Petermann, “Impact of pump-phase modulation on FWM-based wavelength conversion of D(Q)PSK signals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(3), 666–673 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eyal, A.

Ferrario, M.

Fishman, D. A.

D. A. Fishman and J. A. Nagel, “Degradations due to Stimulated Brillouin Scattering in multigigabit intensity-modulated fiber-optic systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11(11), 1721–1728 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Friesem, A. A.

E. Lichtman, R. G. Waarts, and A. A. Friesem, “Stimulated Brillouin Scattering excited by a modulated pump wave in single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(1), 171–174 (1989).
[CrossRef]

E. Lichtman, A. A. Friesem, R. G. Waarts, and H. H. Yaffe, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering excited by two pump waves in single-mode fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4(9), 1397–1403 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Golyshev, V. Yu.

V. Yu. Golyshev, E. A. Zhukov, I. É. Samartsev, and D. G. Slepov, “The effect of Self-Phase-Modulation on the Stimulated Mandelstam–Brillouin Scattering in fiber-optic communication lines,” Tech. Phys. 49(7), 872–875 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grüner-Nielsen, L.

M. R. Lorenzen, D. Noordegraaf, C. V. Nielsen, O. Odgaard, L. Grüner-Nielsen, and K. Rottwitt, “Suppression of Brillouin scattering in fibre-optical parametric amplifier by applying temperature control and phase modulation,” Electron. Lett. 45(2), 125–126 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hagimoto, K.

A. Sano, Y. Miyamoto, T. Kataoka, H. Kawakami, and K. Hagimoto, “10Gbit/s, 300km repeaterless transmission with SBS suppression by the use of the RZ format,” Electron. Lett. 30(20), 1694–1695 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hiroishi, J.

L. Provost, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, K. Mukasa, M. Takahashi, J. Hiroishi, and M. Tadakuma, “Investigation of four-wavelength regenerator using polarization- and direction-multiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(20), 1676–1678 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Horiuchi, Y.

Y. Horiuchi, S. Yamamoto, and S. Akiba, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression effects induced by cross-phase modulation in high power WDM repeaterless transmission,” Electron. Lett. 34(4), 390–391 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hurley, J.

Huttl, B.

R. Elschner, C.-A. Bunge, B. Huttl, A. G. i Coca, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, C. Schubert, and K. Petermann, “A.G. i Coca, C.L. Schmidt, R. Ludwig, C. Schubert, K. Petermann, “Impact of pump-phase modulation on FWM-based wavelength conversion of D(Q)PSK signals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(3), 666–673 (2008).
[CrossRef]

i Coca, A. G.

R. Elschner, C.-A. Bunge, B. Huttl, A. G. i Coca, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, C. Schubert, and K. Petermann, “A.G. i Coca, C.L. Schmidt, R. Ludwig, C. Schubert, K. Petermann, “Impact of pump-phase modulation on FWM-based wavelength conversion of D(Q)PSK signals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(3), 666–673 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jung, D. K.

J. H. Lee, D. K. Jung, C. H. Kim, and Y. C. Chung, “OSNR monitoring technique using polarization-nulling method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(1), 88–90 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kang, I.

X. Liu, Y.-H. Kao, S. Chandrasekhar, I. Kang, S. Cabot, and L. L. Buhl, “OSNR monitoring method for OOK and DPSK based on optical delay interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(15), 1172–1174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kao, M.-L.

Y. K. Park, O. Mizuhara, L. D. Tzeng, J.-M. P. Delavaux, T. V. Nguyen, M.-L. Kao, P. D. Yeates, and J. Stone, “A 5 Gb/s repeaterless transmission system using Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5(1), 79–82 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kao, Y.-H.

X. Liu, Y.-H. Kao, S. Chandrasekhar, I. Kang, S. Cabot, and L. L. Buhl, “OSNR monitoring method for OOK and DPSK based on optical delay interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(15), 1172–1174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kataoka, T.

A. Sano, Y. Miyamoto, T. Kataoka, H. Kawakami, and K. Hagimoto, “10Gbit/s, 300km repeaterless transmission with SBS suppression by the use of the RZ format,” Electron. Lett. 30(20), 1694–1695 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, H.

A. Sano, Y. Miyamoto, T. Kataoka, H. Kawakami, and K. Hagimoto, “10Gbit/s, 300km repeaterless transmission with SBS suppression by the use of the RZ format,” Electron. Lett. 30(20), 1694–1695 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kilper, D. C.

Kim, C. H.

J. H. Lee, D. K. Jung, C. H. Kim, and Y. C. Chung, “OSNR monitoring technique using polarization-nulling method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(1), 88–90 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ku, Y.-C.

Lapp, R.

R. Lapp, “Experimental investigation of signal distortions induced by cross-phase modulation combined with dispersion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(12), 1592–1594 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Le Floch, S.

Lee, H. J.

S. S. Lee, H. J. Lee, W. Seo, and S. G. Lee, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression using cross-phase modulation induced by an optical supervisory channel in WDM links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(7), 741–743 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

J. H. Lee, D. K. Jung, C. H. Kim, and Y. C. Chung, “OSNR monitoring technique using polarization-nulling method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(1), 88–90 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. G.

S. S. Lee, H. J. Lee, W. Seo, and S. G. Lee, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression using cross-phase modulation induced by an optical supervisory channel in WDM links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(7), 741–743 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. S.

S. S. Lee, H. J. Lee, W. Seo, and S. G. Lee, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression using cross-phase modulation induced by an optical supervisory channel in WDM links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(7), 741–743 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-L.

C.-L. Yang and S.-L. Lee, “OSNR monitoring using double-pass filtering and dithered tunable reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(6), 1570–1572 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lichtman, E.

E. Lichtman, R. G. Waarts, and A. A. Friesem, “Stimulated Brillouin Scattering excited by a modulated pump wave in single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(1), 171–174 (1989).
[CrossRef]

E. Lichtman, A. A. Friesem, R. G. Waarts, and H. H. Yaffe, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering excited by two pump waves in single-mode fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4(9), 1397–1403 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Q.

Littler, I.

Liu, X.

X. Liu, Y.-H. Kao, S. Chandrasekhar, I. Kang, S. Cabot, and L. L. Buhl, “OSNR monitoring method for OOK and DPSK based on optical delay interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(15), 1172–1174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lorenzen, M. R.

M. R. Lorenzen, D. Noordegraaf, C. V. Nielsen, O. Odgaard, L. Grüner-Nielsen, and K. Rottwitt, “Suppression of Brillouin scattering in fibre-optical parametric amplifier by applying temperature control and phase modulation,” Electron. Lett. 45(2), 125–126 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ludwig, R.

R. Elschner, C.-A. Bunge, B. Huttl, A. G. i Coca, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, C. Schubert, and K. Petermann, “A.G. i Coca, C.L. Schmidt, R. Ludwig, C. Schubert, K. Petermann, “Impact of pump-phase modulation on FWM-based wavelength conversion of D(Q)PSK signals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(3), 666–673 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

Madden, S.

Marazzi, L.

Martinelli, M.

Miyamoto, Y.

A. Sano, Y. Miyamoto, T. Kataoka, H. Kawakami, and K. Hagimoto, “10Gbit/s, 300km repeaterless transmission with SBS suppression by the use of the RZ format,” Electron. Lett. 30(20), 1694–1695 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mizuhara, O.

Y. K. Park, O. Mizuhara, L. D. Tzeng, J.-M. P. Delavaux, T. V. Nguyen, M.-L. Kao, P. D. Yeates, and J. Stone, “A 5 Gb/s repeaterless transmission system using Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5(1), 79–82 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mukasa, K.

L. Provost, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, K. Mukasa, M. Takahashi, J. Hiroishi, and M. Tadakuma, “Investigation of four-wavelength regenerator using polarization- and direction-multiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(20), 1676–1678 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nagel, J. A.

D. A. Fishman and J. A. Nagel, “Degradations due to Stimulated Brillouin Scattering in multigigabit intensity-modulated fiber-optic systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11(11), 1721–1728 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ng, T. T.

R. Adams, M. Rochette, T. T. Ng, and B. J. Eggleton, “All-Optical In-Band OSNR monitoring at 40 Gb/s using a nonlinear optical loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(3), 469–471 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. T. Ng, J. L. Blows, M. Rochette, J. A. Bolger, I. Littler, and B. J. Eggleton, “In-band OSNR and chromatic dispersion monitoring using a fibre optical parametric amplifier,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5542–5552 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nguyen, T. V.

Y. K. Park, O. Mizuhara, L. D. Tzeng, J.-M. P. Delavaux, T. V. Nguyen, M.-L. Kao, P. D. Yeates, and J. Stone, “A 5 Gb/s repeaterless transmission system using Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5(1), 79–82 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, C. V.

M. R. Lorenzen, D. Noordegraaf, C. V. Nielsen, O. Odgaard, L. Grüner-Nielsen, and K. Rottwitt, “Suppression of Brillouin scattering in fibre-optical parametric amplifier by applying temperature control and phase modulation,” Electron. Lett. 45(2), 125–126 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Noordegraaf, D.

M. R. Lorenzen, D. Noordegraaf, C. V. Nielsen, O. Odgaard, L. Grüner-Nielsen, and K. Rottwitt, “Suppression of Brillouin scattering in fibre-optical parametric amplifier by applying temperature control and phase modulation,” Electron. Lett. 45(2), 125–126 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Odgaard, O.

M. R. Lorenzen, D. Noordegraaf, C. V. Nielsen, O. Odgaard, L. Grüner-Nielsen, and K. Rottwitt, “Suppression of Brillouin scattering in fibre-optical parametric amplifier by applying temperature control and phase modulation,” Electron. Lett. 45(2), 125–126 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ohashi, M.

K. Shiraki, M. Ohashi, and M. Tateda, “SBS threshold of a fiber with a Brillouin frequency shift distribution,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 50–57 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pan, Z.

Z. Pan, C. Yu, and A. E. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring for the next generation optical communication networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(1), 20–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y. K.

Y. K. Park, O. Mizuhara, L. D. Tzeng, J.-M. P. Delavaux, T. V. Nguyen, M.-L. Kao, P. D. Yeates, and J. Stone, “A 5 Gb/s repeaterless transmission system using Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5(1), 79–82 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Parmigiani, F.

L. Provost, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, K. Mukasa, M. Takahashi, J. Hiroishi, and M. Tadakuma, “Investigation of four-wavelength regenerator using polarization- and direction-multiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(20), 1676–1678 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Petermann, K.

R. Elschner, C.-A. Bunge, B. Huttl, A. G. i Coca, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, C. Schubert, and K. Petermann, “A.G. i Coca, C.L. Schmidt, R. Ludwig, C. Schubert, K. Petermann, “Impact of pump-phase modulation on FWM-based wavelength conversion of D(Q)PSK signals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(3), 666–673 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Petropoulos, P.

L. Provost, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, K. Mukasa, M. Takahashi, J. Hiroishi, and M. Tadakuma, “Investigation of four-wavelength regenerator using polarization- and direction-multiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(20), 1676–1678 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, A.

Provost, L.

L. Provost, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, K. Mukasa, M. Takahashi, J. Hiroishi, and M. Tadakuma, “Investigation of four-wavelength regenerator using polarization- and direction-multiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(20), 1676–1678 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

L. Provost, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, K. Mukasa, M. Takahashi, J. Hiroishi, and M. Tadakuma, “Investigation of four-wavelength regenerator using polarization- and direction-multiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(20), 1676–1678 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Righetti, A.

Rochette, M.

R. Adams, M. Rochette, T. T. Ng, and B. J. Eggleton, “All-Optical In-Band OSNR monitoring at 40 Gb/s using a nonlinear optical loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(3), 469–471 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. T. Ng, J. L. Blows, M. Rochette, J. A. Bolger, I. Littler, and B. J. Eggleton, “In-band OSNR and chromatic dispersion monitoring using a fibre optical parametric amplifier,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5542–5552 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rottwitt, K.

M. R. Lorenzen, D. Noordegraaf, C. V. Nielsen, O. Odgaard, L. Grüner-Nielsen, and K. Rottwitt, “Suppression of Brillouin scattering in fibre-optical parametric amplifier by applying temperature control and phase modulation,” Electron. Lett. 45(2), 125–126 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Samartsev, I. É.

V. Yu. Golyshev, E. A. Zhukov, I. É. Samartsev, and D. G. Slepov, “The effect of Self-Phase-Modulation on the Stimulated Mandelstam–Brillouin Scattering in fiber-optic communication lines,” Tech. Phys. 49(7), 872–875 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sano, A.

A. Sano, Y. Miyamoto, T. Kataoka, H. Kawakami, and K. Hagimoto, “10Gbit/s, 300km repeaterless transmission with SBS suppression by the use of the RZ format,” Electron. Lett. 30(20), 1694–1695 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt-Langhorst, C.

R. Elschner, C.-A. Bunge, B. Huttl, A. G. i Coca, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, C. Schubert, and K. Petermann, “A.G. i Coca, C.L. Schmidt, R. Ludwig, C. Schubert, K. Petermann, “Impact of pump-phase modulation on FWM-based wavelength conversion of D(Q)PSK signals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(3), 666–673 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, C.

R. Elschner, C.-A. Bunge, B. Huttl, A. G. i Coca, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, C. Schubert, and K. Petermann, “A.G. i Coca, C.L. Schmidt, R. Ludwig, C. Schubert, K. Petermann, “Impact of pump-phase modulation on FWM-based wavelength conversion of D(Q)PSK signals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(3), 666–673 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Seo, W.

S. S. Lee, H. J. Lee, W. Seo, and S. G. Lee, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression using cross-phase modulation induced by an optical supervisory channel in WDM links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(7), 741–743 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shiraki, K.

K. Shiraki, M. Ohashi, and M. Tateda, “SBS threshold of a fiber with a Brillouin frequency shift distribution,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 50–57 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Slepov, D. G.

V. Yu. Golyshev, E. A. Zhukov, I. É. Samartsev, and D. G. Slepov, “The effect of Self-Phase-Modulation on the Stimulated Mandelstam–Brillouin Scattering in fiber-optic communication lines,” Tech. Phys. 49(7), 872–875 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Smith, A.

Stone, J.

Y. K. Park, O. Mizuhara, L. D. Tzeng, J.-M. P. Delavaux, T. V. Nguyen, M.-L. Kao, P. D. Yeates, and J. Stone, “A 5 Gb/s repeaterless transmission system using Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5(1), 79–82 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stuart, H. R.

Sugie, T.

T. Sugie, “Maximum repeaterless transmission of lightwave systems imposed by stimulated Brillouin scattering in fibres,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 27(7), 643–661 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tadakuma, M.

L. Provost, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, K. Mukasa, M. Takahashi, J. Hiroishi, and M. Tadakuma, “Investigation of four-wavelength regenerator using polarization- and direction-multiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(20), 1676–1678 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, M.

L. Provost, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, K. Mukasa, M. Takahashi, J. Hiroishi, and M. Tadakuma, “Investigation of four-wavelength regenerator using polarization- and direction-multiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(20), 1676–1678 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tateda, M.

K. Shiraki, M. Ohashi, and M. Tateda, “SBS threshold of a fiber with a Brillouin frequency shift distribution,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 50–57 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Thévenaz, L.

Tur, M.

Tzeng, L. D.

Y. K. Park, O. Mizuhara, L. D. Tzeng, J.-M. P. Delavaux, T. V. Nguyen, M.-L. Kao, P. D. Yeates, and J. Stone, “A 5 Gb/s repeaterless transmission system using Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5(1), 79–82 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Waarts, R. G.

E. Lichtman, R. G. Waarts, and A. A. Friesem, “Stimulated Brillouin Scattering excited by a modulated pump wave in single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(1), 171–174 (1989).
[CrossRef]

E. Lichtman, A. A. Friesem, R. G. Waarts, and H. H. Yaffe, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering excited by two pump waves in single-mode fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4(9), 1397–1403 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wang, R.-P.

Willner, A. E.

Z. Pan, C. Yu, and A. E. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring for the next generation optical communication networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(1), 20–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yaffe, H. H.

Yamamoto, S.

Y. Horiuchi, S. Yamamoto, and S. Akiba, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression effects induced by cross-phase modulation in high power WDM repeaterless transmission,” Electron. Lett. 34(4), 390–391 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.-L.

C.-L. Yang and S.-L. Lee, “OSNR monitoring using double-pass filtering and dithered tunable reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(6), 1570–1572 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yeates, P. D.

Y. K. Park, O. Mizuhara, L. D. Tzeng, J.-M. P. Delavaux, T. V. Nguyen, M.-L. Kao, P. D. Yeates, and J. Stone, “A 5 Gb/s repeaterless transmission system using Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5(1), 79–82 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C.

Z. Pan, C. Yu, and A. E. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring for the next generation optical communication networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(1), 20–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zadok, A.

Zha, C.-J.

Zhong, S.

W. Chen, S. Zhong, Z. Zhu, W. Chen, and Y.-J. Chen, “Adding OSNR and Wavelength Monitoring Functionalities on a Double-Resolution-AWG-Based Power Monitoring Circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(6), 858–860 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Z.

W. Chen, S. Zhong, Z. Zhu, W. Chen, and Y.-J. Chen, “Adding OSNR and Wavelength Monitoring Functionalities on a Double-Resolution-AWG-Based Power Monitoring Circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(6), 858–860 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhukov, E. A.

V. Yu. Golyshev, E. A. Zhukov, I. É. Samartsev, and D. G. Slepov, “The effect of Self-Phase-Modulation on the Stimulated Mandelstam–Brillouin Scattering in fiber-optic communication lines,” Tech. Phys. 49(7), 872–875 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zilka, E.

Electron. Lett.

A. Sano, Y. Miyamoto, T. Kataoka, H. Kawakami, and K. Hagimoto, “10Gbit/s, 300km repeaterless transmission with SBS suppression by the use of the RZ format,” Electron. Lett. 30(20), 1694–1695 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Horiuchi, S. Yamamoto, and S. Akiba, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression effects induced by cross-phase modulation in high power WDM repeaterless transmission,” Electron. Lett. 34(4), 390–391 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Lorenzen, D. Noordegraaf, C. V. Nielsen, O. Odgaard, L. Grüner-Nielsen, and K. Rottwitt, “Suppression of Brillouin scattering in fibre-optical parametric amplifier by applying temperature control and phase modulation,” Electron. Lett. 45(2), 125–126 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

R. Elschner, C.-A. Bunge, B. Huttl, A. G. i Coca, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, C. Schubert, and K. Petermann, “A.G. i Coca, C.L. Schmidt, R. Ludwig, C. Schubert, K. Petermann, “Impact of pump-phase modulation on FWM-based wavelength conversion of D(Q)PSK signals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(3), 666–673 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

R. Lapp, “Experimental investigation of signal distortions induced by cross-phase modulation combined with dispersion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(12), 1592–1594 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Lee, H. J. Lee, W. Seo, and S. G. Lee, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression using cross-phase modulation induced by an optical supervisory channel in WDM links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(7), 741–743 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Park, O. Mizuhara, L. D. Tzeng, J.-M. P. Delavaux, T. V. Nguyen, M.-L. Kao, P. D. Yeates, and J. Stone, “A 5 Gb/s repeaterless transmission system using Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5(1), 79–82 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. Chen, S. Zhong, Z. Zhu, W. Chen, and Y.-J. Chen, “Adding OSNR and Wavelength Monitoring Functionalities on a Double-Resolution-AWG-Based Power Monitoring Circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(6), 858–860 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C.-L. Yang and S.-L. Lee, “OSNR monitoring using double-pass filtering and dithered tunable reflector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(6), 1570–1572 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lee, D. K. Jung, C. H. Kim, and Y. C. Chung, “OSNR monitoring technique using polarization-nulling method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(1), 88–90 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M.-H. Cheung, L.-K. Chen, and C.-K. Chan, “PMD-insensitive OSNR monitoring based on polarization-nulling with off-center narrow-band filtering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2562–2564 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, Y.-H. Kao, S. Chandrasekhar, I. Kang, S. Cabot, and L. L. Buhl, “OSNR monitoring method for OOK and DPSK based on optical delay interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(15), 1172–1174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Adams, M. Rochette, T. T. Ng, and B. J. Eggleton, “All-Optical In-Band OSNR monitoring at 40 Gb/s using a nonlinear optical loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(3), 469–471 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Provost, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, K. Mukasa, M. Takahashi, J. Hiroishi, and M. Tadakuma, “Investigation of four-wavelength regenerator using polarization- and direction-multiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(20), 1676–1678 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

E. Lichtman, R. G. Waarts, and A. A. Friesem, “Stimulated Brillouin Scattering excited by a modulated pump wave in single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(1), 171–174 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Fishman and J. A. Nagel, “Degradations due to Stimulated Brillouin Scattering in multigigabit intensity-modulated fiber-optic systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11(11), 1721–1728 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Shiraki, M. Ohashi, and M. Tateda, “SBS threshold of a fiber with a Brillouin frequency shift distribution,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 50–57 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Q. Lin and G. P. Agrawal, “Effects of Polarization-Mode Dispersion on Cross-Phase Modulation in Dispersion-Managed Wavelength-Division-Multiplexed Systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(4), 977–987 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Dinu, D. C. Kilper, and H. R. Stuart, “Optical performance monitoring using data stream intensity autocorrelation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(3), 1194–1202 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Express

Opt. Fiber Technol.

Z. Pan, C. Yu, and A. E. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring for the next generation optical communication networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(1), 20–45 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Quantum Electron.

T. Sugie, “Maximum repeaterless transmission of lightwave systems imposed by stimulated Brillouin scattering in fibres,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 27(7), 643–661 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tech. Phys.

V. Yu. Golyshev, E. A. Zhukov, I. É. Samartsev, and D. G. Slepov, “The effect of Self-Phase-Modulation on the Stimulated Mandelstam–Brillouin Scattering in fiber-optic communication lines,” Tech. Phys. 49(7), 872–875 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic Press, 3rd edition, 2008).

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, San Diego, California, 3rd edition, 2001).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics of (i) multi-channel OSNR monitor based on the different critical powers of signal and noise needed for SBS when launching a WDM signal into a nonlinear optical fiber, and (ii) optical power transfer function (PTF) for SBS of signal and noise. (iii) Monitoring concept based on the back-scattered power relation to the channel OSNR according to the SBS-PTFs for signal and noise.

Figure 2
Figure 2

Experimental set-up for OSNR monitoring of a WDM (3 × 40 Gb/s) NRZ signal using SBS.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured SBS PTF of back-scattered channel power from 1 km HNLF input connector, versus input power per channel for (a) CW laser and various single channel and WDM signals of different data modulation formats, and (b) CW and 40 Gb/s NRZ signals for single channel and WDM cases. Note, the channel labels, Ch. 1, 2 & 3, in Fig. 3(b) correspond to carrier wavelengths (1558.17 nm, 1558.98 nm, 1559.79 nm), respectively for 100 GHz spacing, and (1557.36 nm, 1558.98 nm, 1560.62 nm), respectively, for 200 GHz spacing. In both figures, the SSMF length in Fig. 2 set-up was 4 km, and the 1 ch. case corresponds to launching channel 2 alone.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simultaneous OSNR monitoring of a WDM (3 × 40 Gb/s) NRZ signal using SBS effect. (a) Optical spectra at (i) input, (ii) back-scattered, and (iii) throughput from the 1 km HNLF for Ch. 2 OSNR = 15 dB, and no noise added to channels 1 and 3. (b) Measured back-scattered power per channel at input connector of 1 km of HNLF, in case of the OSNR varied for only either Ch. 2 or Ch. 3, and predicted curve from the measured Ch. 2 SBS-PTF for the 3 × 40 Gb/s WDM signal, and (c) in case of broadband noise applied to all channels simultaneously. (Inset) Optical spectrum of signal launched into HNLF with broadband noise.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured back-scattered powers from HNLF input connector for each channel of an input 3 × 40 Gb/s NRZ signal centered at 1550.92 nm, versus the (a) input optical power of each channel to characterize the SBS PTF, and (b) the corresponding calculated OSNR curves from the measured PTF for varying channel powers of the WDM signal.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured back-scattered optical power of Ch. 2 at waveguide input connector whenlaunching either a single channel or WDM 3 × 40 Gb/s NRZ signal, pre-distorted by various lengths of SSMF, plotted against the Ch. 2 (a) input optical power, and (b) OSNR for a fixed channel power of 89 mW. Also, shown is the convergence of the PTF for the WDM signal toward the single channel case, when the WDM signal is further pre-distorted by DGD (in addition to the 4 km SSMF). The corresponding OSNR curve in Fig. 6(b) used a channel power of 83 mW. (c) Accuracy of the OSNR monitoring scheme highlighted by mapping the back-scattered power for varying OSNR in the 2 km SSMF case, to the OSNR inferred by linear interpolation from the 4 km SSMF curve in Fig. 6(b).

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