Abstract

We present an optical quantum random number generator (QRNG) based on the digitized time interval between random photon arrivals. By tailoring the photon flux of the laser diode, the statistics of the waiting-time distribution are altered to approximate the ideal, uniform case. This greatly reduces the need for post-processing, and enables fast, secure quantum random number generation at rates exceeding 110 Mbit/s.

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  1. A. Stefanov, N. Gisin, L. Guinnard, and H. Zbinden, “Optical quantum random number generator,” J. Mod. Opt. 47(4), 595–598 (2000).
  2. T. Jennewein, U. Achleitner, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “A fast and compact quantum random number generator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(4), 1675–1680 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. Dultz, and E. Hildebrandt, “Optical random-check generator based on the individual photon statistics at the optical beam divider,” PCT Patent WO/98/16008, April 1998.
  4. J. G. Rarity, P. C. M. Owens, and P. R. Tapster, “Quantum random-number generation and key sharing,” J. Mod. Opt. 41(12), 2435–2444 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. A. Wayne, E. R. Jeffrey, G. M. Akselrod, and P. G. Kwiat, “Photon arrival time quantum random number generation,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(4), 516–522 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. Lutkenhaus, J. Cohen, and H. Lo, “Efficient use of detectors for random number generation,” U.S. Patent 7197523, March 27, 2007.
  7. P. Kwiat, E. Jeffrey, and J. Altepeter, “Quantum random number generator,” U.S. Patent Application 20060010182, January 12, 2006.
  8. D. L. Snyder, and M. I. Miller, Random Point Processes in Time and Space, (New York, NY: Springer-Verlag, 1991).
  9. E. Ph. D. Jeffrey, Thesis, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, 2007.
  10. C. E. Shannon, “A mathematical theory of communication,” Bell System Technical Journal, vol. 27, pp. 379–423 and 623–656, (1948).
  11. A. Rènyi, “On measures of information and entropy,” in Proceedings of the 4th Berkeley Symposium on Mathematics, Statistics, and Probability, 1960, pp. 547–561.
  12. National Institute of Standards and Technology, “A Statistical Test Suite for Random and Pseudorandom Number Generators for Cryptographic Applications,” April 2009. [Online]. Available: http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistpubs/800-22-rev1/SP800-22rev1.pdf .
  13. A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Bennett, and A. J. Shields, “Ultrashort dead time of photon-counting InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231113 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. I. Reidler, Y. Aviad, M. Rosenbluh, and I. Kanter, “Ultrahigh-speed random number generation based on a chaotic semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 024102–024104 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (3)

M. A. Wayne, E. R. Jeffrey, G. M. Akselrod, and P. G. Kwiat, “Photon arrival time quantum random number generation,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(4), 516–522 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Bennett, and A. J. Shields, “Ultrashort dead time of photon-counting InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Reidler, Y. Aviad, M. Rosenbluh, and I. Kanter, “Ultrahigh-speed random number generation based on a chaotic semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 024102–024104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

A. Stefanov, N. Gisin, L. Guinnard, and H. Zbinden, “Optical quantum random number generator,” J. Mod. Opt. 47(4), 595–598 (2000).

T. Jennewein, U. Achleitner, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “A fast and compact quantum random number generator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(4), 1675–1680 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. G. Rarity, P. C. M. Owens, and P. R. Tapster, “Quantum random-number generation and key sharing,” J. Mod. Opt. 41(12), 2435–2444 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Achleitner, U.

T. Jennewein, U. Achleitner, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “A fast and compact quantum random number generator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(4), 1675–1680 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Akselrod, G. M.

M. A. Wayne, E. R. Jeffrey, G. M. Akselrod, and P. G. Kwiat, “Photon arrival time quantum random number generation,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(4), 516–522 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Aviad, Y.

I. Reidler, Y. Aviad, M. Rosenbluh, and I. Kanter, “Ultrahigh-speed random number generation based on a chaotic semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 024102–024104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, A. J.

A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Bennett, and A. J. Shields, “Ultrashort dead time of photon-counting InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dixon, A. R.

A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Bennett, and A. J. Shields, “Ultrashort dead time of photon-counting InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dynes, J. F.

A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Bennett, and A. J. Shields, “Ultrashort dead time of photon-counting InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gisin, N.

A. Stefanov, N. Gisin, L. Guinnard, and H. Zbinden, “Optical quantum random number generator,” J. Mod. Opt. 47(4), 595–598 (2000).

Guinnard, L.

A. Stefanov, N. Gisin, L. Guinnard, and H. Zbinden, “Optical quantum random number generator,” J. Mod. Opt. 47(4), 595–598 (2000).

Jeffrey, E. R.

M. A. Wayne, E. R. Jeffrey, G. M. Akselrod, and P. G. Kwiat, “Photon arrival time quantum random number generation,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(4), 516–522 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jennewein, T.

T. Jennewein, U. Achleitner, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “A fast and compact quantum random number generator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(4), 1675–1680 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kanter, I.

I. Reidler, Y. Aviad, M. Rosenbluh, and I. Kanter, “Ultrahigh-speed random number generation based on a chaotic semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 024102–024104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kwiat, P. G.

M. A. Wayne, E. R. Jeffrey, G. M. Akselrod, and P. G. Kwiat, “Photon arrival time quantum random number generation,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(4), 516–522 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Owens, P. C. M.

J. G. Rarity, P. C. M. Owens, and P. R. Tapster, “Quantum random-number generation and key sharing,” J. Mod. Opt. 41(12), 2435–2444 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rarity, J. G.

J. G. Rarity, P. C. M. Owens, and P. R. Tapster, “Quantum random-number generation and key sharing,” J. Mod. Opt. 41(12), 2435–2444 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Reidler, I.

I. Reidler, Y. Aviad, M. Rosenbluh, and I. Kanter, “Ultrahigh-speed random number generation based on a chaotic semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 024102–024104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rosenbluh, M.

I. Reidler, Y. Aviad, M. Rosenbluh, and I. Kanter, “Ultrahigh-speed random number generation based on a chaotic semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 024102–024104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sharpe, A. W.

A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Bennett, and A. J. Shields, “Ultrashort dead time of photon-counting InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shields, A. J.

A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Bennett, and A. J. Shields, “Ultrashort dead time of photon-counting InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stefanov, A.

A. Stefanov, N. Gisin, L. Guinnard, and H. Zbinden, “Optical quantum random number generator,” J. Mod. Opt. 47(4), 595–598 (2000).

Tapster, P. R.

J. G. Rarity, P. C. M. Owens, and P. R. Tapster, “Quantum random-number generation and key sharing,” J. Mod. Opt. 41(12), 2435–2444 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wayne, M. A.

M. A. Wayne, E. R. Jeffrey, G. M. Akselrod, and P. G. Kwiat, “Photon arrival time quantum random number generation,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(4), 516–522 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Weihs, G.

T. Jennewein, U. Achleitner, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “A fast and compact quantum random number generator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(4), 1675–1680 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Weinfurter, H.

T. Jennewein, U. Achleitner, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “A fast and compact quantum random number generator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(4), 1675–1680 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Z. L.

A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Bennett, and A. J. Shields, “Ultrashort dead time of photon-counting InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zbinden, H.

A. Stefanov, N. Gisin, L. Guinnard, and H. Zbinden, “Optical quantum random number generator,” J. Mod. Opt. 47(4), 595–598 (2000).

Zeilinger, A.

T. Jennewein, U. Achleitner, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “A fast and compact quantum random number generator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(4), 1675–1680 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Bennett, and A. J. Shields, “Ultrashort dead time of photon-counting InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (3)

A. Stefanov, N. Gisin, L. Guinnard, and H. Zbinden, “Optical quantum random number generator,” J. Mod. Opt. 47(4), 595–598 (2000).

J. G. Rarity, P. C. M. Owens, and P. R. Tapster, “Quantum random-number generation and key sharing,” J. Mod. Opt. 41(12), 2435–2444 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Wayne, E. R. Jeffrey, G. M. Akselrod, and P. G. Kwiat, “Photon arrival time quantum random number generation,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(4), 516–522 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

I. Reidler, Y. Aviad, M. Rosenbluh, and I. Kanter, “Ultrahigh-speed random number generation based on a chaotic semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 024102–024104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

T. Jennewein, U. Achleitner, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “A fast and compact quantum random number generator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(4), 1675–1680 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

W. Dultz, and E. Hildebrandt, “Optical random-check generator based on the individual photon statistics at the optical beam divider,” PCT Patent WO/98/16008, April 1998.

N. Lutkenhaus, J. Cohen, and H. Lo, “Efficient use of detectors for random number generation,” U.S. Patent 7197523, March 27, 2007.

P. Kwiat, E. Jeffrey, and J. Altepeter, “Quantum random number generator,” U.S. Patent Application 20060010182, January 12, 2006.

D. L. Snyder, and M. I. Miller, Random Point Processes in Time and Space, (New York, NY: Springer-Verlag, 1991).

E. Ph. D. Jeffrey, Thesis, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, 2007.

C. E. Shannon, “A mathematical theory of communication,” Bell System Technical Journal, vol. 27, pp. 379–423 and 623–656, (1948).

A. Rènyi, “On measures of information and entropy,” in Proceedings of the 4th Berkeley Symposium on Mathematics, Statistics, and Probability, 1960, pp. 547–561.

National Institute of Standards and Technology, “A Statistical Test Suite for Random and Pseudorandom Number Generators for Cryptographic Applications,” April 2009. [Online]. Available: http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistpubs/800-22-rev1/SP800-22rev1.pdf .

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