Abstract

We demonstrate the collinear generation of few-femtosecond ultraviolet and attosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses via a combination of third-harmonic and high harmonic generation in noble gases. The ultrashort coherent light bursts are produced by focusing a sub-1.5-cycle near-infrared/visible laser pulse in two subsequent quasi-static noble gas targets. This approach provides an inherently synchronized pair of UV and XUV pulses, where the UV radiation has a photon energy of ~5 eV and a pulse energy of up to 1 μJ and the XUV radiation contains up to 3.5 ∙ 106 XUV photons per shot with a photon energy exceeding 100 eV. This source represents a novel tool for future UV pump/XUV probe experiments with unprecedented time-resolution.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2008 (5)

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schoffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dorner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond angular streaking,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 565–570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Saathoff, L. Miaja-Avila, M. Aeschlimann, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Laser-assisted photoemission from surfaces,” Phys. Rev. A 77(2), 022903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Kosma, S. A. Trushin, W. E. Schmid, and W. Fuß, “Vacuum ultraviolet pulses of 11 fs from fifth-harmonic generation of a Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(7), 723–725 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Graf, M. Fiess, M. Schultze, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Intense few-cycle light pulses in the deep ultraviolet,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18956–18963 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (5)

T. Fuji, T. Horio, and T. Suzuki, “Generation of 12 fs deep-ultraviolet pulses by four-wave mixing through filamentation in neon gas,” Opt. Lett. 32(17), 2481–2483 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, E. Goulielmakis, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. Schultze, M. Fiess, V. Pervak, L. Veisz, V. S. Yakovlev, M. Uiberacker, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, “Intense 1.5-cycle near infrared laser waveforms and their use for the generation of ultra-broadband soft-x-ray harmonic continua,” N. J. Phys. 9(7), 242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, M. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz pulse generation from noble gases,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

T. Bartel, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, “Generation of single-cycle THz transients with high electric-field amplitudes,” Opt. Lett. 30(20), 2805–2807 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Tosa, H. T. Kim, I. J. Kim, and C. H. Nam, “High-order harmonic generation by chirped and self-guided femtosecond laser pulses. I. Spatial and spectral analysis,” Phys. Rev. A 71(6), 063807 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Kirchmann, P. A. Loukakos, U. Bovensiepen, and M. Wolf, “Ultrafast electron dynamics studied with time-resolved two-photon photoemission: intra- and interband scattering in C6F6/Cu(111),” N. J. Phys. 7, 113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Bauer, “Femtosecond ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of ultra-fast surface processes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(16), R253–R267 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Baum, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, “Tunable sub-10-fs ultraviolet pulses generated by achromatic frequency doubling,” Opt. Lett. 29(14), 1686–1688 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, “Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(14), 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nisoli, E. Priori, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, M. Pascolini, and G. Tondello, “High-brightness high-order harmonic generation by truncated bessel beams in the sub-10-fs regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(3), 033902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

1998 (2)

D. L. Windt, “IMD - Software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12(4), 360–370 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Mlejnek, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, “Femtosecond pulse propagation in argon: A pressure dependence study,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 58(4), 4903–4910 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

P. Salieres, T. Ditmire, K. S. Budil, M. D. Perry, and A. L'Huillier, “Spatial Profiles of High-Order Harmonics Generated by a Femtosecond Crlisaf Laser,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 27(9), L217–L222 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

J. J. Macklin, J. D. Kmetec, and C. L. Gordon, “High-order harmonic generation using intense femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(6), 766–769 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L’Huillier and P. Balcou, “High-Order Harmonic Generation in Rare Gases with a 1-Ps 1053-Nm Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(6), 774–777 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma Perspective on Strong Field Multiphoton Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

1981 (1)

A. Bideaumehu, Y. Guern, R. Abjean, and A. Johanningilles, “Measurement of refractive-indexes of neon, Argon, krypton and xenon in the 253.7-140.4 nm wavelength range - Dispersion-relations and estimated oscillator-strengths of the resonance lines,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 25(5), 395–402 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

F. J. Himpsel, P. Heimann, T. C. Chiang, and D. E. Eastman, “Geometry-Dependent Si(2p) Surface Core-Level Excitations for Si(111) and Si(100) Surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45(13), 1112–1115 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Abjean, R.

A. Bideaumehu, Y. Guern, R. Abjean, and A. Johanningilles, “Measurement of refractive-indexes of neon, Argon, krypton and xenon in the 253.7-140.4 nm wavelength range - Dispersion-relations and estimated oscillator-strengths of the resonance lines,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 25(5), 395–402 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Aeschlimann, M.

G. Saathoff, L. Miaja-Avila, M. Aeschlimann, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Laser-assisted photoemission from surfaces,” Phys. Rev. A 77(2), 022903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Aközbek, N.

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, “Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(14), 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altucci, C.

M. Nisoli, E. Priori, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, M. Pascolini, and G. Tondello, “High-brightness high-order harmonic generation by truncated bessel beams in the sub-10-fs regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(3), 033902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Apolonski, A.

A. L. Cavalieri, E. Goulielmakis, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. Schultze, M. Fiess, V. Pervak, L. Veisz, V. S. Yakovlev, M. Uiberacker, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, “Intense 1.5-cycle near infrared laser waveforms and their use for the generation of ultra-broadband soft-x-ray harmonic continua,” N. J. Phys. 9(7), 242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Aquila, A. L.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Attwood, D. T.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backus, S.

Balcou, P.

A. L’Huillier and P. Balcou, “High-Order Harmonic Generation in Rare Gases with a 1-Ps 1053-Nm Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(6), 774–777 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baltuska, A.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bammer, F.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartel, T.

Bauer, M.

M. Bauer, “Femtosecond ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of ultra-fast surface processes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(16), R253–R267 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baum, P.

Becker, A.

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, “Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(14), 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bideaumehu, A.

A. Bideaumehu, Y. Guern, R. Abjean, and A. Johanningilles, “Measurement of refractive-indexes of neon, Argon, krypton and xenon in the 253.7-140.4 nm wavelength range - Dispersion-relations and estimated oscillator-strengths of the resonance lines,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 25(5), 395–402 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Biegert, J.

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schoffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dorner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond angular streaking,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 565–570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Blümel, L.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bovensiepen, U.

P. S. Kirchmann, P. A. Loukakos, U. Bovensiepen, and M. Wolf, “Ultrafast electron dynamics studied with time-resolved two-photon photoemission: intra- and interband scattering in C6F6/Cu(111),” N. J. Phys. 7, 113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bowden, C. M.

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, “Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(14), 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brabec, T.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brunel, F.

Bruzzese, R.

M. Nisoli, E. Priori, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, M. Pascolini, and G. Tondello, “High-brightness high-order harmonic generation by truncated bessel beams in the sub-10-fs regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(3), 033902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Budil, K. S.

P. Salieres, T. Ditmire, K. S. Budil, M. D. Perry, and A. L'Huillier, “Spatial Profiles of High-Order Harmonics Generated by a Femtosecond Crlisaf Laser,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 27(9), L217–L222 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cavalieri, A. L.

A. L. Cavalieri, E. Goulielmakis, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. Schultze, M. Fiess, V. Pervak, L. Veisz, V. S. Yakovlev, M. Uiberacker, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, “Intense 1.5-cycle near infrared laser waveforms and their use for the generation of ultra-broadband soft-x-ray harmonic continua,” N. J. Phys. 9(7), 242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
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N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, “Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(14), 143901 (2002).
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J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173903 (2002).
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M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
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A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
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R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
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Eastman, D. E.

F. J. Himpsel, P. Heimann, T. C. Chiang, and D. E. Eastman, “Geometry-Dependent Si(2p) Surface Core-Level Excitations for Si(111) and Si(100) Surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45(13), 1112–1115 (1980).
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A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schoffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dorner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond angular streaking,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 565–570 (2008).
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Elsaesser, T.

Ergler, T.

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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U. Graf, M. Fiess, M. Schultze, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Intense few-cycle light pulses in the deep ultraviolet,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18956–18963 (2008).
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A. L. Cavalieri, E. Goulielmakis, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. Schultze, M. Fiess, V. Pervak, L. Veisz, V. S. Yakovlev, M. Uiberacker, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, “Intense 1.5-cycle near infrared laser waveforms and their use for the generation of ultra-broadband soft-x-ray harmonic continua,” N. J. Phys. 9(7), 242 (2007).
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Fuß, W.

Gaal, P.

Gagnon, J.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 327–331 (2006).
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J. J. Macklin, J. D. Kmetec, and C. L. Gordon, “High-order harmonic generation using intense femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(6), 766–769 (1993).
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U. Graf, M. Fiess, M. Schultze, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Intense few-cycle light pulses in the deep ultraviolet,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18956–18963 (2008).
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E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
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A. L. Cavalieri, E. Goulielmakis, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. Schultze, M. Fiess, V. Pervak, L. Veisz, V. S. Yakovlev, M. Uiberacker, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, “Intense 1.5-cycle near infrared laser waveforms and their use for the generation of ultra-broadband soft-x-ray harmonic continua,” N. J. Phys. 9(7), 242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
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Guern, Y.

A. Bideaumehu, Y. Guern, R. Abjean, and A. Johanningilles, “Measurement of refractive-indexes of neon, Argon, krypton and xenon in the 253.7-140.4 nm wavelength range - Dispersion-relations and estimated oscillator-strengths of the resonance lines,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 25(5), 395–402 (1981).
[CrossRef]

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E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
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F. J. Himpsel, P. Heimann, T. C. Chiang, and D. E. Eastman, “Geometry-Dependent Si(2p) Surface Core-Level Excitations for Si(111) and Si(100) Surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45(13), 1112–1115 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Heinzmann, U.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. L. Cavalieri, E. Goulielmakis, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. Schultze, M. Fiess, V. Pervak, L. Veisz, V. S. Yakovlev, M. Uiberacker, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, “Intense 1.5-cycle near infrared laser waveforms and their use for the generation of ultra-broadband soft-x-ray harmonic continua,” N. J. Phys. 9(7), 242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hendel, S.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
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M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Himpsel, F. J.

F. J. Himpsel, P. Heimann, T. C. Chiang, and D. E. Eastman, “Geometry-Dependent Si(2p) Surface Core-Level Excitations for Si(111) and Si(100) Surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45(13), 1112–1115 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hofstetter, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
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Horvath, B.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, E. Goulielmakis, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. Schultze, M. Fiess, V. Pervak, L. Veisz, V. S. Yakovlev, M. Uiberacker, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, “Intense 1.5-cycle near infrared laser waveforms and their use for the generation of ultra-broadband soft-x-ray harmonic continua,” N. J. Phys. 9(7), 242 (2007).
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J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173903 (2002).
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J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173903 (2002).
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N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, “Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(14), 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johanningilles, A.

A. Bideaumehu, Y. Guern, R. Abjean, and A. Johanningilles, “Measurement of refractive-indexes of neon, Argon, krypton and xenon in the 253.7-140.4 nm wavelength range - Dispersion-relations and estimated oscillator-strengths of the resonance lines,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 25(5), 395–402 (1981).
[CrossRef]

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M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
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G. Saathoff, L. Miaja-Avila, M. Aeschlimann, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Laser-assisted photoemission from surfaces,” Phys. Rev. A 77(2), 022903 (2008).
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C. G. Durfee, S. Backus, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Intense 8-fs pulse generation in the deep ultraviolet,” Opt. Lett. 24(10), 697–699 (1999).
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Keller, U.

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schoffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dorner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond angular streaking,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 565–570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kienberger, R.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Graf, M. Fiess, M. Schultze, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Intense few-cycle light pulses in the deep ultraviolet,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18956–18963 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Cavalieri, E. Goulielmakis, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. Schultze, M. Fiess, V. Pervak, L. Veisz, V. S. Yakovlev, M. Uiberacker, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, “Intense 1.5-cycle near infrared laser waveforms and their use for the generation of ultra-broadband soft-x-ray harmonic continua,” N. J. Phys. 9(7), 242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
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Kim, H. T.

V. Tosa, H. T. Kim, I. J. Kim, and C. H. Nam, “High-order harmonic generation by chirped and self-guided femtosecond laser pulses. I. Spatial and spectral analysis,” Phys. Rev. A 71(6), 063807 (2005).
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Kim, I. J.

V. Tosa, H. T. Kim, I. J. Kim, and C. H. Nam, “High-order harmonic generation by chirped and self-guided femtosecond laser pulses. I. Spatial and spectral analysis,” Phys. Rev. A 71(6), 063807 (2005).
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P. S. Kirchmann, P. A. Loukakos, U. Bovensiepen, and M. Wolf, “Ultrafast electron dynamics studied with time-resolved two-photon photoemission: intra- and interband scattering in C6F6/Cu(111),” N. J. Phys. 7, 113 (2005).
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E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kling, M. F.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
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J. J. Macklin, J. D. Kmetec, and C. L. Gordon, “High-order harmonic generation using intense femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(6), 766–769 (1993).
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Kompa, K. L.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kosma, K.

Krausz, F.

U. Graf, M. Fiess, M. Schultze, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Intense few-cycle light pulses in the deep ultraviolet,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18956–18963 (2008).
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M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 327–331 (2006).
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M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 327–331 (2006).
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P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schoffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dorner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond angular streaking,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 565–570 (2008).
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G. Saathoff, L. Miaja-Avila, M. Aeschlimann, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Laser-assisted photoemission from surfaces,” Phys. Rev. A 77(2), 022903 (2008).
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P. Salieres, T. Ditmire, K. S. Budil, M. D. Perry, and A. L'Huillier, “Spatial Profiles of High-Order Harmonics Generated by a Femtosecond Crlisaf Laser,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 27(9), L217–L222 (1994).
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A. L. Cavalieri, E. Goulielmakis, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. Schultze, M. Fiess, V. Pervak, L. Veisz, V. S. Yakovlev, M. Uiberacker, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, “Intense 1.5-cycle near infrared laser waveforms and their use for the generation of ultra-broadband soft-x-ray harmonic continua,” N. J. Phys. 9(7), 242 (2007).
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M. Nisoli, E. Priori, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, M. Pascolini, and G. Tondello, “High-brightness high-order harmonic generation by truncated bessel beams in the sub-10-fs regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(3), 033902 (2002).
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M. Nisoli, E. Priori, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, M. Pascolini, and G. Tondello, “High-brightness high-order harmonic generation by truncated bessel beams in the sub-10-fs regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(3), 033902 (2002).
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J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173903 (2002).
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M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
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M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Riedle, E.

Roskos, H. G.

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 327–331 (2006).
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G. Saathoff, L. Miaja-Avila, M. Aeschlimann, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Laser-assisted photoemission from surfaces,” Phys. Rev. A 77(2), 022903 (2008).
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P. Salieres, T. Ditmire, K. S. Budil, M. D. Perry, and A. L'Huillier, “Spatial Profiles of High-Order Harmonics Generated by a Femtosecond Crlisaf Laser,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 27(9), L217–L222 (1994).
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Sansone, G.

M. Nisoli, E. Priori, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, M. Pascolini, and G. Tondello, “High-brightness high-order harmonic generation by truncated bessel beams in the sub-10-fs regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(3), 033902 (2002).
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N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, “Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(14), 143901 (2002).
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P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schoffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dorner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond angular streaking,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 565–570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, W. E.

Schmidt, B.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schoffler, M.

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schoffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dorner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond angular streaking,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 565–570 (2008).
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M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
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Schultze, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
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A. L. Cavalieri, E. Goulielmakis, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. Schultze, M. Fiess, V. Pervak, L. Veisz, V. S. Yakovlev, M. Uiberacker, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, “Intense 1.5-cycle near infrared laser waveforms and their use for the generation of ultra-broadband soft-x-ray harmonic continua,” N. J. Phys. 9(7), 242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
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R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
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Smolarski, M.

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schoffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dorner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond angular streaking,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 565–570 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Spielmann, C.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stagira, S.

M. Nisoli, E. Priori, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, M. Pascolini, and G. Tondello, “High-brightness high-order harmonic generation by truncated bessel beams in the sub-10-fs regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(3), 033902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schoffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dorner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond angular streaking,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 565–570 (2008).
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Suzuki, T.

Thomson, M. D.

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tondello, G.

M. Nisoli, E. Priori, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, M. Pascolini, and G. Tondello, “High-brightness high-order harmonic generation by truncated bessel beams in the sub-10-fs regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(3), 033902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tosa, V.

V. Tosa, H. T. Kim, I. J. Kim, and C. H. Nam, “High-order harmonic generation by chirped and self-guided femtosecond laser pulses. I. Spatial and spectral analysis,” Phys. Rev. A 71(6), 063807 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Trushin, S. A.

Uiberacker, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, E. Goulielmakis, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. Schultze, M. Fiess, V. Pervak, L. Veisz, V. S. Yakovlev, M. Uiberacker, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, “Intense 1.5-cycle near infrared laser waveforms and their use for the generation of ultra-broadband soft-x-ray harmonic continua,” N. J. Phys. 9(7), 242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ullrich, J.

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2(5), 327–331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Uphues, T.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
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Veisz, L.

A. L. Cavalieri, E. Goulielmakis, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. Schultze, M. Fiess, V. Pervak, L. Veisz, V. S. Yakovlev, M. Uiberacker, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, “Intense 1.5-cycle near infrared laser waveforms and their use for the generation of ultra-broadband soft-x-ray harmonic continua,” N. J. Phys. 9(7), 242 (2007).
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Verhoef, A. J.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
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Villoresi, P.

M. Nisoli, E. Priori, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, M. Pascolini, and G. Tondello, “High-brightness high-order harmonic generation by truncated bessel beams in the sub-10-fs regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(3), 033902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vrakking, M. J. J.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
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Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, M. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz pulse generation from noble gases,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251116 (2007).
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Westerwalbesloh, T.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
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Other (1)

IRD, “International Radiation Detectors,” http://www.ird-inc.com/axuvwdd/axuv-100_zr_c.htm .

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Collinear generation of UV and XUV pulses in two subsequent gas targets. The targets, formed by 2 to 3 mm thick nickel tubes, can be positioned independently (x1, x2). They are situated inside a main vacuum setup in a small, differentially pumped vacuum chamber with two apertures (Ø 0.7 mm) for the laser. The few-cycle 720 nm NIR pulses (sub-4 fs, 400 μJ) are focused into the XUV gas target (purple) which is supplied with 0.2 - 0.3 bar Ne. The UV target (blue) is placed in front of the XUV target and supplied with Ar or Ne at variable pressure. The number of XUV photons per pulse is measured with an XUV diode placed under 45° in the beam path of the co-propagating NIR, UV and XUV beams. The diode is coated with a filter layer that partially reflects the NIR and the UV through a fused silica window outside the vacuum system, where the UV can be characterized in spectrum and pulse energy after separation from the IR with a prism. For the measurement of the XUV an additional 500 nm zirconium filter is inserted in front of the diode. The diode can be retracted for spectral characterization of the XUV with a grazing incidence grating (600 l/mm) spectrometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

XUV diode effective quantum efficiency (solid line) calculated from the quantum efficiency specified for the diode with a 200 nm Zr/ 50 nm C coating by manufacturer (dashed line) with corrections for custom filter layer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

XUV photon number per pulse (circles) and UV pulse energy (full squares) as functions of the gas pressure in the UV target for Ne (a) and Ar (b). The Ne pressure in the XUV target was kept constant at 270 mbar.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

UV spectra after both gas targets. The XUV radiation was generated in 270 mbar Ne and the UV was generated in Ne (a) and Ar (b) at the respective pressures given in the figure.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

XUV spectra generated in 230 mbar Ne. In the first gas jet, UV was generated simultaneously in Ne (a) or Ar (b) at the respective pressures given in the figures. (a) The detector strongly attenuates spectra above 115 eV, so that the cut-off of the spectrum lies outside of the detector’s range for the spectra at 0 bar and 2.5 bar. With rising pressure in the UV target, the cut-off shifts toward lower energies with rising Ne pressure (bottom to top) in the UV target. (b) When Ar is being used for UV generation, the XUV cut-off also shifts toward lower energies when the pressure rises from 0 to 1 bar but remains constant for higher pressures.

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