Abstract

We study numerically and theoretically the optical transmission of nanostructured gold films embedded in dielectric claddings. We show how multiple transmission peaks appear as the claddings thickness increases. These transmission peaks come not only from surface plasmon polariton excitations but also from the excitation of Fabry-Perot modes sustained at the claddings, coupled through the metal, as long as a periodic pattern is milled in the metal film. We propose that this structure could be used as an ultracompact all-optical switch by surrounding the metal film with Kerr nonlinear dielectric layers.

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  1. R. Dragila, B. Luther-Davies, and S. Vukovic, “High transparency of classically opaque metallic films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55(10), 1117–1120 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolf, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. J. Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Strong influence of hole shape on extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(18), 183901 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Y. Takakura, “Optical resonance in a narrow slit in a thick metallic screen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(24), 5601–5603 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. L. Zhou, W. Wen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Electromagnetic-wave tunnelling through negative-permittivity media with high magnetic fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(24), 243905 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. V. Lomakin and E. Michielssen, “Enhanced transmission through metallic plates perforated by arrays of subwavelength holes and sandwiched between dielectric slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235117 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. D. Rakic, A. B. Djurisic, J. M. Elazar, and M. L. Majewski, “Optical properties of metallic films for vertical-cavity optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Opt. 37(22), 5271–5283 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445(7123), 39–46 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer, 1988).
  10. H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavlength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Martínez and J. Martí, “Negative refraction in two-dimensional photonic crystals: role of the lattice orientation and the interface termination,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235115 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Z. Ruan and M. Qiu, “Enhanced transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes: the role of localized waveguide resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(23), 233901 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. E. N. Economou, “Surface plasmons in thin films,” Phys. Rev. 182(2), 539–554 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. Esembeson, M. L. Scimeca, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, and I. Biaggio, “A high optical quality supramolecular assembly for third- order integrated nonlinear optics,” Adv. Mater. 20(23), 4584–4587 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Spano, N. Daldosso, M. Cazzanelli, L. Ferraioli, L. Tartara, J. Yu, V. Degiorgio, E. Giordana, J. M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, “Bound electronic and free carrier nonlinearities in Silicon nanocrystals at 1550nm,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3941–3950 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. K. M. Dani, Z. Ku, P. C. Upadhya, R. P. Prasankumar, S. R. J. Brueck, and A. J. Taylor, “Subpicosecond optical switching with a negative index metamaterial,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3565–3569 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

R. Spano, N. Daldosso, M. Cazzanelli, L. Ferraioli, L. Tartara, J. Yu, V. Degiorgio, E. Giordana, J. M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, “Bound electronic and free carrier nonlinearities in Silicon nanocrystals at 1550nm,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3941–3950 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Dani, Z. Ku, P. C. Upadhya, R. P. Prasankumar, S. R. J. Brueck, and A. J. Taylor, “Subpicosecond optical switching with a negative index metamaterial,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3565–3569 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

B. Esembeson, M. L. Scimeca, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, and I. Biaggio, “A high optical quality supramolecular assembly for third- order integrated nonlinear optics,” Adv. Mater. 20(23), 4584–4587 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445(7123), 39–46 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

Z. Ruan and M. Qiu, “Enhanced transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes: the role of localized waveguide resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(23), 233901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

A. Martínez and J. Martí, “Negative refraction in two-dimensional photonic crystals: role of the lattice orientation and the interface termination,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhou, W. Wen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Electromagnetic-wave tunnelling through negative-permittivity media with high magnetic fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(24), 243905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Lomakin and E. Michielssen, “Enhanced transmission through metallic plates perforated by arrays of subwavelength holes and sandwiched between dielectric slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

K. J. Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Strong influence of hole shape on extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(18), 183901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

Y. Takakura, “Optical resonance in a narrow slit in a thick metallic screen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(24), 5601–5603 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (3)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolf, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Rakic, A. B. Djurisic, J. M. Elazar, and M. L. Majewski, “Optical properties of metallic films for vertical-cavity optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Opt. 37(22), 5271–5283 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavlength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

R. Dragila, B. Luther-Davies, and S. Vukovic, “High transparency of classically opaque metallic films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55(10), 1117–1120 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1969 (1)

E. N. Economou, “Surface plasmons in thin films,” Phys. Rev. 182(2), 539–554 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Biaggio, I.

B. Esembeson, M. L. Scimeca, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, and I. Biaggio, “A high optical quality supramolecular assembly for third- order integrated nonlinear optics,” Adv. Mater. 20(23), 4584–4587 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brueck, S. R. J.

K. M. Dani, Z. Ku, P. C. Upadhya, R. P. Prasankumar, S. R. J. Brueck, and A. J. Taylor, “Subpicosecond optical switching with a negative index metamaterial,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3565–3569 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cazzanelli, M.

Chan, C. T.

L. Zhou, W. Wen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Electromagnetic-wave tunnelling through negative-permittivity media with high magnetic fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(24), 243905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Daldosso, N.

Dani, K. M.

K. M. Dani, Z. Ku, P. C. Upadhya, R. P. Prasankumar, S. R. J. Brueck, and A. J. Taylor, “Subpicosecond optical switching with a negative index metamaterial,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3565–3569 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Degiorgio, V.

Diederich, F.

B. Esembeson, M. L. Scimeca, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, and I. Biaggio, “A high optical quality supramolecular assembly for third- order integrated nonlinear optics,” Adv. Mater. 20(23), 4584–4587 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Djurisic, A. B.

Dragila, R.

R. Dragila, B. Luther-Davies, and S. Vukovic, “High transparency of classically opaque metallic films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55(10), 1117–1120 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445(7123), 39–46 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavlength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolf, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Economou, E. N.

E. N. Economou, “Surface plasmons in thin films,” Phys. Rev. 182(2), 539–554 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Elazar, J. M.

Enoch, S.

K. J. Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Strong influence of hole shape on extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(18), 183901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esembeson, B.

B. Esembeson, M. L. Scimeca, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, and I. Biaggio, “A high optical quality supramolecular assembly for third- order integrated nonlinear optics,” Adv. Mater. 20(23), 4584–4587 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fedeli, J. M.

Ferraioli, L.

Genet, C.

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445(7123), 39–46 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghaemi, H. F.

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavlength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolf, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Giordana, E.

Grupp, D. E.

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavlength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Koerkamp, K. J.

K. J. Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Strong influence of hole shape on extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(18), 183901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ku, Z.

K. M. Dani, Z. Ku, P. C. Upadhya, R. P. Prasankumar, S. R. J. Brueck, and A. J. Taylor, “Subpicosecond optical switching with a negative index metamaterial,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3565–3569 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuipers, L.

K. J. Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Strong influence of hole shape on extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(18), 183901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lezec, H. J.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolf, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavlength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lomakin, V.

V. Lomakin and E. Michielssen, “Enhanced transmission through metallic plates perforated by arrays of subwavelength holes and sandwiched between dielectric slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

R. Dragila, B. Luther-Davies, and S. Vukovic, “High transparency of classically opaque metallic films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55(10), 1117–1120 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Majewski, M. L.

Martí, J.

A. Martínez and J. Martí, “Negative refraction in two-dimensional photonic crystals: role of the lattice orientation and the interface termination,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martínez, A.

A. Martínez and J. Martí, “Negative refraction in two-dimensional photonic crystals: role of the lattice orientation and the interface termination,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Michielssen, E.

V. Lomakin and E. Michielssen, “Enhanced transmission through metallic plates perforated by arrays of subwavelength holes and sandwiched between dielectric slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Michinobu, T.

B. Esembeson, M. L. Scimeca, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, and I. Biaggio, “A high optical quality supramolecular assembly for third- order integrated nonlinear optics,” Adv. Mater. 20(23), 4584–4587 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pavesi, L.

Prasankumar, R. P.

K. M. Dani, Z. Ku, P. C. Upadhya, R. P. Prasankumar, S. R. J. Brueck, and A. J. Taylor, “Subpicosecond optical switching with a negative index metamaterial,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3565–3569 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qiu, M.

Z. Ruan and M. Qiu, “Enhanced transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes: the role of localized waveguide resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(23), 233901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rakic, A. D.

Ruan, Z.

Z. Ruan and M. Qiu, “Enhanced transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes: the role of localized waveguide resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(23), 233901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scimeca, M. L.

B. Esembeson, M. L. Scimeca, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, and I. Biaggio, “A high optical quality supramolecular assembly for third- order integrated nonlinear optics,” Adv. Mater. 20(23), 4584–4587 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Segerink, F. B.

K. J. Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Strong influence of hole shape on extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(18), 183901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheng, P.

L. Zhou, W. Wen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Electromagnetic-wave tunnelling through negative-permittivity media with high magnetic fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(24), 243905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Spano, R.

Takakura, Y.

Y. Takakura, “Optical resonance in a narrow slit in a thick metallic screen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(24), 5601–5603 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tartara, L.

Taylor, A. J.

K. M. Dani, Z. Ku, P. C. Upadhya, R. P. Prasankumar, S. R. J. Brueck, and A. J. Taylor, “Subpicosecond optical switching with a negative index metamaterial,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3565–3569 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thio, T.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolf, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavlength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Upadhya, P. C.

K. M. Dani, Z. Ku, P. C. Upadhya, R. P. Prasankumar, S. R. J. Brueck, and A. J. Taylor, “Subpicosecond optical switching with a negative index metamaterial,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3565–3569 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Hulst, N. F.

K. J. Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Strong influence of hole shape on extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(18), 183901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vukovic, S.

R. Dragila, B. Luther-Davies, and S. Vukovic, “High transparency of classically opaque metallic films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55(10), 1117–1120 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wen, W.

L. Zhou, W. Wen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Electromagnetic-wave tunnelling through negative-permittivity media with high magnetic fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(24), 243905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, P. A.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolf, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

Zhou, L.

L. Zhou, W. Wen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Electromagnetic-wave tunnelling through negative-permittivity media with high magnetic fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(24), 243905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

B. Esembeson, M. L. Scimeca, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, and I. Biaggio, “A high optical quality supramolecular assembly for third- order integrated nonlinear optics,” Adv. Mater. 20(23), 4584–4587 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Nano Lett. (1)

K. M. Dani, Z. Ku, P. C. Upadhya, R. P. Prasankumar, S. R. J. Brueck, and A. J. Taylor, “Subpicosecond optical switching with a negative index metamaterial,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3565–3569 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (2)

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445(7123), 39–46 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolf, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. (1)

E. N. Economou, “Surface plasmons in thin films,” Phys. Rev. 182(2), 539–554 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (3)

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavlength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Martínez and J. Martí, “Negative refraction in two-dimensional photonic crystals: role of the lattice orientation and the interface termination,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Lomakin and E. Michielssen, “Enhanced transmission through metallic plates perforated by arrays of subwavelength holes and sandwiched between dielectric slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

R. Dragila, B. Luther-Davies, and S. Vukovic, “High transparency of classically opaque metallic films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55(10), 1117–1120 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Strong influence of hole shape on extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(18), 183901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Takakura, “Optical resonance in a narrow slit in a thick metallic screen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(24), 5601–5603 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Zhou, W. Wen, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, “Electromagnetic-wave tunnelling through negative-permittivity media with high magnetic fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(24), 243905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ruan and M. Qiu, “Enhanced transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes: the role of localized waveguide resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(23), 233901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer, 1988).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) (a) Schematic view of the structure under study and the corresponding reference system used. (b) Transmission through a hole array (solid red line) and an unpatterned gold film (dashed blue line) with dielectric thickness d = 4 μm obtained from numerical simulation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Schematic diagram of the FP configuration for a flat metal slab (εm ,dm ) surrounded with dielectric claddings (εd ,d).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Representation of the theoretical transmission coefficient T(f,kx) for a dielectric thickness of d = 4 μm. Insets: electric and magnetic fields for TE and TM modes respectively in a structure scaled for better representation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) (a) Simulated transmission spectra vs. dielectric thickness d. (b) The same for the calculated transmission spectra T after considering the kx values associated with the periodicity.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) All-optical switch based on multiple EOT through a perforated metal plates surrounded by Kerr nonlinear dielectric media. Pump and probe optical signals are tuned at two different transmission windows (λ1 and λ2). The Kerr effect is modelled by slightly increasing the dielectric refractive index n: Pump on n = 1.505, Pump off n = 1.5. Inset: Scheme of the switching structure, which is extremely compact in the longitudinal direction.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

H y = A l + e j k l z + A l e j k l z , k l = ( k 0 2 k x 2 ) 1 / 2 .
H y = A i + e j k d z + A i e j k d z , k d = ( k 0 2 ε d k x 2 ) 1 / 2 .
H y = B m + e k m z + B m e k m z , k m = ( k x 2 k 0 2 ε m ) 1 / 2 .
H y = A t + e j k t z , k t = ( k 0 2 k x 2 ) 1 / 2 .

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