Abstract

All conventional viewing angle switchable liquid crystal displays with pixel division have drawback in light efficiency because the sub-pixel that controls viewing angle does not transmit the incident light at normal direction. In this paper, we propose new viewing angle controllable homogeneously aligned liquid crystal display in which the pixel is composed of red, green, blue, and white pixels. The colored pixels are driven by fringe-field switching and the white pixel is driven by complex field. In wide-viewing angle mode, the liquid crystal (LC) directors in all pixels rotate in plane, contributing to high transmittance. In narrow-viewing angle mode, the LC directors in color pixels rotate in plane for light transmission while the LC directors in white pixel can rotate or tilt upward by simultaneous fringe and vertical electric field. The high tilted LC directors generate light leakage in oblique directions which can be utilized for viewing angle control and also transmission at normal direction for image expression. The proposed device overcomes the long standing problem of transmittance sacrifice in the conventional devices.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, “Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(26), 3895–3897 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Yoneya, K. Iwasaki, Y. Tomioka, and K. Kondo, “Cell gap margin enlargement of in-plane switching mode liquid crystal displays using weak-anchoring effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(6), 803–805 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. S. Jung, I. S. Baik, I. S. Song, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Study on colour characteristics depending on orientation of liquid crystal in the in-plane switching mode,” Liq. Cryst. 33(9), 1077–1082 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. H. Lee, H. Y. Kim, S. M. Lee, S. H. Hong, J. M. Kim, J. W. Koh, J. Y. Lee, and H. S. Park, “Ultra-FFS TFT-LCD with super image quality, fast response time, and strong pressure-resistant characteristics,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 10(2), 117–122 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J.-D. Noh, H. Y. Kim, J.-H. Kim, S.-H. Nam, and S. H. Lee, “Rubbing angle effect on response time of the fringe-field switching nematic liquid crystal display,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 1, No. 3), 1290–1291 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. I. H. Yu, I. S. Song, J. Y. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Intensifying the density of horizontal electric field to improve light efficiency in a fringe-field switching liquid crystal display,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(11), 2367–2372 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Hisatake, Y. Kawata, and A. Murayama, “Viewing angle controllable LCD using variable optical compensator and variable diffuser,” Proc. of Soc. Info. Display Symp. Digest 36, 1218–1221 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Adachi and M. Shimura, “Controllable viewing-angle displays using a hybrid aligned nematic liquid crtstka cell,” Proc. of Soc. Info. Display Symp. Digest 37, 705–708 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, J. M. Rhee, S. H. Lee, G. D. Lee, K. H. Park, and H. C. Choi, “Viewing angle switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal displays by controlling birefringence of homogenously aligned liquid crystal layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051116 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Adachi, “Controllable-viewing-angle display using a hybrid aligned nematic liquid-crystal cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(10), 7920–7925 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. Jeong, M. H. Chin, Y. J. Lim, A. K. Srivastava, S. H. Lee, K. H. Park, and H. C. Choi, “Switching of off-axis viewing quality in twisted nematic liquid crystal display by controlling phase retardation of additional liquid crystal layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(3), 033108 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. S. Jin, H. S. Chang, J. K. Park, S. K. Yu, D. S. Lee, and I. J. Chung, “Novel viewing-angle controllable TFT-LCD,” Proc. of Soc. Info. Display Symp. Digest 37, 729–731 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J.-I. Baek, Y.-H. Kwon, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Dual mode switching LCD for viewing-angle control with a single LC panel,” Proc. of the 13th International Display Workshop (Society for Information Display, Otsu, Japan), 201–204 (2006).
  15. Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, Y. S. Kim, Y. H. Jeong, W. G. Jang, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle switching in fringe-field switching liquid crystal display,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 495, 186–193 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Lien, “Extended Jones matrix representation for the twisted nematic liquid-crystal display at oblique incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(26), 2767 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (3)

M. Adachi, “Controllable-viewing-angle display using a hybrid aligned nematic liquid-crystal cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(10), 7920–7925 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Jeong, M. H. Chin, Y. J. Lim, A. K. Srivastava, S. H. Lee, K. H. Park, and H. C. Choi, “Switching of off-axis viewing quality in twisted nematic liquid crystal display by controlling phase retardation of additional liquid crystal layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(3), 033108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, Y. S. Kim, Y. H. Jeong, W. G. Jang, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle switching in fringe-field switching liquid crystal display,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 495, 186–193 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, J. M. Rhee, S. H. Lee, G. D. Lee, K. H. Park, and H. C. Choi, “Viewing angle switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal displays by controlling birefringence of homogenously aligned liquid crystal layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

M. Adachi and M. Shimura, “Controllable viewing-angle displays using a hybrid aligned nematic liquid crtstka cell,” Proc. of Soc. Info. Display Symp. Digest 37, 705–708 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Jin, H. S. Chang, J. K. Park, S. K. Yu, D. S. Lee, and I. J. Chung, “Novel viewing-angle controllable TFT-LCD,” Proc. of Soc. Info. Display Symp. Digest 37, 729–731 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Jung, I. S. Baik, I. S. Song, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Study on colour characteristics depending on orientation of liquid crystal in the in-plane switching mode,” Liq. Cryst. 33(9), 1077–1082 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. H. Yu, I. S. Song, J. Y. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Intensifying the density of horizontal electric field to improve light efficiency in a fringe-field switching liquid crystal display,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(11), 2367–2372 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

Y. Hisatake, Y. Kawata, and A. Murayama, “Viewing angle controllable LCD using variable optical compensator and variable diffuser,” Proc. of Soc. Info. Display Symp. Digest 36, 1218–1221 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J.-D. Noh, H. Y. Kim, J.-H. Kim, S.-H. Nam, and S. H. Lee, “Rubbing angle effect on response time of the fringe-field switching nematic liquid crystal display,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 1, No. 3), 1290–1291 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S. H. Lee, H. Y. Kim, S. M. Lee, S. H. Hong, J. M. Kim, J. W. Koh, J. Y. Lee, and H. S. Park, “Ultra-FFS TFT-LCD with super image quality, fast response time, and strong pressure-resistant characteristics,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 10(2), 117–122 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. Yoneya, K. Iwasaki, Y. Tomioka, and K. Kondo, “Cell gap margin enlargement of in-plane switching mode liquid crystal displays using weak-anchoring effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(6), 803–805 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, “Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(26), 3895–3897 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

A. Lien, “Extended Jones matrix representation for the twisted nematic liquid-crystal display at oblique incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(26), 2767 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, M.

M. Adachi, “Controllable-viewing-angle display using a hybrid aligned nematic liquid-crystal cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(10), 7920–7925 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Adachi and M. Shimura, “Controllable viewing-angle displays using a hybrid aligned nematic liquid crtstka cell,” Proc. of Soc. Info. Display Symp. Digest 37, 705–708 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baik, I. S.

B. S. Jung, I. S. Baik, I. S. Song, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Study on colour characteristics depending on orientation of liquid crystal in the in-plane switching mode,” Liq. Cryst. 33(9), 1077–1082 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chang, H. S.

H. S. Jin, H. S. Chang, J. K. Park, S. K. Yu, D. S. Lee, and I. J. Chung, “Novel viewing-angle controllable TFT-LCD,” Proc. of Soc. Info. Display Symp. Digest 37, 729–731 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chin, M. H.

E. Jeong, M. H. Chin, Y. J. Lim, A. K. Srivastava, S. H. Lee, K. H. Park, and H. C. Choi, “Switching of off-axis viewing quality in twisted nematic liquid crystal display by controlling phase retardation of additional liquid crystal layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(3), 033108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H. C.

E. Jeong, M. H. Chin, Y. J. Lim, A. K. Srivastava, S. H. Lee, K. H. Park, and H. C. Choi, “Switching of off-axis viewing quality in twisted nematic liquid crystal display by controlling phase retardation of additional liquid crystal layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(3), 033108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, J. M. Rhee, S. H. Lee, G. D. Lee, K. H. Park, and H. C. Choi, “Viewing angle switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal displays by controlling birefringence of homogenously aligned liquid crystal layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chung, I. J.

H. S. Jin, H. S. Chang, J. K. Park, S. K. Yu, D. S. Lee, and I. J. Chung, “Novel viewing-angle controllable TFT-LCD,” Proc. of Soc. Info. Display Symp. Digest 37, 729–731 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hisatake, Y.

Y. Hisatake, Y. Kawata, and A. Murayama, “Viewing angle controllable LCD using variable optical compensator and variable diffuser,” Proc. of Soc. Info. Display Symp. Digest 36, 1218–1221 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hong, S. H.

S. H. Lee, H. Y. Kim, S. M. Lee, S. H. Hong, J. M. Kim, J. W. Koh, J. Y. Lee, and H. S. Park, “Ultra-FFS TFT-LCD with super image quality, fast response time, and strong pressure-resistant characteristics,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 10(2), 117–122 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Iwasaki, K.

M. Yoneya, K. Iwasaki, Y. Tomioka, and K. Kondo, “Cell gap margin enlargement of in-plane switching mode liquid crystal displays using weak-anchoring effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(6), 803–805 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jang, W. G.

Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, Y. S. Kim, Y. H. Jeong, W. G. Jang, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle switching in fringe-field switching liquid crystal display,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 495, 186–193 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, E.

Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, Y. S. Kim, Y. H. Jeong, W. G. Jang, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle switching in fringe-field switching liquid crystal display,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 495, 186–193 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Jeong, M. H. Chin, Y. J. Lim, A. K. Srivastava, S. H. Lee, K. H. Park, and H. C. Choi, “Switching of off-axis viewing quality in twisted nematic liquid crystal display by controlling phase retardation of additional liquid crystal layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(3), 033108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, J. M. Rhee, S. H. Lee, G. D. Lee, K. H. Park, and H. C. Choi, “Viewing angle switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal displays by controlling birefringence of homogenously aligned liquid crystal layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, Y. H.

Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, Y. S. Kim, Y. H. Jeong, W. G. Jang, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle switching in fringe-field switching liquid crystal display,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 495, 186–193 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jin, H. S.

H. S. Jin, H. S. Chang, J. K. Park, S. K. Yu, D. S. Lee, and I. J. Chung, “Novel viewing-angle controllable TFT-LCD,” Proc. of Soc. Info. Display Symp. Digest 37, 729–731 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jung, B. S.

B. S. Jung, I. S. Baik, I. S. Song, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Study on colour characteristics depending on orientation of liquid crystal in the in-plane switching mode,” Liq. Cryst. 33(9), 1077–1082 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, Y.

Y. Hisatake, Y. Kawata, and A. Murayama, “Viewing angle controllable LCD using variable optical compensator and variable diffuser,” Proc. of Soc. Info. Display Symp. Digest 36, 1218–1221 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. Y.

J.-D. Noh, H. Y. Kim, J.-H. Kim, S.-H. Nam, and S. H. Lee, “Rubbing angle effect on response time of the fringe-field switching nematic liquid crystal display,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 1, No. 3), 1290–1291 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, H. Y. Kim, S. M. Lee, S. H. Hong, J. M. Kim, J. W. Koh, J. Y. Lee, and H. S. Park, “Ultra-FFS TFT-LCD with super image quality, fast response time, and strong pressure-resistant characteristics,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 10(2), 117–122 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. M.

S. H. Lee, H. Y. Kim, S. M. Lee, S. H. Hong, J. M. Kim, J. W. Koh, J. Y. Lee, and H. S. Park, “Ultra-FFS TFT-LCD with super image quality, fast response time, and strong pressure-resistant characteristics,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 10(2), 117–122 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.-H.

J.-D. Noh, H. Y. Kim, J.-H. Kim, S.-H. Nam, and S. H. Lee, “Rubbing angle effect on response time of the fringe-field switching nematic liquid crystal display,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 1, No. 3), 1290–1291 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. S.

Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, Y. S. Kim, Y. H. Jeong, W. G. Jang, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle switching in fringe-field switching liquid crystal display,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 495, 186–193 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Koh, J. W.

S. H. Lee, H. Y. Kim, S. M. Lee, S. H. Hong, J. M. Kim, J. W. Koh, J. Y. Lee, and H. S. Park, “Ultra-FFS TFT-LCD with super image quality, fast response time, and strong pressure-resistant characteristics,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 10(2), 117–122 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, K.

M. Yoneya, K. Iwasaki, Y. Tomioka, and K. Kondo, “Cell gap margin enlargement of in-plane switching mode liquid crystal displays using weak-anchoring effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(6), 803–805 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, “Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(26), 3895–3897 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D. S.

H. S. Jin, H. S. Chang, J. K. Park, S. K. Yu, D. S. Lee, and I. J. Chung, “Novel viewing-angle controllable TFT-LCD,” Proc. of Soc. Info. Display Symp. Digest 37, 729–731 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, G. D.

E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, J. M. Rhee, S. H. Lee, G. D. Lee, K. H. Park, and H. C. Choi, “Viewing angle switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal displays by controlling birefringence of homogenously aligned liquid crystal layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, G.-D.

B. S. Jung, I. S. Baik, I. S. Song, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Study on colour characteristics depending on orientation of liquid crystal in the in-plane switching mode,” Liq. Cryst. 33(9), 1077–1082 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. Y.

I. H. Yu, I. S. Song, J. Y. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Intensifying the density of horizontal electric field to improve light efficiency in a fringe-field switching liquid crystal display,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(11), 2367–2372 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, H. Y. Kim, S. M. Lee, S. H. Hong, J. M. Kim, J. W. Koh, J. Y. Lee, and H. S. Park, “Ultra-FFS TFT-LCD with super image quality, fast response time, and strong pressure-resistant characteristics,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 10(2), 117–122 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, Y. S. Kim, Y. H. Jeong, W. G. Jang, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle switching in fringe-field switching liquid crystal display,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 495, 186–193 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Jeong, M. H. Chin, Y. J. Lim, A. K. Srivastava, S. H. Lee, K. H. Park, and H. C. Choi, “Switching of off-axis viewing quality in twisted nematic liquid crystal display by controlling phase retardation of additional liquid crystal layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(3), 033108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, J. M. Rhee, S. H. Lee, G. D. Lee, K. H. Park, and H. C. Choi, “Viewing angle switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal displays by controlling birefringence of homogenously aligned liquid crystal layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Jung, I. S. Baik, I. S. Song, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Study on colour characteristics depending on orientation of liquid crystal in the in-plane switching mode,” Liq. Cryst. 33(9), 1077–1082 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. H. Yu, I. S. Song, J. Y. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Intensifying the density of horizontal electric field to improve light efficiency in a fringe-field switching liquid crystal display,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(11), 2367–2372 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.-D. Noh, H. Y. Kim, J.-H. Kim, S.-H. Nam, and S. H. Lee, “Rubbing angle effect on response time of the fringe-field switching nematic liquid crystal display,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 1, No. 3), 1290–1291 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, H. Y. Kim, S. M. Lee, S. H. Hong, J. M. Kim, J. W. Koh, J. Y. Lee, and H. S. Park, “Ultra-FFS TFT-LCD with super image quality, fast response time, and strong pressure-resistant characteristics,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 10(2), 117–122 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. L.

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. M.

S. H. Lee, H. Y. Kim, S. M. Lee, S. H. Hong, J. M. Kim, J. W. Koh, J. Y. Lee, and H. S. Park, “Ultra-FFS TFT-LCD with super image quality, fast response time, and strong pressure-resistant characteristics,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 10(2), 117–122 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lien, A.

A. Lien, “Extended Jones matrix representation for the twisted nematic liquid-crystal display at oblique incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(26), 2767 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lim, Y. J.

E. Jeong, M. H. Chin, Y. J. Lim, A. K. Srivastava, S. H. Lee, K. H. Park, and H. C. Choi, “Switching of off-axis viewing quality in twisted nematic liquid crystal display by controlling phase retardation of additional liquid crystal layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(3), 033108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, Y. S. Kim, Y. H. Jeong, W. G. Jang, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle switching in fringe-field switching liquid crystal display,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 495, 186–193 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, J. M. Rhee, S. H. Lee, G. D. Lee, K. H. Park, and H. C. Choi, “Viewing angle switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal displays by controlling birefringence of homogenously aligned liquid crystal layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Murayama, A.

Y. Hisatake, Y. Kawata, and A. Murayama, “Viewing angle controllable LCD using variable optical compensator and variable diffuser,” Proc. of Soc. Info. Display Symp. Digest 36, 1218–1221 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nam, S.-H.

J.-D. Noh, H. Y. Kim, J.-H. Kim, S.-H. Nam, and S. H. Lee, “Rubbing angle effect on response time of the fringe-field switching nematic liquid crystal display,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 1, No. 3), 1290–1291 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Noh, J.-D.

J.-D. Noh, H. Y. Kim, J.-H. Kim, S.-H. Nam, and S. H. Lee, “Rubbing angle effect on response time of the fringe-field switching nematic liquid crystal display,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 1, No. 3), 1290–1291 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Oh-e, M.

M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, “Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(26), 3895–3897 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Park, H. S.

S. H. Lee, H. Y. Kim, S. M. Lee, S. H. Hong, J. M. Kim, J. W. Koh, J. Y. Lee, and H. S. Park, “Ultra-FFS TFT-LCD with super image quality, fast response time, and strong pressure-resistant characteristics,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 10(2), 117–122 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. K.

H. S. Jin, H. S. Chang, J. K. Park, S. K. Yu, D. S. Lee, and I. J. Chung, “Novel viewing-angle controllable TFT-LCD,” Proc. of Soc. Info. Display Symp. Digest 37, 729–731 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, K. H.

E. Jeong, M. H. Chin, Y. J. Lim, A. K. Srivastava, S. H. Lee, K. H. Park, and H. C. Choi, “Switching of off-axis viewing quality in twisted nematic liquid crystal display by controlling phase retardation of additional liquid crystal layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(3), 033108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, J. M. Rhee, S. H. Lee, G. D. Lee, K. H. Park, and H. C. Choi, “Viewing angle switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal displays by controlling birefringence of homogenously aligned liquid crystal layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rhee, J. M.

E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, J. M. Rhee, S. H. Lee, G. D. Lee, K. H. Park, and H. C. Choi, “Viewing angle switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal displays by controlling birefringence of homogenously aligned liquid crystal layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shimura, M.

M. Adachi and M. Shimura, “Controllable viewing-angle displays using a hybrid aligned nematic liquid crtstka cell,” Proc. of Soc. Info. Display Symp. Digest 37, 705–708 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Song, I. S.

B. S. Jung, I. S. Baik, I. S. Song, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Study on colour characteristics depending on orientation of liquid crystal in the in-plane switching mode,” Liq. Cryst. 33(9), 1077–1082 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. H. Yu, I. S. Song, J. Y. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Intensifying the density of horizontal electric field to improve light efficiency in a fringe-field switching liquid crystal display,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(11), 2367–2372 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Srivastava, A. K.

E. Jeong, M. H. Chin, Y. J. Lim, A. K. Srivastava, S. H. Lee, K. H. Park, and H. C. Choi, “Switching of off-axis viewing quality in twisted nematic liquid crystal display by controlling phase retardation of additional liquid crystal layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(3), 033108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tomioka, Y.

M. Yoneya, K. Iwasaki, Y. Tomioka, and K. Kondo, “Cell gap margin enlargement of in-plane switching mode liquid crystal displays using weak-anchoring effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(6), 803–805 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yoneya, M.

M. Yoneya, K. Iwasaki, Y. Tomioka, and K. Kondo, “Cell gap margin enlargement of in-plane switching mode liquid crystal displays using weak-anchoring effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(6), 803–805 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yu, I. H.

I. H. Yu, I. S. Song, J. Y. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Intensifying the density of horizontal electric field to improve light efficiency in a fringe-field switching liquid crystal display,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(11), 2367–2372 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, S. K.

H. S. Jin, H. S. Chang, J. K. Park, S. K. Yu, D. S. Lee, and I. J. Chung, “Novel viewing-angle controllable TFT-LCD,” Proc. of Soc. Info. Display Symp. Digest 37, 729–731 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

E. Jeong, Y. J. Lim, J. M. Rhee, S. H. Lee, G. D. Lee, K. H. Park, and H. C. Choi, “Viewing angle switching of vertical alignment liquid crystal displays by controlling birefringence of homogenously aligned liquid crystal layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

E. Jeong, M. H. Chin, Y. J. Lim, A. K. Srivastava, S. H. Lee, K. H. Park, and H. C. Choi, “Switching of off-axis viewing quality in twisted nematic liquid crystal display by controlling phase retardation of additional liquid crystal layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(3), 033108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

I. H. Yu, I. S. Song, J. Y. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Intensifying the density of horizontal electric field to improve light efficiency in a fringe-field switching liquid crystal display,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(11), 2367–2372 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

S. H. Lee, H. Y. Kim, S. M. Lee, S. H. Hong, J. M. Kim, J. W. Koh, J. Y. Lee, and H. S. Park, “Ultra-FFS TFT-LCD with super image quality, fast response time, and strong pressure-resistant characteristics,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 10(2), 117–122 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

J.-D. Noh, H. Y. Kim, J.-H. Kim, S.-H. Nam, and S. H. Lee, “Rubbing angle effect on response time of the fringe-field switching nematic liquid crystal display,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 1, No. 3), 1290–1291 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Adachi, “Controllable-viewing-angle display using a hybrid aligned nematic liquid-crystal cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(10), 7920–7925 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liq. Cryst. (1)

B. S. Jung, I. S. Baik, I. S. Song, G.-D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Study on colour characteristics depending on orientation of liquid crystal in the in-plane switching mode,” Liq. Cryst. 33(9), 1077–1082 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) (1)

Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, Y. S. Kim, Y. H. Jeong, W. G. Jang, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle switching in fringe-field switching liquid crystal display,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 495, 186–193 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Proc. of Soc. Info. Display Symp. Digest (3)

H. S. Jin, H. S. Chang, J. K. Park, S. K. Yu, D. S. Lee, and I. J. Chung, “Novel viewing-angle controllable TFT-LCD,” Proc. of Soc. Info. Display Symp. Digest 37, 729–731 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hisatake, Y. Kawata, and A. Murayama, “Viewing angle controllable LCD using variable optical compensator and variable diffuser,” Proc. of Soc. Info. Display Symp. Digest 36, 1218–1221 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Adachi and M. Shimura, “Controllable viewing-angle displays using a hybrid aligned nematic liquid crtstka cell,” Proc. of Soc. Info. Display Symp. Digest 37, 705–708 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J.-I. Baek, Y.-H. Kwon, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Dual mode switching LCD for viewing-angle control with a single LC panel,” Proc. of the 13th International Display Workshop (Society for Information Display, Otsu, Japan), 201–204 (2006).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic pixel structure of the VAC-LCD using FFS mode.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cross-sectional view of viewing angle controllable FFS cell with LC profile when an operating voltage is applied to main pixel (a) and also top common electrode of the subpixel (b).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Caculated (a) and measured (b) leakage of light along horizontal direction according to applied voltage in the W pixel.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photographs of the FFS cells in the dark state at normal direction and at polar angles of 30° and 60° of the (a) WVA and (b) NVA modes.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Voltage-dependent transmittance (V-T) curves in WVA and NVA modes.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of the transmittance distribution of the white state along the electrode in the WVA and NVA modes.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Iso-luminance curves in the white and dark states and iso-contrast contours of the device in the WVA and NVA modes.

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