Abstract

We describe the realization of integrated optical chromatography, in conjunction with on-chip fluorescence excitation, in a monolithically fabricated poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic chip. The unique endlessly-single-mode guiding property of the Photonic Crystal Fiber (PCF) facilitates simultaneous on-chip delivery of beams to perform optical sorting in conjunction with fluorescence excitation. We use soft lithography to define the chip and insert the specially capped PCF into it through a predefined fiber channel that is intrinsically aligned with the sorting channel. We compare the performance of the system to a standard ray optics model and use the system to demonstrate both size-driven and refractive index-driven separations of colloids. Finally we demonstrate a new technique of enhanced optofluidic separation of biological particles, by sorting of human kidney embryonic cells (HEK-293), internally tagged with fluorescing microspheres through phagocytocis, from those without microspheres and the separation purity is monitored using fluorescence imaging.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  3. S. J. Hart, A. Terray, K. L. Kuhn, J. Arnold, and T. A. Leski, “Optical chromatography of biological particles,” Am. Lab. 36, 13 (2004).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. J. Hart, A. Terray, J. Arnold, and T. A. Leski, “Preparative optical chromatography with external collection and analysis,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18782–18789 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Terray, J. D. Taylor, and S. J. Hart, “Cascade optical chromatography for sample fractionation,” Biomicrofluidics 3(4), 044106 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. J. Hart, A. Terray, T. A. Leski, J. Arnold, and R. Stroud, “Discovery of a significant optical chromatographic difference between spores of Bacillus anthracis and its close relative, Bacillus thuringiensis,” Anal. Chem. 78(9), 3221–3225 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. Dholakia, W. M. Lee, L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, R. McDonald, I. Andreev, P. Mthunzi, C. T. A. Brown, R. F. Marchington, and A. C. Riches, “Optical separation of cells on potential energy landscapes: Enhancement with dielectric tagging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1646–1654 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. Paterson, E. Papagiakoumou, G. Milne, V. Garcés-Chávez, T. Briscoe, W. Sibbett, K. Dholakia, and A. C. Riches, “Passive optical separation within a ‘nondiffracting’ light beam,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054017 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. D. M. Gherardi, A. E. Carruthers, T. Čižmár, E. M. Wright, and K. Dholakia, “A dual beam photonic crystal fiber trap for microscopic particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041110 (2008).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. T. Kaneta, Y. Ishidzu, N. Mishima, and T. Imasaka, “Theory of optical chromatography,” Anal. Chem. 69(14), 2701–2710 (1997).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. P. Mthunzi, W. M. Lee, A. C. Riches, C. T. A. Brown, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, “Intracellular dielectric tagging for improved optical manipulation of mammalian cells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 99, 1–11 (2009).
  21. J. Baumgartl, G. M. Hannappel, D. J. Stevenson, D. Day, M. Gu, and K. Dholakia, “Optical redistribution of microparticles and cells between microwells,” Lab Chip 9(10), 1334–1336 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. S. I. Simon and G. W. Schmid-Schönbein, “Biophysical aspects of microsphere engulfment by human neutrophils,” Biophys. J. 53(2), 163–173 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  24. V. K. Kodali, W. Roos, J. P. Spatz, and J. E. Curtis, “Cell-assisted assembly of colloidal crystallites,” Soft Matter 3(3), 337–348 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (3)

A. Terray, J. D. Taylor, and S. J. Hart, “Cascade optical chromatography for sample fractionation,” Biomicrofluidics 3(4), 044106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Mthunzi, W. M. Lee, A. C. Riches, C. T. A. Brown, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, “Intracellular dielectric tagging for improved optical manipulation of mammalian cells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 99, 1–11 (2009).

J. Baumgartl, G. M. Hannappel, D. J. Stevenson, D. Day, M. Gu, and K. Dholakia, “Optical redistribution of microparticles and cells between microwells,” Lab Chip 9(10), 1334–1336 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

S. J. Hart, A. Terray, J. Arnold, and T. A. Leski, “Preparative optical chromatography with external collection and analysis,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18782–18789 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Gherardi, A. E. Carruthers, T. Čižmár, E. M. Wright, and K. Dholakia, “A dual beam photonic crystal fiber trap for microscopic particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

K. Dholakia, W. M. Lee, L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, R. McDonald, I. Andreev, P. Mthunzi, C. T. A. Brown, R. F. Marchington, and A. C. Riches, “Optical separation of cells on potential energy landscapes: Enhancement with dielectric tagging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1646–1654 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Paterson, E. Papagiakoumou, G. Milne, V. Garcés-Chávez, T. Briscoe, W. Sibbett, K. Dholakia, and A. C. Riches, “Passive optical separation within a ‘nondiffracting’ light beam,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054017 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. K. Kodali, W. Roos, J. P. Spatz, and J. E. Curtis, “Cell-assisted assembly of colloidal crystallites,” Soft Matter 3(3), 337–348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

R. M. Sanchez-Martin, M. Cuttle, S. Mittoo, and M. Bradley, “Microsphere-based real-time calcium sensing,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 45(33), 5472–5474 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Hart, A. Terray, T. A. Leski, J. Arnold, and R. Stroud, “Discovery of a significant optical chromatographic difference between spores of Bacillus anthracis and its close relative, Bacillus thuringiensis,” Anal. Chem. 78(9), 3221–3225 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. B. Lee, C. Chang, S. Huang, and R. Yang, “The hydrodynamic focusing effect inside rectangular microchannels,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 16(5), 1024–1032 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Chang, L. Hsu, and S. Chi, “Optical trapping of a spherically symmetric sphere in the ray-optics regime: a model for optical tweezers upon cells,” Appl. Opt. 45(16), 3885–3892 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

L. Paterson, E. Papagiakoumou, G. Milne, V. Garces-Chavez, S. A. Tatarkova, W. Sibbett, F. J. Gunn-Moore, P. E. Bryant, A. C. Riches, and K. Dholakia, “Light-induced cell separation in a tailored optical landscape,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 123901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

O. Lara, X. D. Tong, M. Zborowski, and J. J. Chalmers, “Enrichment of rare cancer cells through depletion of normal cells using density and flow-through, immunomagnetic cell separation,” Exp. Hematol. 32(10), 891–904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Hart, A. Terray, K. L. Kuhn, J. Arnold, and T. A. Leski, “Optical chromatography of biological particles,” Am. Lab. 36, 13 (2004).

2003 (1)

S. J. Hart and A. V. Terray, “Refractive-index-driven separation of colloidal polymer particles using optical chromatography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(25), 5316–5318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2000 (2)

J. C. McDonald, D. C. Duffy, J. R. Anderson, D. T. Chiu, H. Wu, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, “Fabrication of microfluidic systems in poly(dimethylsiloxane),” Electrophoresis 21(1), 27–40 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Uchida, D. W. Buck, D. P. He, M. J. Reitsma, M. Masek, T. V. Phan, A. S. Tsukamoto, F. H. Gage, and I. L. Weissman, “Direct isolation of human central nervous system stem cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97(26), 14720–14725 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

T. Kaneta, Y. Ishidzu, N. Mishima, and T. Imasaka, “Theory of optical chromatography,” Anal. Chem. 69(14), 2701–2710 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hatano, T. Kaneta, and T. Imasaka, “Application of optical chromatography to immunoassay,” Anal. Chem. 69(14), 2711–2715 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

T. Imasaka, Y. Kawabata, T. Kaneta, and Y. Ishidzu, “Optical chromatography,” Anal. Chem. 67(11), 1763–1765 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

S. I. Simon and G. W. Schmid-Schönbein, “Biophysical aspects of microsphere engulfment by human neutrophils,” Biophys. J. 53(2), 163–173 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, J. R.

J. C. McDonald, D. C. Duffy, J. R. Anderson, D. T. Chiu, H. Wu, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, “Fabrication of microfluidic systems in poly(dimethylsiloxane),” Electrophoresis 21(1), 27–40 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andreev, I.

K. Dholakia, W. M. Lee, L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, R. McDonald, I. Andreev, P. Mthunzi, C. T. A. Brown, R. F. Marchington, and A. C. Riches, “Optical separation of cells on potential energy landscapes: Enhancement with dielectric tagging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1646–1654 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, J.

S. J. Hart, A. Terray, J. Arnold, and T. A. Leski, “Preparative optical chromatography with external collection and analysis,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18782–18789 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Hart, A. Terray, T. A. Leski, J. Arnold, and R. Stroud, “Discovery of a significant optical chromatographic difference between spores of Bacillus anthracis and its close relative, Bacillus thuringiensis,” Anal. Chem. 78(9), 3221–3225 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Hart, A. Terray, K. L. Kuhn, J. Arnold, and T. A. Leski, “Optical chromatography of biological particles,” Am. Lab. 36, 13 (2004).

Baumgartl, J.

J. Baumgartl, G. M. Hannappel, D. J. Stevenson, D. Day, M. Gu, and K. Dholakia, “Optical redistribution of microparticles and cells between microwells,” Lab Chip 9(10), 1334–1336 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bradley, M.

R. M. Sanchez-Martin, M. Cuttle, S. Mittoo, and M. Bradley, “Microsphere-based real-time calcium sensing,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 45(33), 5472–5474 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Briscoe, T.

L. Paterson, E. Papagiakoumou, G. Milne, V. Garcés-Chávez, T. Briscoe, W. Sibbett, K. Dholakia, and A. C. Riches, “Passive optical separation within a ‘nondiffracting’ light beam,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054017 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, C. T. A.

P. Mthunzi, W. M. Lee, A. C. Riches, C. T. A. Brown, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, “Intracellular dielectric tagging for improved optical manipulation of mammalian cells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 99, 1–11 (2009).

K. Dholakia, W. M. Lee, L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, R. McDonald, I. Andreev, P. Mthunzi, C. T. A. Brown, R. F. Marchington, and A. C. Riches, “Optical separation of cells on potential energy landscapes: Enhancement with dielectric tagging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1646–1654 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bryant, P. E.

L. Paterson, E. Papagiakoumou, G. Milne, V. Garces-Chavez, S. A. Tatarkova, W. Sibbett, F. J. Gunn-Moore, P. E. Bryant, A. C. Riches, and K. Dholakia, “Light-induced cell separation in a tailored optical landscape,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 123901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Buck, D. W.

N. Uchida, D. W. Buck, D. P. He, M. J. Reitsma, M. Masek, T. V. Phan, A. S. Tsukamoto, F. H. Gage, and I. L. Weissman, “Direct isolation of human central nervous system stem cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97(26), 14720–14725 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carruthers, A. E.

D. M. Gherardi, A. E. Carruthers, T. Čižmár, E. M. Wright, and K. Dholakia, “A dual beam photonic crystal fiber trap for microscopic particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chalmers, J. J.

O. Lara, X. D. Tong, M. Zborowski, and J. J. Chalmers, “Enrichment of rare cancer cells through depletion of normal cells using density and flow-through, immunomagnetic cell separation,” Exp. Hematol. 32(10), 891–904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, C.

G. B. Lee, C. Chang, S. Huang, and R. Yang, “The hydrodynamic focusing effect inside rectangular microchannels,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 16(5), 1024–1032 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y. R.

Chi, S.

Chiu, D. T.

J. C. McDonald, D. C. Duffy, J. R. Anderson, D. T. Chiu, H. Wu, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, “Fabrication of microfluidic systems in poly(dimethylsiloxane),” Electrophoresis 21(1), 27–40 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cižmár, T.

D. M. Gherardi, A. E. Carruthers, T. Čižmár, E. M. Wright, and K. Dholakia, “A dual beam photonic crystal fiber trap for microscopic particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Curtis, J. E.

V. K. Kodali, W. Roos, J. P. Spatz, and J. E. Curtis, “Cell-assisted assembly of colloidal crystallites,” Soft Matter 3(3), 337–348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cuttle, M.

R. M. Sanchez-Martin, M. Cuttle, S. Mittoo, and M. Bradley, “Microsphere-based real-time calcium sensing,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 45(33), 5472–5474 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Day, D.

J. Baumgartl, G. M. Hannappel, D. J. Stevenson, D. Day, M. Gu, and K. Dholakia, “Optical redistribution of microparticles and cells between microwells,” Lab Chip 9(10), 1334–1336 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dholakia, K.

J. Baumgartl, G. M. Hannappel, D. J. Stevenson, D. Day, M. Gu, and K. Dholakia, “Optical redistribution of microparticles and cells between microwells,” Lab Chip 9(10), 1334–1336 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Mthunzi, W. M. Lee, A. C. Riches, C. T. A. Brown, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, “Intracellular dielectric tagging for improved optical manipulation of mammalian cells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 99, 1–11 (2009).

D. M. Gherardi, A. E. Carruthers, T. Čižmár, E. M. Wright, and K. Dholakia, “A dual beam photonic crystal fiber trap for microscopic particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Paterson, E. Papagiakoumou, G. Milne, V. Garcés-Chávez, T. Briscoe, W. Sibbett, K. Dholakia, and A. C. Riches, “Passive optical separation within a ‘nondiffracting’ light beam,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054017 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Dholakia, W. M. Lee, L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, R. McDonald, I. Andreev, P. Mthunzi, C. T. A. Brown, R. F. Marchington, and A. C. Riches, “Optical separation of cells on potential energy landscapes: Enhancement with dielectric tagging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1646–1654 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Paterson, E. Papagiakoumou, G. Milne, V. Garces-Chavez, S. A. Tatarkova, W. Sibbett, F. J. Gunn-Moore, P. E. Bryant, A. C. Riches, and K. Dholakia, “Light-induced cell separation in a tailored optical landscape,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 123901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Duffy, D. C.

J. C. McDonald, D. C. Duffy, J. R. Anderson, D. T. Chiu, H. Wu, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, “Fabrication of microfluidic systems in poly(dimethylsiloxane),” Electrophoresis 21(1), 27–40 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Folkenberg, J.

Gage, F. H.

N. Uchida, D. W. Buck, D. P. He, M. J. Reitsma, M. Masek, T. V. Phan, A. S. Tsukamoto, F. H. Gage, and I. L. Weissman, “Direct isolation of human central nervous system stem cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97(26), 14720–14725 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garces-Chavez, V.

L. Paterson, E. Papagiakoumou, G. Milne, V. Garces-Chavez, S. A. Tatarkova, W. Sibbett, F. J. Gunn-Moore, P. E. Bryant, A. C. Riches, and K. Dholakia, “Light-induced cell separation in a tailored optical landscape,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 123901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Garcés-Chávez, V.

L. Paterson, E. Papagiakoumou, G. Milne, V. Garcés-Chávez, T. Briscoe, W. Sibbett, K. Dholakia, and A. C. Riches, “Passive optical separation within a ‘nondiffracting’ light beam,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054017 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gherardi, D. M.

D. M. Gherardi, A. E. Carruthers, T. Čižmár, E. M. Wright, and K. Dholakia, “A dual beam photonic crystal fiber trap for microscopic particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gu, M.

J. Baumgartl, G. M. Hannappel, D. J. Stevenson, D. Day, M. Gu, and K. Dholakia, “Optical redistribution of microparticles and cells between microwells,” Lab Chip 9(10), 1334–1336 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gunn-Moore, F. J.

P. Mthunzi, W. M. Lee, A. C. Riches, C. T. A. Brown, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, “Intracellular dielectric tagging for improved optical manipulation of mammalian cells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 99, 1–11 (2009).

L. Paterson, E. Papagiakoumou, G. Milne, V. Garces-Chavez, S. A. Tatarkova, W. Sibbett, F. J. Gunn-Moore, P. E. Bryant, A. C. Riches, and K. Dholakia, “Light-induced cell separation in a tailored optical landscape,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 123901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hannappel, G. M.

J. Baumgartl, G. M. Hannappel, D. J. Stevenson, D. Day, M. Gu, and K. Dholakia, “Optical redistribution of microparticles and cells between microwells,” Lab Chip 9(10), 1334–1336 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hart, S. J.

A. Terray, J. D. Taylor, and S. J. Hart, “Cascade optical chromatography for sample fractionation,” Biomicrofluidics 3(4), 044106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Hart, A. Terray, J. Arnold, and T. A. Leski, “Preparative optical chromatography with external collection and analysis,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18782–18789 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Hart, A. Terray, T. A. Leski, J. Arnold, and R. Stroud, “Discovery of a significant optical chromatographic difference between spores of Bacillus anthracis and its close relative, Bacillus thuringiensis,” Anal. Chem. 78(9), 3221–3225 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Hart, A. Terray, K. L. Kuhn, J. Arnold, and T. A. Leski, “Optical chromatography of biological particles,” Am. Lab. 36, 13 (2004).

S. J. Hart and A. V. Terray, “Refractive-index-driven separation of colloidal polymer particles using optical chromatography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(25), 5316–5318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hatano, T.

T. Hatano, T. Kaneta, and T. Imasaka, “Application of optical chromatography to immunoassay,” Anal. Chem. 69(14), 2711–2715 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, D. P.

N. Uchida, D. W. Buck, D. P. He, M. J. Reitsma, M. Masek, T. V. Phan, A. S. Tsukamoto, F. H. Gage, and I. L. Weissman, “Direct isolation of human central nervous system stem cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97(26), 14720–14725 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, L.

Huang, S.

G. B. Lee, C. Chang, S. Huang, and R. Yang, “The hydrodynamic focusing effect inside rectangular microchannels,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 16(5), 1024–1032 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Imasaka, T.

T. Kaneta, Y. Ishidzu, N. Mishima, and T. Imasaka, “Theory of optical chromatography,” Anal. Chem. 69(14), 2701–2710 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hatano, T. Kaneta, and T. Imasaka, “Application of optical chromatography to immunoassay,” Anal. Chem. 69(14), 2711–2715 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Imasaka, Y. Kawabata, T. Kaneta, and Y. Ishidzu, “Optical chromatography,” Anal. Chem. 67(11), 1763–1765 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ishidzu, Y.

T. Kaneta, Y. Ishidzu, N. Mishima, and T. Imasaka, “Theory of optical chromatography,” Anal. Chem. 69(14), 2701–2710 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Imasaka, Y. Kawabata, T. Kaneta, and Y. Ishidzu, “Optical chromatography,” Anal. Chem. 67(11), 1763–1765 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kaneta, T.

T. Hatano, T. Kaneta, and T. Imasaka, “Application of optical chromatography to immunoassay,” Anal. Chem. 69(14), 2711–2715 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kaneta, Y. Ishidzu, N. Mishima, and T. Imasaka, “Theory of optical chromatography,” Anal. Chem. 69(14), 2701–2710 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Imasaka, Y. Kawabata, T. Kaneta, and Y. Ishidzu, “Optical chromatography,” Anal. Chem. 67(11), 1763–1765 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kawabata, Y.

T. Imasaka, Y. Kawabata, T. Kaneta, and Y. Ishidzu, “Optical chromatography,” Anal. Chem. 67(11), 1763–1765 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kodali, V. K.

V. K. Kodali, W. Roos, J. P. Spatz, and J. E. Curtis, “Cell-assisted assembly of colloidal crystallites,” Soft Matter 3(3), 337–348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuhn, K. L.

S. J. Hart, A. Terray, K. L. Kuhn, J. Arnold, and T. A. Leski, “Optical chromatography of biological particles,” Am. Lab. 36, 13 (2004).

Lara, O.

O. Lara, X. D. Tong, M. Zborowski, and J. J. Chalmers, “Enrichment of rare cancer cells through depletion of normal cells using density and flow-through, immunomagnetic cell separation,” Exp. Hematol. 32(10), 891–904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, G. B.

G. B. Lee, C. Chang, S. Huang, and R. Yang, “The hydrodynamic focusing effect inside rectangular microchannels,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 16(5), 1024–1032 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W. M.

P. Mthunzi, W. M. Lee, A. C. Riches, C. T. A. Brown, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, “Intracellular dielectric tagging for improved optical manipulation of mammalian cells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 99, 1–11 (2009).

K. Dholakia, W. M. Lee, L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, R. McDonald, I. Andreev, P. Mthunzi, C. T. A. Brown, R. F. Marchington, and A. C. Riches, “Optical separation of cells on potential energy landscapes: Enhancement with dielectric tagging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1646–1654 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leski, T. A.

S. J. Hart, A. Terray, J. Arnold, and T. A. Leski, “Preparative optical chromatography with external collection and analysis,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18782–18789 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Hart, A. Terray, T. A. Leski, J. Arnold, and R. Stroud, “Discovery of a significant optical chromatographic difference between spores of Bacillus anthracis and its close relative, Bacillus thuringiensis,” Anal. Chem. 78(9), 3221–3225 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Hart, A. Terray, K. L. Kuhn, J. Arnold, and T. A. Leski, “Optical chromatography of biological particles,” Am. Lab. 36, 13 (2004).

MacDonald, M. P.

K. Dholakia, W. M. Lee, L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, R. McDonald, I. Andreev, P. Mthunzi, C. T. A. Brown, R. F. Marchington, and A. C. Riches, “Optical separation of cells on potential energy landscapes: Enhancement with dielectric tagging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1646–1654 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Marchington, R. F.

K. Dholakia, W. M. Lee, L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, R. McDonald, I. Andreev, P. Mthunzi, C. T. A. Brown, R. F. Marchington, and A. C. Riches, “Optical separation of cells on potential energy landscapes: Enhancement with dielectric tagging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1646–1654 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Masek, M.

N. Uchida, D. W. Buck, D. P. He, M. J. Reitsma, M. Masek, T. V. Phan, A. S. Tsukamoto, F. H. Gage, and I. L. Weissman, “Direct isolation of human central nervous system stem cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97(26), 14720–14725 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McDonald, J. C.

J. C. McDonald, D. C. Duffy, J. R. Anderson, D. T. Chiu, H. Wu, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, “Fabrication of microfluidic systems in poly(dimethylsiloxane),” Electrophoresis 21(1), 27–40 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McDonald, R.

K. Dholakia, W. M. Lee, L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, R. McDonald, I. Andreev, P. Mthunzi, C. T. A. Brown, R. F. Marchington, and A. C. Riches, “Optical separation of cells on potential energy landscapes: Enhancement with dielectric tagging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1646–1654 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Milne, G.

L. Paterson, E. Papagiakoumou, G. Milne, V. Garcés-Chávez, T. Briscoe, W. Sibbett, K. Dholakia, and A. C. Riches, “Passive optical separation within a ‘nondiffracting’ light beam,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054017 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Paterson, E. Papagiakoumou, G. Milne, V. Garces-Chavez, S. A. Tatarkova, W. Sibbett, F. J. Gunn-Moore, P. E. Bryant, A. C. Riches, and K. Dholakia, “Light-induced cell separation in a tailored optical landscape,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 123901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mishima, N.

T. Kaneta, Y. Ishidzu, N. Mishima, and T. Imasaka, “Theory of optical chromatography,” Anal. Chem. 69(14), 2701–2710 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mittoo, S.

R. M. Sanchez-Martin, M. Cuttle, S. Mittoo, and M. Bradley, “Microsphere-based real-time calcium sensing,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 45(33), 5472–5474 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mortensen, N.

Mthunzi, P.

P. Mthunzi, W. M. Lee, A. C. Riches, C. T. A. Brown, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, “Intracellular dielectric tagging for improved optical manipulation of mammalian cells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 99, 1–11 (2009).

K. Dholakia, W. M. Lee, L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, R. McDonald, I. Andreev, P. Mthunzi, C. T. A. Brown, R. F. Marchington, and A. C. Riches, “Optical separation of cells on potential energy landscapes: Enhancement with dielectric tagging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1646–1654 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Papagiakoumou, E.

L. Paterson, E. Papagiakoumou, G. Milne, V. Garcés-Chávez, T. Briscoe, W. Sibbett, K. Dholakia, and A. C. Riches, “Passive optical separation within a ‘nondiffracting’ light beam,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054017 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Paterson, E. Papagiakoumou, G. Milne, V. Garces-Chavez, S. A. Tatarkova, W. Sibbett, F. J. Gunn-Moore, P. E. Bryant, A. C. Riches, and K. Dholakia, “Light-induced cell separation in a tailored optical landscape,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 123901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Paterson, L.

L. Paterson, E. Papagiakoumou, G. Milne, V. Garcés-Chávez, T. Briscoe, W. Sibbett, K. Dholakia, and A. C. Riches, “Passive optical separation within a ‘nondiffracting’ light beam,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054017 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Dholakia, W. M. Lee, L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, R. McDonald, I. Andreev, P. Mthunzi, C. T. A. Brown, R. F. Marchington, and A. C. Riches, “Optical separation of cells on potential energy landscapes: Enhancement with dielectric tagging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1646–1654 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Paterson, E. Papagiakoumou, G. Milne, V. Garces-Chavez, S. A. Tatarkova, W. Sibbett, F. J. Gunn-Moore, P. E. Bryant, A. C. Riches, and K. Dholakia, “Light-induced cell separation in a tailored optical landscape,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 123901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phan, T. V.

N. Uchida, D. W. Buck, D. P. He, M. J. Reitsma, M. Masek, T. V. Phan, A. S. Tsukamoto, F. H. Gage, and I. L. Weissman, “Direct isolation of human central nervous system stem cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97(26), 14720–14725 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reitsma, M. J.

N. Uchida, D. W. Buck, D. P. He, M. J. Reitsma, M. Masek, T. V. Phan, A. S. Tsukamoto, F. H. Gage, and I. L. Weissman, “Direct isolation of human central nervous system stem cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97(26), 14720–14725 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riches, A. C.

P. Mthunzi, W. M. Lee, A. C. Riches, C. T. A. Brown, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, “Intracellular dielectric tagging for improved optical manipulation of mammalian cells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 99, 1–11 (2009).

L. Paterson, E. Papagiakoumou, G. Milne, V. Garcés-Chávez, T. Briscoe, W. Sibbett, K. Dholakia, and A. C. Riches, “Passive optical separation within a ‘nondiffracting’ light beam,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054017 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Dholakia, W. M. Lee, L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, R. McDonald, I. Andreev, P. Mthunzi, C. T. A. Brown, R. F. Marchington, and A. C. Riches, “Optical separation of cells on potential energy landscapes: Enhancement with dielectric tagging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1646–1654 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Paterson, E. Papagiakoumou, G. Milne, V. Garces-Chavez, S. A. Tatarkova, W. Sibbett, F. J. Gunn-Moore, P. E. Bryant, A. C. Riches, and K. Dholakia, “Light-induced cell separation in a tailored optical landscape,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 123901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Roos, W.

V. K. Kodali, W. Roos, J. P. Spatz, and J. E. Curtis, “Cell-assisted assembly of colloidal crystallites,” Soft Matter 3(3), 337–348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez-Martin, R. M.

R. M. Sanchez-Martin, M. Cuttle, S. Mittoo, and M. Bradley, “Microsphere-based real-time calcium sensing,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 45(33), 5472–5474 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schmid-Schönbein, G. W.

S. I. Simon and G. W. Schmid-Schönbein, “Biophysical aspects of microsphere engulfment by human neutrophils,” Biophys. J. 53(2), 163–173 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schueller, O. J. A.

J. C. McDonald, D. C. Duffy, J. R. Anderson, D. T. Chiu, H. Wu, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, “Fabrication of microfluidic systems in poly(dimethylsiloxane),” Electrophoresis 21(1), 27–40 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sibbett, W.

L. Paterson, E. Papagiakoumou, G. Milne, V. Garcés-Chávez, T. Briscoe, W. Sibbett, K. Dholakia, and A. C. Riches, “Passive optical separation within a ‘nondiffracting’ light beam,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054017 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Paterson, E. Papagiakoumou, G. Milne, V. Garces-Chavez, S. A. Tatarkova, W. Sibbett, F. J. Gunn-Moore, P. E. Bryant, A. C. Riches, and K. Dholakia, “Light-induced cell separation in a tailored optical landscape,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 123901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Simon, S. I.

S. I. Simon and G. W. Schmid-Schönbein, “Biophysical aspects of microsphere engulfment by human neutrophils,” Biophys. J. 53(2), 163–173 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spatz, J. P.

V. K. Kodali, W. Roos, J. P. Spatz, and J. E. Curtis, “Cell-assisted assembly of colloidal crystallites,” Soft Matter 3(3), 337–348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stevenson, D. J.

J. Baumgartl, G. M. Hannappel, D. J. Stevenson, D. Day, M. Gu, and K. Dholakia, “Optical redistribution of microparticles and cells between microwells,” Lab Chip 9(10), 1334–1336 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stroud, R.

S. J. Hart, A. Terray, T. A. Leski, J. Arnold, and R. Stroud, “Discovery of a significant optical chromatographic difference between spores of Bacillus anthracis and its close relative, Bacillus thuringiensis,” Anal. Chem. 78(9), 3221–3225 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tatarkova, S. A.

L. Paterson, E. Papagiakoumou, G. Milne, V. Garces-Chavez, S. A. Tatarkova, W. Sibbett, F. J. Gunn-Moore, P. E. Bryant, A. C. Riches, and K. Dholakia, “Light-induced cell separation in a tailored optical landscape,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 123901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J. D.

A. Terray, J. D. Taylor, and S. J. Hart, “Cascade optical chromatography for sample fractionation,” Biomicrofluidics 3(4), 044106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Terray, A.

A. Terray, J. D. Taylor, and S. J. Hart, “Cascade optical chromatography for sample fractionation,” Biomicrofluidics 3(4), 044106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Hart, A. Terray, J. Arnold, and T. A. Leski, “Preparative optical chromatography with external collection and analysis,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18782–18789 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Hart, A. Terray, T. A. Leski, J. Arnold, and R. Stroud, “Discovery of a significant optical chromatographic difference between spores of Bacillus anthracis and its close relative, Bacillus thuringiensis,” Anal. Chem. 78(9), 3221–3225 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Hart, A. Terray, K. L. Kuhn, J. Arnold, and T. A. Leski, “Optical chromatography of biological particles,” Am. Lab. 36, 13 (2004).

Terray, A. V.

S. J. Hart and A. V. Terray, “Refractive-index-driven separation of colloidal polymer particles using optical chromatography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(25), 5316–5318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tong, X. D.

O. Lara, X. D. Tong, M. Zborowski, and J. J. Chalmers, “Enrichment of rare cancer cells through depletion of normal cells using density and flow-through, immunomagnetic cell separation,” Exp. Hematol. 32(10), 891–904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsukamoto, A. S.

N. Uchida, D. W. Buck, D. P. He, M. J. Reitsma, M. Masek, T. V. Phan, A. S. Tsukamoto, F. H. Gage, and I. L. Weissman, “Direct isolation of human central nervous system stem cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97(26), 14720–14725 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uchida, N.

N. Uchida, D. W. Buck, D. P. He, M. J. Reitsma, M. Masek, T. V. Phan, A. S. Tsukamoto, F. H. Gage, and I. L. Weissman, “Direct isolation of human central nervous system stem cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97(26), 14720–14725 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weissman, I. L.

N. Uchida, D. W. Buck, D. P. He, M. J. Reitsma, M. Masek, T. V. Phan, A. S. Tsukamoto, F. H. Gage, and I. L. Weissman, “Direct isolation of human central nervous system stem cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97(26), 14720–14725 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whitesides, G. M.

J. C. McDonald, D. C. Duffy, J. R. Anderson, D. T. Chiu, H. Wu, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, “Fabrication of microfluidic systems in poly(dimethylsiloxane),” Electrophoresis 21(1), 27–40 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wright, E. M.

D. M. Gherardi, A. E. Carruthers, T. Čižmár, E. M. Wright, and K. Dholakia, “A dual beam photonic crystal fiber trap for microscopic particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, H.

J. C. McDonald, D. C. Duffy, J. R. Anderson, D. T. Chiu, H. Wu, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, “Fabrication of microfluidic systems in poly(dimethylsiloxane),” Electrophoresis 21(1), 27–40 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, R.

G. B. Lee, C. Chang, S. Huang, and R. Yang, “The hydrodynamic focusing effect inside rectangular microchannels,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 16(5), 1024–1032 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zborowski, M.

O. Lara, X. D. Tong, M. Zborowski, and J. J. Chalmers, “Enrichment of rare cancer cells through depletion of normal cells using density and flow-through, immunomagnetic cell separation,” Exp. Hematol. 32(10), 891–904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. Lab. (1)

S. J. Hart, A. Terray, K. L. Kuhn, J. Arnold, and T. A. Leski, “Optical chromatography of biological particles,” Am. Lab. 36, 13 (2004).

Anal. Chem. (4)

T. Hatano, T. Kaneta, and T. Imasaka, “Application of optical chromatography to immunoassay,” Anal. Chem. 69(14), 2711–2715 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Imasaka, Y. Kawabata, T. Kaneta, and Y. Ishidzu, “Optical chromatography,” Anal. Chem. 67(11), 1763–1765 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Hart, A. Terray, T. A. Leski, J. Arnold, and R. Stroud, “Discovery of a significant optical chromatographic difference between spores of Bacillus anthracis and its close relative, Bacillus thuringiensis,” Anal. Chem. 78(9), 3221–3225 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kaneta, Y. Ishidzu, N. Mishima, and T. Imasaka, “Theory of optical chromatography,” Anal. Chem. 69(14), 2701–2710 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. (1)

R. M. Sanchez-Martin, M. Cuttle, S. Mittoo, and M. Bradley, “Microsphere-based real-time calcium sensing,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 45(33), 5472–5474 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

L. Paterson, E. Papagiakoumou, G. Milne, V. Garces-Chavez, S. A. Tatarkova, W. Sibbett, F. J. Gunn-Moore, P. E. Bryant, A. C. Riches, and K. Dholakia, “Light-induced cell separation in a tailored optical landscape,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 123901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Gherardi, A. E. Carruthers, T. Čižmár, E. M. Wright, and K. Dholakia, “A dual beam photonic crystal fiber trap for microscopic particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Hart and A. V. Terray, “Refractive-index-driven separation of colloidal polymer particles using optical chromatography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(25), 5316–5318 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Biomicrofluidics (1)

A. Terray, J. D. Taylor, and S. J. Hart, “Cascade optical chromatography for sample fractionation,” Biomicrofluidics 3(4), 044106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J. (1)

S. I. Simon and G. W. Schmid-Schönbein, “Biophysical aspects of microsphere engulfment by human neutrophils,” Biophys. J. 53(2), 163–173 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electrophoresis (1)

J. C. McDonald, D. C. Duffy, J. R. Anderson, D. T. Chiu, H. Wu, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, “Fabrication of microfluidic systems in poly(dimethylsiloxane),” Electrophoresis 21(1), 27–40 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Exp. Hematol. (1)

O. Lara, X. D. Tong, M. Zborowski, and J. J. Chalmers, “Enrichment of rare cancer cells through depletion of normal cells using density and flow-through, immunomagnetic cell separation,” Exp. Hematol. 32(10), 891–904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

P. Mthunzi, W. M. Lee, A. C. Riches, C. T. A. Brown, F. J. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, “Intracellular dielectric tagging for improved optical manipulation of mammalian cells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 99, 1–11 (2009).

K. Dholakia, W. M. Lee, L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, R. McDonald, I. Andreev, P. Mthunzi, C. T. A. Brown, R. F. Marchington, and A. C. Riches, “Optical separation of cells on potential energy landscapes: Enhancement with dielectric tagging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1646–1654 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

L. Paterson, E. Papagiakoumou, G. Milne, V. Garcés-Chávez, T. Briscoe, W. Sibbett, K. Dholakia, and A. C. Riches, “Passive optical separation within a ‘nondiffracting’ light beam,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054017 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

G. B. Lee, C. Chang, S. Huang, and R. Yang, “The hydrodynamic focusing effect inside rectangular microchannels,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 16(5), 1024–1032 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lab Chip (1)

J. Baumgartl, G. M. Hannappel, D. J. Stevenson, D. Day, M. Gu, and K. Dholakia, “Optical redistribution of microparticles and cells between microwells,” Lab Chip 9(10), 1334–1336 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

N. Uchida, D. W. Buck, D. P. He, M. J. Reitsma, M. Masek, T. V. Phan, A. S. Tsukamoto, F. H. Gage, and I. L. Weissman, “Direct isolation of human central nervous system stem cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97(26), 14720–14725 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soft Matter (1)

V. K. Kodali, W. Roos, J. P. Spatz, and J. E. Curtis, “Cell-assisted assembly of colloidal crystallites,” Soft Matter 3(3), 337–348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

P. C. Ashok, R. F. Marchington, M. Mazilu, T. F. Krauss, and K. Dholakia, “Towards integrated optical chromatography using photonic crystal fiber,” K. Dholakia, and C. G. Spalding, eds., (SPIE, 2009), p. 74000R.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Design of the chip used for optical chromatography. The pressure driven flow from inlet to outlet was achieved by syringe pumps. The laser beam was delivered to the chip by capped LMA PCF inserted to the predefined fiber channel. The dimensions of the chromatography channel are identical to that of the PCF, being circular in cross section with a diameter of ~240 μm and a length of 20mm. [Inset] Closer view of the chromatography channel where a binary sample is spatially separated based on size.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Cleaved tip of LMA 25 PCF. (b) Intensity map of hexagonal central mode in the output profile of LMA 25 PCF imaged at the tip of the fiber.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Integrated optical chromatography chip. PCF is inserted into the chip through a fiber channel and used to simultaneously launch lasers operating at λ = 1070nm and λ = 532nm for spatial separation and fluorescence excitation respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Retention distance as a function of power for three sizes of polystyrene spheres (Refractive index = 1.59). (b) Retention distance as a function of power for two sizes of silica spheres (Refractive index = 1.43). The dots shows the experimental values of retention distance and the lines show the corresponding values obtained by theoretical calculation based on ray optics model [13]. The error bars show the maximum spread of a single species when ~10 particles were held at the retention distance.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Retention distance as a function of average flow speed for 2μm polystyrene spheres (Refractive index = 1.59). (b) Retention distance as a function of average flow speed for 2μm silica spheres (Refractive index = 1.43). The dots show the experimental values of retention distance and the lines show the corresponding values obtained by theoretical calculation based on ray optics model [13]. The error bars show the maximum spread of a single species when ~10 particles were held at the retention distance.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Size driven separation of binary mixture of polystyrene particles containing spheres of sizes 4μm and 2 μm. (b) Refractive index driven separation of binary mixture of polystyrene particles and silica particles of size 3μm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

HEK cells transfected with DsRed protein retained at optical chromatography chip. (a) image with bright field illumination and on-chip fluorescence excitation. (b) Image with on-chip fluorescence excitation.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a, b) The purity of spatially separated sample observed over 2 minutes for a binary sample of 2μm (red fluorescing) and 4 μm polystyrene microspheres at the (a) 2μm retention location and (b) the 4μm retention location. (c) Purity of the separated sample expressed as a percentage of the total retained particles.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Separation of HEK cells incubated with red fluorescing polystyrene microspheres. (a) with bright field illumination and fluorescent illumination (b) without bright field illumination and with fluorescent excitation.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Different steps in the fabrication of mold (Image not scaled to proportions). (a) A 5μm SU8 layer spun over a silicon substrate. (b) LMA PCF is placed over the uncured layer of SU8. This composite layer is then baked and fully cured (c) A 200μm SU8 layer is spun on the substrate. (d) The fluidic outlet channel is defined on the 200μm SU8 layer using photo-lithography. (e) A drop of UV curable adhesive is placed at the tip of the fiber to create a taper at the entrance of the fiber channel for easier fiber insertion into the PDMS chip.

Equations (1)

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z ( a , n 2 ) = ( n 1 π ω 0 2 ) λ n 1 P Q * a 3 π η v c ω 0 2 1

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